A STUDY ON ABSENTEEISM AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF MADURA COATS PRIVATE LIMITED, MADURAI.
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Absenteeism is a major problem which adversely affects the entire industrial economy hence the extent to which absenteeism of the workers can be reduced is of great importance to the success of an industry.
The problem of absenteeism is of vital importance in Indian organization because in comparison to the west, the rate is considerably higher in India. Absenteeism among workers is one the most establishing factors.
In an organization, it results in production losses; an increase labour cost and reduces efficiency of operation. The losses and additional costs caused by absenteeism expressed in terms of money will be alarming.
The increased productivity of an industry mainly depends upon the best possible use of man power which is the most valuable and hampers the entire production process. It is a problem which needs everybody’s attention
Industrialization is undoubtedly a falter in economic progress. Now that the industrialization developed countries has been become a focus of national and international action wide range of technical, economical, social, cultural and political, cultural and political aspects of industrialization are calm increasing attention in the task of making labors understand his duties and obligations which will lead to the considerable growth of labor consciousness.
A growing number of official and private publication record industrial development today the success registered and the obstacles encountered in to the implementation of industrialization programme in spite of the face that industrial sociologist and psychologist could reveal the reason for absenteeism as religious factors over indebtedness frequency of sickness frequency of visits to home-town, on-provision of transport by the company bad habits like drinking, gambling, further analysis of the possibilities of remedial measures based on the cultural background have to be done .
The absenteeism is affecting the optimum utilization of human resources it is an industrial malady affecting productivity, profits, investments and the absences workers themselves. An increasing rate of absence adds considerable cost to the industry and social loss occurring from Absenteeism cannot be determined accurately.
The effect of absenteeism in industrial productions cannot be measured easily. The Higher absenteeism greater the production loss for the country. People who are working in industry and other area related to the industrial production also suffer.
Definition of the term absenteeism:
According to the Webster’s Dictionary, “Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee and an absentee is on who habitually stays away.
According to workings and Dodod “Absenteeism refers to the workers absence from his regular task no matter what the cause”.
According to J.Jucius “Absenteeism is the failure of the workers to report on the job when they are schedule to work.
According to J.D.Heckett: “Absenteeism is temporary cessation of work, for no less than one whole working day, on the initiative of the worker, when his presence is expected”.
According to Ankalikan: “Absenteeism is unauthorized absence of the workers from his job”.
Labour Bureau, simla interpret “Absenteeism as the total of man shifts lost because of absence as a percentage of the total number of man shifts scheduled to work it excludes authorized vacation privilege leave, strike, lockout, lay-off or regularized over’s for the computation of absenteeism rate, on the other hand annual survey of industries takes in to account all the instances of workers absence with a view to ascertaining the costs of the time lost as a percentage of the total labour cost .
A general definition of absenteeism includes time lost because of illness and accident and time away from the job due of personal reasons whether authorized or unauthorized. Authorized absence on leave with pay is also treated as absence.
Rate of Absenteeism:
No of total man shifts lost
----------------------------------------- X 100
No of total man shifts schedule
Causes of Absenteeism:
The workers remain absent for various reasons which some may be genuine but others are not so The Labour Investigation Committee (1946) pointed out the following causes of absenteeism.
1. Sickness and low vitality
The labour investigation committee pointed out that sickness is responsible for a considerable part of absenteeism at most places, epidemics like cholera, small box and malaria most industrial areas the vitality of workers make them an easy prey to such expediencies and bad housing and insanitary conditions of living appear to trouble.
2. Means of transport:
Again the sickness rate is also affected by the nature of the jobs and the provisions of transport facilities of the workers for attending the factories and coming back to homes after working hours.
3. Night shift:
It has also been pinpointed out that there is a great percentage of absenteeism during the night shift than in the shifts owing to the greater discomforts on work during night time.
4. Rural Exodus:
It has been noted that the workers go back to their villages at the time of harvesting and showing the crops and when their visits to the village home are frequent regular it increases the rate of absenteeism in the factories.
Industrial accident depends upon the nature of work to be performed by the worker and his ability and soon that the undertakes for doing that work in case of hazardous nature of the job accidents occur more frequency which leads to higher rate of absenteeism.
6. Social and Religious function:
It has been noticed that worker become absent from their duty on occasions of social and religious since worker like to visit their families on such occasions hence they go back to their villages for show period.
7. Drinking and amusement :
Drinking and amusement in the late hours of night of night makes it difficult for the worker to reach in time for their duties. They like to become absent rather than coming late. Since they know that badly worker will be substituted.
8. After Pay Day :
It has been noted by the industrial committee that the level of absenteeism is comparatively high after the payday. When the worker either feels like having a good time or some case return to their villages to makes purchase for the family and meet them.
9. Nature Of Work :
Absenteeism prevails because the worker is not accustomed to the factory life and factory discipline. In other words absenteeism prevails because of the nature of work in factories is different form that for which is accustomed.
10. Other Factors/Causes :
• Inadequacy in welfare facility
• Insecurity of employment with no stake in life
• Fatigue and innate desire for rest and enjoyment
• The prospect of high wages during harvesting season in rural a areas have all been responsible for Absenteeism and,
• Unsatisfactory housing condition
• Undesirable behavior of employer
Reasons for choosing this study:
The major reason for choosing this topic is because the company is facing high level of Absenteeism in the company. The company likes to find out reason for employee Absenteeism and to overcome that the researcher chose this study about the employee Absenteeism.
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY:
Absenteeism is one of the major labor problems. Which will have impact in future. Many authors have taken this problem as an important problem which affects the industrial growth. When the skilled employees go away from the for a long time due to personal factors, work environment, home conditions and economic factor, like nature of work.
Shift arrangements, management attitudes, personnel policies, supervisory quality, leave facilities, fringe benefits etc and social factors, like religion, community obligations, customer, festivals, marriages, deaths and funerals in the above circumstances the productivity and efficiency of the workers are wasted. When the human resources are unnecessarily wasted the entire growth of the organization will be wasted. This is very important to overcome all those difficulties by taking effective measures to avoid the problem. But all of a sudden this problem of absenteeism cannot be solved. However by taking effective remedies we can curtail the problem to some extent.