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22-01-2013, 04:31 PM
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A Seminar report on GI-FI TECHNOLOGY
A Seminar report on GI-FI TECHNOLOGY



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ABSTRACT

Gi-Fi will helps to push wireless communications to faster drive. For many years cables ruled the world. Optical fibers played a dominant role for its higher bit rates and faster transmission. But the installation of cables caused a greater difficulty and thus led to wireless access. The foremost of this is Bluetooth which can cover 9-10mts. Wi-Fi followed it having coverage area of 91mts. No doubt, introduction of Wi-Fi wireless networks has proved a revolutionary solution to “last mile” problem. However, the standard’s original limitations for data exchange rate and range, number of channels, high cost of the infrastructure have not yet made it possible for Wi-Fi to become a total threat to cellular networks on the one hand, and hard-wire networks, on the other. But the man’s continuous quest for even better technology despite the substantial advantages of present technologies led to the introduction of new, more up-to-date standards for data exchange rate i.e., Gi-Fi.
Gi-Fi or Gigabit Wireless is the world’s first transceiver integrated on a single chip that operates at 60GHz on the CMOS process. It will allow wireless transfer of audio and video data up to 5gigabits per second, ten times the current maximum wireless transfer rate, at one-tenth of the cost, usually within a range of 10 meters. It utilizes a 5mm square chip and a 1mm wide antenna burning less than 2watts of power to transmit data wirelessly over short distances, much like Bluetooth.
The development will enable the truly wireless office and home of the future. As the integrated transceiver is extremely small, it can be embedded into devices. The breakthrough will mean the networking of office and home equipment without wires will finally become a reality. In this we present a low cost, low power and high broadband chip, which will be vital in enabling the digital economy of the future.

INTRODUCTION

GiFistands for Gigabit Wireless. GiFi is a wireless technology which promises high speed short rangedata transfers with speeds of upto 5 Gbps within a radius of 10 meters. The GiFi operates on the 60GHz frequency band. This frequency band is currently mostly unused. The Gifi measures 5mm square and it is manufactured using existing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The same GiFi system is currently used to print silicon chips. This new wireless technology is named GiFi. The GiFi Chip developed by the Australian researchers. In theory this technology would transfers GB’s of our fav high definition movies in seconds. So GiFi can be considered as a challenger to Bluetooth rather than Wi-Fi and could find applications ranging from new mobile phones to consumer electronics. GiFi allows a full-length high definition movie to be transferred between two devices in seconds. to the higher megapixel count on our cameras, the increased bitrate on our music files, the higher resolution of our video files, and so on. We demand more than ever, but we also want this content to be transfered in the most expedient manner possible. 802.11g and 802.11n are fine and all, but some people want to push the envelope even further. This chip is 5mm per side and it can operate at a frequency of 60GHz while wifi chip can operate only at 2.4GHz. This have low power conception of 2 watt comes and comes with 1mm antenna.

HISTORY OF GIFI

Melbourne University researchers have achieved up to 5Gbps data transfer rates on a wireless chip. This is a lot faster than any current WiFi speeds. Dubbed GiFi, for obvious reasons, it can deliver the connection speed up to ten meters. To fully comprehend how fast GiFi is, one of the researchers said that a full-length high-def movie can be transferred from one device to another in a matter of seconds.
The GiFi chips is only 5mm in size and use current CMOS technology. Cost is only $10. I say, let’s begin mass producing it.
Professor. Stan Skafidis of “ Melbourne University , Australiya “ is the inventor of GiFi chip.
The GiFi chip uses only a tiny one-millimeter-wide antenna and less than two watts of power, and the GiFi chip would cost less than $10 to manufacture it . According to the website of Melbourne University , Australia “by using GiFi an entire high-definition movie from a video shop kiosk could be transmitted to a mobile phone in a few seconds, and the phone could then upload the movie to a home computer or screen at the same speed,” this statement about the GiFi was given by Nick Miller. GiFi uses the 60GHz “millimetre wave” spectrum to transmit the data from one part to the another part. It provides an advantage over WiFi (wireless internet),”.WiFi’s part of the spectrum is increasingly crowded, sharing the waves with devices such as cordless phones, which leads to interference and slower speeds. “But the millimetre wave spectrum (30 to 300 GHz) is almost unoccupied, and the new chip is potentially hundreds of times faster than the average home WiFi unit” .The best part about this new technology GiFi is its cost effectiveness and power consumption, it only consumes 2 watts of power for its operation with antenna(1mm) included and the development of Gi-Fi chip costs approximately $10( Rs 380) to manufacture.
In theory this technology would transfers GB’s of our fav high definition movies in seconds. So GiFi can be considered as a challenger to Bluetooth rather than Wi-Fi and could find applications ranging from new mobile phones to consumer electronics. GiFi promises some serious game-changing wireless transfer speeds for all types of consumer gadgets. The tiny silicon chip invented by professor ” Stan Skafidas “ is able to move data through the air as fast as 5 gigabits per second at a distance of just over 30 feet. The GiFi uses the short-range wireless technology would potentially be a competitor or more than likely a replacement for WiFi, and things like Bluetooth might want to look out as well. The transfer speeds combined with the constantly increased storage capacities of small handheld devices could really take media down some new avenues as well. The Age newspaper uses an example of transferring a high-definition movie from a kiosk at a store to your mobile phone in seconds. Then that same movie can be transferred just as quickly from the phone to our home computer or entertainment system to watch.

TECHNOLOGY USED BY GIFI

CMOS


GiFi uses CMOS technology. Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication. Frank Wanlass patented CMOS in 1967 (US patent 3,356,858).
CMOS is also sometimes referred to as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (or COS-MOS). The words "complementary-symmetry" refer to the fact that the typical digital design style with CMOS uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for logic functions.
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips. Semiconductors are made of silicon and germanium, materials which "sort of" conduct electricity, but not enthusiastically. Areas of these materials that are "doped" by adding impurities become full-scale conductors of either extra electrons with a negative charge (N-type transistors) or of positive charge carriers (P-type transistors). In CMOS technology, both kinds of transistors are used in a complementary way to form a current gate that forms an effective means of electrical control. CMOS transistors use almost no power when not needed. As the current direction changes more rapidly, however, the transistors become hot. This characteristic tends to limit the speed at which microprocessors can operate

Transmission of image in GiFi

CMOS uses image sensor for transferring image and those image sensors can have much more functionality on-chip than CCDs. In addition to converting photons to electrons and transferring them, the CMOS sensor might also perform image processing, edge detection, noise reduction, and analog to digital conversion. What's more, sensor and digital camera designers can make the various CMOS functions programmable, providing for a very flexible device.
This functional integration onto a single chip is CMOS' main advantage over the CCD. It also reduces the number of external components needed.

Light sources

Photolithography has used ultraviolet light from gas-discharge lamps using mercury, sometimes in combination with noble gases such as xenon. These lamps produce light across a broad spectrum with several strong peaks in the ultraviolet range. This spectrum is filtered to select a single spectral line. From the early 1960’s through the mid-1980’s, Hg lamps had been used in lithography for their
spectral lines at 436 nm ("g-line"), 405 nm ("h-line") and 365 nm ("i-line"). However, with the semiconductor industry’s need for both higher resolution (to produce denser and faster chips) and higher throughput (for lower costs), the lamp-based lithography tools were no longer able to meet the industry’s requirements.

Conclusion

GiFi is a wireless technology which promises high speed short range data transfers with speeds of upto 5 Gbps within a radius of 10 meters. The GiFi operates on the 60GHz frequency band. The Gifi measures 5mm square and it is manufactured using existing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Two important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption. The same GiFi system is currently used to print silicon chips. The GiFi Chip developed by the Australian researchers. GiFi allows a full-length high definition movie to be transferred between two devices in seconds. to the higher megapixel count on our cameras, the increased bitrate on our music files, the higher resolution of our video files, and so on. The GiFi chip is one of Australia's most lucrativee technology.
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