RE: 4g technology seminar report
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RESEARCH ON 4G TECHNOLOGIES
4G stands for the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. Speed requirements for 4G service set the peak download speed at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication. The 4G Mobile Internet is a technological breakthrough that allows users to connect their mobile phones to the Internet and surf the net for a very affordable fee that is usually taken out of the phone's load. When before you have to wait for a few seconds to connect to the World Wide Web, with 4G Mobile Access, these seconds are turned into a few milliseconds you won't even notice you're actually connecting your phone to the net. The connection happens in a blink of an eye. Internet is how it allows its users to video call other 4G Mobile Internet users at very low fees or load deductions. The fee is so low that you feel like you're only voice calling your loved ones only that you get to speak to each other with the aid of a video, which is so much better as you feel like you're really in touch with the person on the other end of the line.
The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia, Anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, Integrated wireless solution, and Customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems, have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks.
Review of Literature
A number of studies have been undertaken to explain indebtedness. They vary not only style and temper but also in their major findings. A few important works deserve reference review.
Elias Aravantinos and M. Hosein Fallah
The 4G technology. Several theories have been developed looking at different standards and aiming to select and develop the most promising one. In this paper we are introducing a study that aims to explain a new concept of “4G readiness” revealing long run national strategies for 4G deployment and suggesting some critical metrics that could indicate the future of this environment. The ranking at country level will help us identify if the biggest players in these countries play a significant role and having an impact as leaders in 4G. The study will reveal which countries have a competitive advantage towards the 4G, the weak countries that might be strong in the digital part but weak in the mobile wireless area and the reasons.
Manuel Ricardo, José Ruela
4G networks are an extension of current mobile communications networks, such as GPRS and UMTS. Besides the assumptions made by GPRS and UMTS that Internet and mobile communications will evolve side by side, 4G introduces the concept that a mobile terminal will be Always Best Connected to the available networks. This is possible since a terminal may have multiple network interfaces, of different radio technologies, which are used according to the user requirements and, possibly, simultaneously. 4G also considers that all the information is conveyed as IP packets. Research problems include the support of mobility, routing, QoS and radio resource management, security, and traffic accounting. Ad-hoc and mobile networks.
Jun-seok Hwang*, Roy R. Consulta** & Hyun-young Yoon***
4G mobile technology is in a determining and standardization stage. Although 4G wireless technology offers higher data rates and the ability to roam across multiple heterogeneous wireless networks, several issues require further research and development. 3GPP LTE is an evolution standard from UMTS, and WiMAX is another candidate from IEEE. These technologies have different characteristics and try to meet 4G characteristics to become a leading technology in the future market. As it was also analyzed and investigated through the scenarios, the comparison was made here that among three candidates for the 4G presented. Every service providers and manufacturers strategize towards high mobility and high data rates whether it is 3GPP, WiMAX or even WiBro oriented.
1 and 2G standards, bandwidth maximum is 9.6 Kbit/sec, this is approximately 6 times slower than an ISDN (Integrated services digital network). Rates did increase by a factor of 3 with newer handsets to 28.8kbps. This is rarely the speed though, as in crowded areas, when the network is busy, rates do drop dramatically. Third generation mobile, data rates are 384 kbps (download) maximum, typically around 200kbps, and 64kbps upload. These are comparable to home broadband connections. 4G can provide a 10 times increase in data transfer over 3G. This speed can be achieved through Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM can not only transfer data at speed of more than 100 Mbps, but it can also eliminate interference that impairs high speed signals.
Jawwad Ahmad, Ben Garrison, Jim Gruen, Chris Kelly, and Hunter Pankey
In a fourth-generation wireless system, cellular providers have the opportunity to offer data access to a wide variety of devices. 4G will likely become a unification of different wireless networks, including wireless LAN technologies (e.g. IEEE 802.11), public cellular networks (2.5G, 3G), and even personal area networks. Under this umbrella, 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of networks (Cefriel ). These devices would have to support different networks, meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks.
Vish Nandlall, Ed Sich, Wen Tong, and Peiying Zh
4G is still being deﬁ ned – the industry is clearly moving aggressively to a 4G world. Both the pace of 4G adoption and the rate of standards development are by far faster than all previous generations of wireless. In a 4G-enabled wireless environment, the amount of highbandwidth, high-speed data traﬃc is expected to soar, especially for the high concentrations of users in dense urban environments and in-building oﬃce scenarios. This will require the development of technologies that provide higher throughput to users in these areas and ensure high quality of service at lower costs.
A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations. The continuous expansion of mobile communication and wireless networks shows evidence of exceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber, wireless network access, mobile services, and applications. An estimate of 1 billion users by the end of 2003 justifies the study and research for 4G systems. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users.
Allen H. Kupetz and K. Terrell Brown
Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the same organization that developed the wired Internet. It is not surprising, then, that DARPA chose the same distributed architecture for the wireless Internet that had proven so successful in the wired Internet. Although experts and policymakers have yet to agree on all the aspects of 4G wireless, two characteristics have emerged as all but certain components of 4G: end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP), and peer-to-peer networking.
Govind Singh Tanwa
International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000) and the Universal Mobile telecommunications System (UMTS) will be among the first 3G mobile communication systems to offer wireless wideband multimedia services using the Internet protocol. Two important technological changes will facilitate this advancement. The first change is a shift from last-generation radio-access technologies such as the global system for mobile (GSM) communication, CDMA One (an IS-95 code division multiple access standard), and personal digital cellular (PDC) toward more sophisticated systems with higher data-transfer rates such as the enhanced data. Speeds up to 50 times higher than of 3G. However, the actual available bandwidth of 4G is expected to be about 10 Mbps.
Corporate Headquarters iPass Inc.
4G is the next evolution in wireless broadband connectivity, designed primarily for data transport versus voice networks pulling double-duty as data movers. Two leading technologies comprise 4G: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, better known as WiMAX, and LTE, which stands for Long Term Evolution. Both of these 4G technologies are IP-based and use a digital modulation method known as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. Make sure those employees who will need 4G access have it. This will help dissuade them from buying more expensive individual 4G subscriptions and burying the costs in expense reports.
• A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world.
• Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks.
• High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc)
• Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks.
For the present study a Descriptive research is used for focus on the 4G technology.
Source of data
Secondary data are collected for study through the internet.