RE: Advanced Hospital Management System
Hospital Management DOC.doc (Size: 364.5 KB / Downloads: 349)
Your hospital is dedicated to a single objective – to provide the best possible care for your patients. Yet the patient experience is very much defined by flow. Transportation, environmental services, and other support areas have a significant effect on patient flow and hospital management.
Our Hospital Management System (HMS) is powerful, flexible, and easy to use and is designed and developed to deliver real conceivable benefits to hospitals and clinics. And more importantly it is backed by our reliable and dependable support.
This HMS is designed to cover a wide range of hospital administration and management processes. It provides relevant information across the hospital to support effective decision making for patient care, hospital administration and critical financial accounting, in a seamless flow.
The Help Desk Module automates the day-to-day functions of the Front office management of a hospital. This module helps in assisting patient with accurate information and supports in handling patient related enquiries efficiently. This module having excellent features and advanced search facilities improves the quality of services rendered to the user. It provides for queries relating to the following:
Patient related enquiries;
• Ward Allotment
• Admission Details
• Payment Details and
• Discharge Details.
The Registration module is an integrated patient management system, which captures complete and relevant patient information. The system automates the patient administration functions to have better and efficient patient care process.
• Patient Registration Details
• Inpatient and Outpatient Registration
• Medical Alerts Details
• Appointment Scheduling (Patient / Doctor wise)
• Doctor's Schedule Summary
• Doctors Daily Schedule List
• Patient Visit History
• Medical Record Movements
• Appointments for Radiology tests and Operation Theatre
• Patient Visit Slip
• Sponsorship Details
It provides for enquiries about the patient, the patient's location, admission, and appointment scheduling and discharge details. Furthermore, this system even takes care of package deals for a patient for a fixed cost. Medical Record keeps an abstract of clinical data about patients. It allows easy retrieval of medical records on patients.
Electronic Medical Record is a fully integrated knowledge repository that caters to Medical and clinical records of patients in the hospital. The system supports medical professionals of various departments of the hospital with relevant information like medical examinations, diagnoses, treatment histories, test results and so on. The module provides access to critical and complete patient data that leads to high quality cost effective and efficient patient care. The EMR has the following features;
• Patient Search with Various Search Strings
• Patient Demographic Viewing
• Previous Visit Details
• Medical History of the Patient
• Billing Details of Patient
In addition the user can view investigation requests, prescriptions, reports and other clinical details. The system provides separate access rights for each part of the EMR.
The Patient Billing module handles all types of billing for long-term care. This module facilitates cashier and billing operations for different categories of patients like Outpatient, Inpatient and Referral. It provides automatic posting of charges related to different services like bed charges, lab tests conducted, medicines issued, consultant's fee, food, beverage and telephone charges etc.
The Outpatient module serves as an entry point to schedule an appointment with the Hospital Resident Doctor or Consultant Doctor for Medical Consultations and diagnosis. This module supports doctors to take better and timely consultation decisions by providing instant access to comprehensive patient information. This module also handles requests and results of laboratory tests and other examinations. Some patients may avail only the hospital facilities like Lab, Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Physiotherapy and so on.
The inpatient module is designed to take care of all the activities and functions pertaining to Inpatient Management. This module automates the day-to-day administrative actives and provides instant access to other modules, which leads to a better patient care. It provides comprehensive data pertaining to Admission of Patients & Ward Management: Availability of beds, Estimation, Agreement preparation, Collection of advance, Planned admission, Emergency admission and so on. The Inpatient module also deals with Ward Management: Shifting from one ward to the other, Bed availability, Surgery, Administration of drugs, nursing notes, charge slip and so on.
Pharmacy module deals with the automation of general workflow and administration management process of a pharmacy. The pharmacy module is equipped with bar coding facility, which makes the delivery of medical items to the patient more efficient. This module deals with the activities such as:
• Pharmacy drug configuration
• Pharmacy stores configuration
• Drug issue to patients and billing
• Unit dosage function
• Supplier information
• Maintenance of drug inventory
• Automatic reorder level setting
• Alerts on nearing expiry
• Goods receipt
• Stock in Hand reports
The Laboratory module automates the investigation request and the process involved in delivering the results to the concerned department/doctor of the hospital. Results can be entered based on the sample type either to one test or multiple tests. If the test result requires approval, the supervisor has to approve the result and it is made available to concerned doctors. These are its features;
• Sample Result Entry
• Test Report Entry
• Specimen Association Details
• Antibiotic Details
• Result Range for Test
• Investigation Request
• Bulk Sample Request
• Sample Details
• Samples Received from External Laboratory
• Samples Dispatch to External Reference Laboratory
• Investigation and Treatment History
The User Manager module basically deals with security through controlling the access to the information available in the application. Any user associated with a user group can access only those screens for which the user group has rights. It also deals with the System Related Activity like User Monitor, Creating User Group Master, User Master and view the User Group Lookup of employee database, Maintenance of company documents, User defined error message, Generating Daily Statistical Summary.
Operating System : Windows XP/2003 Server
Architecture : 3-tier Architecture
Languages : C#.Net, ASP.NET, CSS
Data Base : SQL Server 2005
Tools : AJAX, Crystal Reports
Intel Pentium : 600 MHz or above.
RAM (SD/DDR) : 512MB
Hard Disc : 30GB
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT
This project is aimed to developing an online Hospital Management. The entire project has been developed keeping in view of the distributed client server computing technology, in mind. This is useful for admin no matter where he is only by login through his username and password he can see information about his hospital like how many patients are admitted on a particular date, information about doctors, information about medicine, and test done on admitted patient by date. Admin Online can add new doctor, medicine, test type etc. into his hospital. He can add employee and assign them work.
A FULL SERVICE PORTFOLIO:
They offer customers the advantage of being able to Architect, integrate and manage technology services. This means that they can rely on one, fully accountable source instead of trying to integrate disparate multi vendor solutions.
1.2. PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The Mid Size Hospital Managing software is excellent software in the hospital management field. It manages all section of the hospital like reception, lab, inventory and account etc. The Key Features of this project is Complete and automatic operating of reception, Laboratory management, Indoor Management, OT Management, Complete history of patients, Up to-date account management with all accounting needs, Maintaining the inventory section of your hospital, Build in backup and restore facilities, LAN compatible, Compatibles with any windows-9X or higher, The software is both menu and screen driven, Instant voice help available on all forms/options.
1.3. PROBLEM IN EXISTING SYSTEM
• Cannot Upload and Download the latest updates.
• No use of Web Services and Remoting.
• Risk of mismanagement and of data when the project is under development.
• Less Security.
• No proper coordination between different Applications and Users.
• Fewer Users - Friendly.
1.4. SOLUTION OF THESE PROBLEMS
The development of the new system contains the following activities, which try to automate the entire process keeping in view of the database integration approach.
1. User friendliness is provided in the application with various controls.
2. The system makes the overall project management much easier and flexible.
3. Readily upload the latest updates, allows user to download the alerts by clicking the URL.
4. There is no risk of data mismanagement at any level while the project development is under process.
5. It provides high level of security with different level of authentication.
After analyzing the requirements of the task to be performed, the next step is to analyze the problem and understand its context. The first activity in the phase is studying the existing system and other is to understand the requirements and domain of the new system. Both the activities are equally important, but the first activity serves as a basis of giving the functional specifications and then successful design of the proposed system. Understanding the properties and requirements of a new system is more difficult and requires creative thinking and understanding of existing running system is also difficult, improper understanding of present system can lead diversion from solution.
2.2. ANALYSIS MODEL
The model that is basically being followed is the WATER FALL MODEL, which states that the phases are organized in a linear order. First of all the feasibility study is done. Once that part is over the requirement analysis and project planning begins. If system exists one and modification and addition of new module is needed, analysis of present system can be used as basic model.
The design starts after the requirement analysis is complete and the coding begins after the design is complete. Once the programming is completed, the testing is done. In this model the sequence of activities performed in a software development project are: -
• Requirement Analysis
• Project Planning
• System design
• Detail design
• Unit testing
• System integration & testing
Here the linear ordering of these activities is critical. End of the phase and the output of one phase is the input of other phase. The output of each phase is to be consistent with the overall requirement of the system. Some of the qualities of spiral model are also incorporated like after the people concerned with the project review completion of each of the phase the work done.
WATER FALL MODEL was being chosen because all requirements were known beforehand and the objective of our software development is the computerization/automation of an already existing manual working system.
2.3. STUDY OF THE SYSTEM
In the flexibility of the uses the interface has been developed a graphics concept in mind, associated through a browses interface. The GUI’S at the top level have been categorized as
1. Administrative user interface
2. The operational or generic user interface
The administrative user interface concentrates on the consistent information that is practically, part of the organizational activities and which needs proper authentication for the data collection. The interfaces help the administrations with all the transactional states like Data insertion, Data deletion and Date updation along with the extensive data search capabilities.
The operational or generic user interface helps the users upon the system in transactions through the existing data and required services. The operational user interface also helps the ordinary users in managing their own information helps the ordinary users in managing their own information in a customized manner as per the assisted flexibilities.
NUMBER OF MODULES
The system after careful analysis has been identified to be presented with the following modules:
• Hospital Master
• Account Master
• Inventory Master
• Master Tables: The hospital management software provides you all kinds of masters that are in customizing mode so that your can add the things as per requirement like:
• Test Types • Groups
• Test • Uses
• Wards • Hospitals Description
• Diagnosis • Products
• Employees • Ledgers
• Reception: A more advance reception for all required operations to be done automatically, Like:-
o Creating a new patient entry.
o View and modify all old patient details.
o Select any patient, calculate his bill for the different facilities provide by you like lab test charge, Sonography charge, E.C.G. Charge, X-ray charge, ambulance charge, any additional service charge
o The software will print two copies of bill and send data to report printing department.
• Security Features:
o Password facility to ensure validity of user
o Intelligent validation for each entry.
o User defined date access.
o Data secrecy.
o You can hold the complete details of doctors of your hospital.
o You can also manage the issue register.
o The hospital management software provide a complete and automatic indoor management
o You can see the occupancy of your hospital.
o You can see the treatment given to a particular patient.
o You can see the services given to a particular patient.
o You can see the deposits of any patient.
o You can prepare discharge ticket and discharge bill of any patient.
o You can see the due detail of bills.
• Hospital Record:
o Delivery and Birth Record
o Death Record
o Copper –T Record
o Generator Record
o D & C /MTP Record
• Hospital Reports: The hospital management software provide faculty to view and print all kinds of medical reports from date to date. These reports are prepared automatically and accurately.
• Death • Generator Register
• Daily Register • D&C/MTP Register
• Indoor Register • Cast wise summary
• OT Register • Village wise summery
• Ambulance Register • Doctor wise summery
• Delivery Register • Month wise summery
• Death Register • Day wise summery
• Copper-T Register • Old Cash Register
• Test Result Printing: In the hospital management software we can generate and print the test results.
• Serum Chemistry Test • Seminal Fluid Test
• Serum Chemistry Test • Stool Test
• Hematology Test • Thyroid Function Test
• Urine Test • Urine Chemical
• Serology Test • Examination Test
• Sputum Test • Pregnancy Test
o The Software includes all principal heads of commercial field.
o We can also customize the heads as per requirement.
o Unlimited accounts may be maintained through various heads
o All necessary information of particular account is also kept.
• Accounting Reports: The hospital management software provides facility to view and print
o Ledger list.
o Ledger books with daily / summary options.
o Trial Balance with closing balance and detailed options.
o Balance Sheet, quick view of current Assets and Liabilities.
o Report of every head can also be generated on the closing and detail based.
Inventory Master: This software also provides facility to maintain complete inventory, like:
• Sale / Purchase data entry
• Sale / Purchase return
And print all kinds of inventory reports, like:
• Stock report
• Sale / Purchase book
• Stock Ledger
• Sale / Purchase return book
• Based on the given requirements, conceptualize the Solution Architecture. Choose the domain of your interest otherwise develop the application for ultimatedotnet.com. Depict the various architectural components, show interactions and connectedness and show internal and external elements. Design the web services, web methods and database infrastructure needed both and client and server.
• Provide an environment for upgradation of application for newer versions that are available in the same domain as web service target.
2.4. HARDWARE SPEDIFICATIONS
Operating System : Windows XP/2003 Server
Architecture : 3-tier Architecture
Languages : C#.Net, ASP.NET, CSS
Data Base : SQL Server 2005
Tools : AJAX, Crystal Reports
Intel Pentium : 600 MHz or above.
RAM (SD/DDR) : 512MB
Hard Disc : 30GB
2.5. PROPOSED SYSTEM
To debug the existing system, remove procedures those cause data redundancy, make navigational sequence proper. To provide information about audits on different level and also to reflect the current work status depending on organization/auditor or date. To build strong password mechanism.
NEED FOR COMPUTERIZATION
We all know the importance of computerization. The world is moving ahead at lightening speed and every one is running short of time. One always wants to get the information and perform a task he/she/they desire(s) within a short period of time and too with amount of efficiency and accuracy. The application areas for the computerization have been selected on the basis of following factors:
• Minimizing the manual records kept at different locations.
• There will be more data integrity.
• Facilitating desired information display, very quickly, by retrieving information from users.
• Facilitating various statistical information which helps in decision-making?
• To reduce manual efforts in activities that involved repetitive work.
• Updating and deletion of such a huge amount of data will become easier.
FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF THE MODEL
As far as the project is developed the functionality is simple, the objective of the proposal is to strengthen the functioning of Audit Status Monitoring and make them effective and better. The entire scope has been classified into five streams knows as Coordinator Level, management Level, Auditor Level, User Level and State Web Coordinator Level. The proposed software will cover the information needs with respect to each request of the user group viz. accepting the request, providing vulnerability document report and the current status of the audit.
WORKING OF THE SYSTEM
The entire scope has been classified into five streams known as: -
(Addressing the information management needs of coordinator)
(Addressing the information management needs of management)
(Addressing the information management needs of auditors)
(Addressing the information management needs of the user group)
State Web Coordinator level
(Addressing the needs of coordinator of the state)
2.6. INPUT AND OUTPUT
The main inputs, outputs and major functions of the system are as follows
• Head operator enters his or her user id and password.
• Operators enter his or her user id and password.
• Technicians enter his or her user id and password.
• Sub technicians enter his or her user id and password.
• User requests the reports.
• User requests the search.
• Head operator can edits the personal details and so on.
• Head operator receives personal details.
• Operator receives the personal details.
• Technicians receive personal and technical details.
• Users receive requested reports.
• Displays search result.
2.7. PROCESS MODELS USED WITH JUSTIFICATION
ACCESS CONTROL FOR DATA WHICH REQUIRE USER AUTHENTICATION
The following commands specify access control identifiers and they are typically used to authorize and authenticate the user (command codes are shown in parentheses)
USER NAME (USER)
The user identification is that which is required by the server for access to its file system. This command will normally be the first command transmitted by the user after the control connections are made (some servers may require this).
This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command, and, for some sites, completes the user's identification for access control. Since password information is quite sensitive, it is desirable in general to "mask" it or suppress type out.
Preliminary investigation examine project feasibility, the likelihood the system will be useful to the organization. The main objective of the feasibility study is to test the Technical, Operational and Economical feasibility for adding new modules and debugging old running system. All system is feasible if they are unlimited resources and infinite time. There are aspects in the feasibility study portion of the preliminary investigation:
• Technical Feasibility
• Operation Feasibility
• Economical Feasibility
3.1. Technical Feasibility
The technical issue usually raised during the feasibility stage of the investigation includes the following:
• Does the necessary technology exist to do what is suggested?
• Do the proposed equipments have the technical capacity to hold the data required to use the new system?
• Will the proposed system provide adequate response to inquiries, regardless of the number or location of users?
• Can the system be upgraded if developed?
• Are there technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access and data security?
Earlier no system existed to cater to the needs of ‘Secure Infrastructure Implementation System’. The current system developed is technically feasible. It is a web based user interface for audit workflow at NIC-CSD. Thus it provides an easy access to the users. The database’s purpose is to create, establish and maintain a workflow among various entities in order to facilitate all concerned users in their various capacities or roles. Permission to the users would be granted based on the roles specified. Therefore, it provides the technical guarantee of accuracy, reliability and security. The software and hard requirements for the development of this project are not many and are already available in-house at NIC or are available as free as open source. The work for the project is done with the current equipment and existing software technology. Necessary bandwidth exists for providing a fast feedback to the users irrespective of the number of users using the system.
3.2. Operational Feasibility
Proposed projects are beneficial only if they can be turned out into information system. That will meet the organization’s operating requirements. Operational feasibility aspects of the project are to be taken as an important part of the project implementation. Some of the important issues raised are to test the operational feasibility of a project includes the following: -
• Is there sufficient support for the management from the users?
• Will the system be used and work properly if it is being developed and implemented?
• Will there be any resistance from the user that will undermine the possible application benefits?
This system is targeted to be in accordance with the above-mentioned issues. Beforehand, the management issues and user requirements have been taken into consideration. So there is no question of resistance from the users that can undermine the possible application benefits.
The well-planned design would ensure the optimal utilization of the computer resources and would help in the improvement of performance status.
3.3. Economic Feasibility
A system can be developed technically and that will be used if installed must still be a good investment for the organization. In the economical feasibility, the development cost in creating the system is evaluated against the ultimate benefit derived from the new systems. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs.
The system is economically feasible. It does not require any addition hardware or software. Since the interface for this system is developed using the existing resources and technologies available at NIC, There is nominal expenditure and economical feasibility for certain.
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
The software, Site Explorer is designed for management of web sites from a remote location.
Purpose: The main purpose for preparing this document is to give a general insight into the analysis and requirements of the existing system or situation and for determining the operating characteristics of the system.
Scope: This Document plays a vital role in the development life cycle (SDLC) and it describes the complete requirement of the system. It is meant for use by the developers and will be the basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval process.
DEVELOPERS RESPONSIBILITIES OVERVIEW:
The developer is responsible for:
• Developing the system, which meets the SRS and solving all the requirements of the system?
• Demonstrating the system and installing the system at client's location after the acceptance testing is successful.
• Submitting the required user manual describing the system interfaces to work on it and also the documents of the system.
• Conducting any user training that might be needed for using the system.
• Maintaining the system for a period of one year after installation.
4.1. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:
Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of processing to users. They are also used to provides a permanent copy of the results for later consultation. The various types of outputs in general are:
• External Outputs, whose destination is outside the organization.
• Internal Outputs whose destination is with in organization and they are the
• User’s main interface with the computer.
• Operational outputs whose use is purely with in the computer department.
• Interface outputs, which involve the user in communicating directly with
The outputs should be defined in terms of the following points:
Type of the output
Content of the output
Format of the output
Location of the output
Frequency of the output
Volume of the output
Sequence of the output
It is not always desirable to print or display data as it is held on a computer. It should be decided as which form of the output is the most suitable.
Will decimal points need to be inserted
Should leading zeros be suppressed.
In the next stage it is to be decided that which medium is the most appropriate for the output. The main considerations when deciding about the output media are:
• The suitability for the device to the particular application.
• The need for a hard copy.
• The response time required.
• The location of the users
• The software and hardware available.
Keeping in view the above description the project is to have outputs mainly coming under the category of internal outputs. The main outputs desired according to the requirement specification are:
The outputs were needed to be generated as a hot copy and as well as queries to be viewed on the screen. Keeping in view these outputs, the format for the output is taken from the outputs, which are currently being obtained after manual processing. The standard printer is to be used as output media for hard copies.
Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective during the input design is as given below:
• To produce a cost-effective method of input.
• To achive the highest possible level of accuracy.
• To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.
The main input stages can be listed as below:
• Data recording
• Data transcription
• Data conversion
• Data verification
• Data control
• Data transmission
• Data validation
• Data correction
It is necessary to determine the various types of inputs. Inputs can be categorized as follows:
• External inputs, which are prime inputs for the system.
• Internal inputs, which are user communications with the system.
• Operational, which are computer department’s communications to the system?
• Interactive, which are inputs entered during a dialogue.
At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To conclude about the input media consideration has to be given to;
• Type of input
• Flexibility of format
• Verification methods
• Rejection rates
• Ease of correction
• Storage and handling requirements
• Easy to use
Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input media, it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and interactive. As
Input data is to be the directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can be considered to be the most suitable input device.
At this stage care is to be taken to ensure that input data remains accurate form the stage at which it is recorded upto the stage in which the data is accepted by the system. This can be achieved only by means of careful control each time the data is handled.
Even though every effort is make to avoid the occurrence of errors, still a small proportion of errors is always likely to occur, these types of errors can be discovered by using validations to check the input data.
Procedures are designed to detect errors in data at a lower level of detail. Data validations have been included in the system in almost every area where there is a possibility for the user to commit errors. The system will not accept invalid data. Whenever an invalid data is keyed in, the system immediately prompts the user and the user has to again key in the data and the system will accept the data only if the data is correct. Validations have been included where necessary.
The system is designed to be a user friendly one. In other words the system has been designed to communicate effectively with the user. The system has been designed with pop up menus.
USER INTERFACE DESIGN
It is essential to consult the system users and discuss their needs while designing the user interface:
USER INTERFACE SYSTEMS CAN BE BROADLY CLASIFIED AS:
1. User initiated interface the user is in charge, controlling the progress of the user/computer dialogue. In the computer-initiated interface, the computer selects the next stage in the interaction.
2. Computer initiated interfaces
In the computer initiated interfaces the computer guides the progress of the user/computer dialogue. Information is displayed and the user response of the computer takes action or displays further information.
User initiated interfaces fall into tow approximate classes:
1. Command driven interfaces: In this type of interface the user inputs commands or queries which are interpreted by the computer.
2. Forms oriented interface: The user calls up an image of the form to his/her screen and fills in the form. The forms oriented interface is chosen because it is the best choice.
The following computer – initiated interfaces were used:
1. The menu system for the user is presented with a list of alternatives and the user chooses one; of alternatives.
2. Questions – answer type dialog system where the computer asks question and takes action based on the basis of the users reply.
Right from the start the system is going to be menu driven, the opening menu displays the available options. Choosing one option gives another popup menu with more options. In this way every option leads the users to data entry form where the user can key in the data.
ERROR MESSAGE DESIGN:
The design of error messages is an important part of the user interface design. As user is bound to commit some errors or other while designing a system the system should be designed to be helpful by providing the user with information regarding the error he/she has committed.
This application must be able to produce output at different modules for different inputs.
4.2. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
Performance is measured in terms of the output provided by the application.
Requirement specification plays an important part in the analysis of a system. Only when the requirement specifications are properly given, it is possible to design a system, which will fit into required environment. It rests largely in the part of the users of the existing system to give the requirement specifications because they are the people who finally use the system. This is because the requirements have to be known during the initial stages so that the system can be designed according to those requirements. It is very difficult to change the system once it has been designed and on the other hand designing a system, which does not cater to the requirements of the user, is of no use.
The requirement specification for any system can be broadly stated as given below:
• The system should be able to interface with the existing system
• The system should be accurate
• The system should be better than the existing system
The existing system is completely dependent on the user to perform all the duties.
5.1. INTRODUCTION TO .NET Framework
The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet. The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives:
• To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object code is stored and executed locally, executed locally but Internet-distributed, or executed remotely.
• To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts.
• To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code, including code created by an unknown or semi-trusted third party.
• To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments.
• To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of applications, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications.
• To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the .NET Framework can integrate with any other code.
The .NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and the .NET Framework class library. The common language runtime is the foundation of the .NET Framework. You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time, providing core services such as memory management, thread management, and Remoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness. In fact, the concept of code management is a fundamental principle of the runtime. Code that targets the runtime is known as managed code, while code that does not target the runtime is known as unmanaged code. The class library, the other main component of the .NET Framework, is a comprehensive, object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET, such as Web Forms and XML Web services.
The .NET Framework can be hosted by unmanaged components that load the common language runtime into their processes and initiate the execution of managed code, thereby creating a software environment that can exploit both managed and unmanaged features. The .NET Framework not only provides several runtime hosts, but also supports the development of third-party runtime hosts.
For example, ASP.NET hosts the runtime to provide a scalable, server-side environment for managed code. ASP.NET works directly with the runtime to enable Web Forms applications and XML Web services, both of which are discussed later in this topic.
Internet Explorer is an example of an unmanaged application that hosts the runtime (in the form of a MIME type extension). Using Internet Explorer to host the runtime enables you to embed managed components or Windows Forms controls in HTML documents. Hosting the runtime in this way makes managed mobile code (similar to Microsoft® ActiveX® controls) possible, but with significant improvements that only managed code can offer, such as semi-trusted execution and secure isolated file storage.
The following illustration shows the relationship of the common language runtime and the class library to your applications and to the overall system. The illustration also shows how managed code operates within a larger architecture.
FEATURES OF THE COMMON LANGUAGE RUNTIME
The common language runtime manages memory, thread execution, code execution, code safety verification, compilation, and other system services. These features are intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the common language runtime.
With regards to security, managed components are awarded varying degrees of trust, depending on a number of factors that include their origin (such as the Internet, enterprise network, or local computer). This means that a managed component might or might not be able to perform file-access operations, registry-access operations, or other sensitive functions, even if it is being used in the same active application.
The runtime enforces code access security. For example, users can trust that an executable embedded in a Web page can play an animation on screen or sing a song, but cannot access their personal data, file system, or network. The security features of the runtime thus enable legitimate Internet-deployed software to be exceptionally featuring rich.
The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict type- and code-verification infrastructure called the common type system (CTS). The CTS ensures that all managed code is self-describing. The various Microsoft and third-party language compilers
Generate managed code that conforms to the CTS. This means that managed code can consume other managed types and instances, while strictly enforcing type fidelity and type safety.
In addition, the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many common software issues. For example, the runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to objects, releasing them when they are no longer being used. This automatic memory management resolves the two most common application errors, memory leaks and invalid memory references.
The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. For example, programmers can write applications in their development language of choice, yet take full advantage of the runtime, the class library, and components written in other languages by other developers. Any compiler vendor who chooses to target the runtime can do so. Language compilers that target the .NET Framework make the features of the .NET Framework available to existing code written in that language, greatly easing the migration process for existing applications.
While the runtime is designed for the software of the future, it also supports software of today and yesterday. Interoperability between managed and unmanaged code enables developers to continue to use necessary COM components and DLLs.
The runtime is designed to enhance performance. Although the common language runtime provides many standard runtime services, managed code is never interpreted. A feature called just-in-time (JIT) compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine language of the system on which it is executing. Meanwhile, the memory manager removes the possibilities of fragmented memory and increases memory locality-of-reference to further increase performance.
Finally, the runtime can be hosted by high-performance, server-side applications, such as Microsoft® SQL Server™ and Internet Information Services (IIS). This infrastructure enables you to use managed code to write your business logic, while still enjoying the superior performance of the industry's best enterprise servers that support runtime hosting.
.NET FRAMEWORK CLASS LIBRARY
The .NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate with the common language runtime. The class library is object oriented, providing types from which your own managed code can derive functionality. This not only makes the .NET Framework types easy to use, but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of the .NET Framework. In addition, third-party components can integrate seamlessly with classes in the .NET Framework.
For example, the .NET Framework collection classes implement a set of interfaces that you can use to develop your own collection classes. Your collection classes will blend seamlessly with the classes in the .NET Framework.
As you would expect from an object-oriented class library, the .NET Framework types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tasks, including tasks such as string management, data collection, database connectivity, and file access. In addition to these common tasks, the class library includes types that support a variety of specialized development scenarios. For example, you can use the .NET Framework to develop the following types of applications and services:
• Console applications.
• Scripted or hosted applications.
• Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms).
• ASP.NET applications.
• XML Web services.
• Windows services.
For example, the Windows Forms classes are a comprehensive set of reusable types that vastly simplify Windows GUI development. If you write an ASP.NET Web Form application, you can use the Web Forms classes.
CLIENT APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
Client applications are the closest to a traditional style of application in Windows-based programming. These are the types of applications that display windows or forms on the desktop, enabling a user to perform a task. Client applications include applications such as word processors and spreadsheets, as well as custom business applications such as data-entry tools, reporting tools, and so on. Client applications usually employ windows, menus, buttons, and other GUI elements, and they likely access local resources such as the file system and peripherals such as printers.
Another kind of client application is the traditional ActiveX control (now replaced by the managed Windows Forms control) deployed over the Internet as a Web page. This application is much like other client applications: it is executed natively, has access to local resources, and includes graphical elements.
In the past, developers created such applications using C/C++ in conjunction with the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) or with a rapid application development (RAD) environment such as Microsoft® Visual Basic®. The .NET Framework incorporates aspects of these existing products into a single, consistent development environment that drastically simplifies the development of client applications.
The Windows Forms classes contained in the .NET Framework are designed to be used for GUI development. You can easily create command windows, buttons, menus, toolbars, and other screen elements with the flexibility necessary to accommodate shifting business needs.
For example, the .NET Framework provides simple properties to adjust visual attributes associated with forms. In some cases the underlying operating system does not support changing these attributes directly, and in these cases the .NET Framework automatically recreates the forms. This is one of many ways in which the .NET Framework integrates the developer interface, making coding simpler and more consistent.
Unlike ActiveX controls, Windows Forms controls have semi-trusted access to a user's computer. This means that binary or natively executing code can access some of the resources on the user's system (such as GUI elements and limited file access) without being able to access or compromise other resources. Because of code access security, many applications that once needed to be installed on a user's system can now be safely deployed through the Web. Your applications can implement the features of a local application while being deployed like a Web page.
Server Application Development
Server-side applications in the managed world are implemented through runtime hosts. Unmanaged applications host the common language runtime, which allows your custom managed code to control the behavior of the server. This model provides you with all the features of the common language runtime and class library while gaining the performance and scalability of the host server.
The following illustration shows a basic network schema with managed code running in different server environments. Servers such as IIS and SQL Server can perform standard operations while your application logic executes through the managed code.
SERVER-SIDE MANAGED CODE
ASP.NET is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the .NET Framework to target Web-based applications. However, ASP.NET is more than just a runtime host; it is a complete architecture for developing Web sites and Internet-distributed objects using managed code. Both Web Forms and XML Web services use IIS and ASP.NET as the publishing mechanism for applications, and both have a collection of supporting classes in the .NET Framework.
XML Web services, an important evolution in Web-based technology, are distributed, server-side application components similar to common Web sites. However, unlike Web-based applications, XML Web services components have no UI and are not targeted for browsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Instead, XML Web services consist of reusable software components designed to be consumed by other applications, such as traditional client applications, Web-based applications, or even other XML Web services. As a result, XML Web services technology is rapidly moving application development and deployment into the highly distributed environment of the Internet.
If you have used earlier versions of ASP technology, you will immediately notice the improvements that ASP.NET and Web Forms offers. For example, you can develop Web Forms pages in any language that supports the .NET Framework. In addition, your code no longer needs to share the same file with your HTTP text (although it can continue to do so if you prefer). Web Forms pages execute in native machine language because, like any other managed application, they take full advantage of the runtime. In contrast, unmanaged ASP pages are always scripted and interpreted. ASP.NET pages are faster, more functional, and easier to develop than unmanaged ASP pages because they interact with the runtime like any managed application.
The .NET Framework also provides a collection of classes and tools to aid in development and consumption of XML Web services applications. XML Web services are built on standards such as SOAP (a remote procedure-call protocol), XML (an extensible data format), and WSDL ( the Web Services Description Language). The .NET Framework is built on these standards to promote interoperability with non-Microsoft solutions.
For example, the Web Services Description Language tool included with the .NET Framework SDK can query an XML Web service published on the Web, parse its WSDL description, and produce C# or Visual Basic source code that your application can use to become a client of the XML Web service. The source code can create classes derived from classes in the class library that handle all the underlying communication using SOAP and XML parsing. Although you can use the class library to consume XML Web services directly, the Web Services Description Language tool and the other tools contained in the SDK facilitate your development efforts with the .NET Framework.
If you develop and publish your own XML Web service, the .NET Framework provides a set of classes that conform to all the underlying communication standards, such as SOAP, WSDL, and XML. Using those classes enables you to focus on the logic of your service, without concerning yourself with the communications infrastructure required by distributed software development.
Finally, like Web Forms pages in the managed environment, your XML Web service will run with the speed of native machine language using the scalable communication of IIS.
ACTIVE SERVER PAGES.NET
ASP.NET is a programming framework built on the common language runtime that can be used on a server to build powerful Web applications. ASP.NET offers several important advantages over previous Web development models:
• Enhanced Performance. ASP.NET is compiled common language runtime code running on the server. Unlike its interpreted predecessors, ASP.NET can take advantage of early binding, just-in-time compilation, native optimization, and caching services right out of the box. This amounts to dramatically better performance before you ever write a line of code.
• World-Class Tool Support. The ASP.NET framework is complemented by a rich toolbox and designer in the Visual Studio integrated development environment. WYSIWYG editing, drag-and-drop server controls, and automatic deployment are just a few of the features this powerful tool provides.
• Power and Flexibility. Because ASP.NET is based on the common language runtime, the power and flexibility of that entire platform is available to Web application developers. The .NET Framework class library, Messaging, and Data Access solutions are all seamlessly accessible from the Web. ASP.NET is also language-independent, so you can choose the language that best applies to your application or partition your application across many languages. Further, common language runtime interoperability guarantees that your existing investment in COM-based development is preserved when migrating to ASP.NET.
• Simplicity. ASP.NET makes it easy to perform common tasks, from simple form submission and client authentication to deployment and site configuration. For example, the ASP.NET page framework allows you to build user interfaces that cleanly separate application logic from presentation code and to handle events in a simple, Visual Basic - like forms processing model. Additionally, the common language runtime simplifies development, with managed code services such as automatic reference counting and garbage collection.
• Manageability. ASP.NET employs a text-based, hierarchical configuration system, which simplifies applying settings to your server environment and Web applications. Because configuration information is stored as plain text, new settings may be applied without the aid of local administration tools. This "zero local administration" philosophy extends to deploying ASP.NET Framework applications as well. An ASP.NET Framework application is deployed to a server simply by copying the necessary files to the server. No server restart is required, even to deploy or replace running compiled code.
• Scalability and Availability. ASP.NET has been designed with scalability in mind, with features specifically tailored to improve performance in clustered and multiprocessor environments. Further, processes are closely monitored and managed by the ASP.NET runtime, so that if one misbehaves (leaks, deadlocks), a new process can be created in its place, which helps keep your application constantly available to handle requests.
• Customizability and Extensibility. ASP.NET delivers a well-factored architecture that allows developers to "plug-in" their code at the appropriate level. In fact, it is possible to extend or replace any subcomponent of the ASP.NET runtime with your own custom-written component. Implementing custom authentication or state services has never been easier.
• Security. With built in Windows authentication and per-application configuration, you can be assured that your applications are secure.
The Microsoft .NET Platform currently offers built-in support for three languages: C#, Visual Basic, and JScript.
WHAT IS ASP.NET WEB FORMS?
The ASP.NET Web Forms page framework is a scalable common language runtime programming model that can be used on the server to dynamically generate Web pages.
Intended as a logical evolution of ASP (ASP.NET provides syntax compatibility with existing pages), the ASP.NET Web Forms framework has been specifically designed to address a number of key deficiencies in the previous model. In particular, it provides:
• The ability to create and use reusable UI controls that can encapsulate common functionality and thus reduce the amount of code that a page developer has to write.
• The ability for developers to cleanly structure their page logic in an orderly fashion (not "spaghetti code").
• The ability for development tools to provide strong WYSIWYG design support for pages (existing ASP code is opaque to tools).
ASP.NET Web Forms pages are text files with an .aspx file name extension. They can be deployed throughout an IIS virtual root directory tree. When a browser client requests .aspx resources, the ASP.NET runtime parses and compiles the target file into a .NET Framework class. This class can then be used to dynamically process incoming requests. (Note that the .aspx file is compiled only the first time it is accessed; the compiled type instance is then reused across multiple requests).
An ASP.NET page can be created simply by taking an existing HTML file and changing its file name extension to .aspx (no modification of code is required). For example, the following sample demonstrates a simple HTML page that collects a user's name and category preference and then performs a form postback to the originating page when a button is clicked:
ASP.NET provides syntax compatibility with existing ASP pages. This includes support for <% %> code render blocks that can be intermixed with HTML content within an .aspx file. These code blocks execute in a top-down manner at page render time.
CODE-BEHIND WEB FORMS
ASP.NET supports two methods of authoring dynamic pages. The first is the method shown in the preceding samples, where the page code is physically declared within the originating .aspx file. An alternative approach--known as the code-behind method--enables the page code to be more cleanly separated from the HTML content into an entirely separate file.
INTRODUCTION TO ASP.NET SERVER CONTROLS
In addition to (or instead of) using <% %> code blocks to program dynamic content, ASP.NET page developers can use ASP.NET server controls to program Web pages. Server controls are declared within an .aspx file using custom tags or intrinsic HTML tags that contain a runat="server" attributes value. Intrinsic HTML tags are handled by one of the controls in the System.Web.UI.HtmlControls namespace. Any tag that doesn't explicitly map to one of the controls is assigned the type of System.Web.UI.HtmlControls.HtmlGenericControl.
Server controls automatically maintain any client-entered values between round trips to the server. This control state is not stored on the server (it is instead stored within an <input type="hidden"> form field that is round-tripped between requests). Note also that no client-side script is required.
In addition to supporting standard HTML input controls, ASP.NET enables developers to utilize richer custom controls on their pages. For example, the following sample demonstrates how the <asp:adrotator> control can be used to dynamically display rotating ads on a page.
1. ASP.NET Web Forms provide an easy and powerful way to build dynamic Web UI.
2. ASP.NET Web Forms pages can target any browser client (there are no script library or cookie requirements).
3. ASP.NET Web Forms pages provide syntax compatibility with existing ASP pages.
4. ASP.NET server controls provide an easy way to encapsulate common functionality.
5. ASP.NET ships with 45 built-in server controls. Developers can also use controls built by third parties.
6. ASP.NET server controls can automatically project both uplevel and downlevel HTML.
7. ASP.NET templates provide an easy way to customize the look and feel of list server controls.
8. ASP.NET validation controls provide an easy way to do declarative client or server data validation.
ADO.NET is an evolution of the ADO data access model that directly addresses user requirements for developing scalable applications. It was designed specifically for the web with scalability, statelessness, and XML in mind.
ADO.NET uses some ADO objects, such as the Connection and Command objects, and also introduces new objects. Key new ADO.NET objects include the DataSet, DataReader, and DataAdapter.
The important distinction between this evolved stage of ADO.NET and previous data architectures is that there exists an object -- the DataSet -- that is separate and distinct from any data stores. Because of that, the DataSet functions as a standalone entity. You can think of the DataSet as an always disconnected recordset that knows nothing about the source or destination of the data it contains. Inside a DataSet, much like in a database, there are tables, columns, relationships, constraints, views, and so forth.
A DataAdapter is the object that connects to the database to fill the DataSet. Then, it connects back to the database to update the data there, based on operations performed while the DataSet held the data. In the past, data processing has been primarily connection-based. Now, in an effort to make multi-tiered apps more efficient, data processing is turning to a message-based approach that revolves around chunks of information. At the center of this approach is the DataAdapter, which provides a bridge to retrieve and save data between a DataSet and its source data store. It accomplishes this by means of requests to the appropriate SQL commands made against the data store.
The XML-based DataSet object provides a consistent programming model that works with all models of data storage: flat, relational, and hierarchical. It does this by having no 'knowledge' of the source of its data, and by representing the data that it holds as collections and data types. No matter what the source of the data within the DataSet is, it is manipulated through the same set of standard APIs exposed through the DataSet and its subordinate objects.
While the DataSet has no knowledge of the source of its data, the managed provider has detailed and specific information. The role of the managed provider is to connect, fill, and persist the DataSet to and from data stores. The OLE DB and SQL Server .NET Data Providers (System.Data.OleDb and System.Data.SqlClient) that are part of the .Net Framework provide four basic objects: the Command, Connection, DataReader and DataAdapter. In the remaining sections of this document, we'll walk through each part of the DataSet and the OLE DB/SQL Server .NET Data Providers explaining what they are, and how to program against them.
The following sections will introduce you to some objects that have evolved, and some that are new. These objects are:
• Connections. For connection to and managing transactions against a database.
• Commands. For issuing SQL commands against a database.
• DataReaders. For reading a forward-only stream of data records from a SQL Server data source.
• DataSets. For storing, Remoting and programming against flat data, XML data and relational data.
• DataAdapters. For pushing data into a DataSet, and reconciling data against a database.
When dealing with connections to a database, there are two different options: SQL Server .NET Data Provider (System.Data.SqlClient) and OLE DB .NET Data Provider (System.Data.OleDb). In these samples we will use the SQL Server .NET Data Provider. These are written to talk directly to Microsoft SQL Server. The OLE DB .NET Data Provider is used to talk to any OLE DB provider (as it uses OLE DB underneath).
Connections are used to 'talk to' databases, and are represented by provider-specific classes such as SqlConnection. Commands travel over connections and resultsets are returned in the form of streams which can be read by a DataReader object, or pushed into a DataSet object.
Commands contain the information that is submitted to a database, and are represented by provider-specific classes such as SqlCommand. A command can be a stored procedure call, an UPDATE statement, or a statement that returns results. You can also use input and output parameters, and return values as part of your command syntax. The example below shows how to issue an INSERT statement against the Northwind database.
The DataReader object is somewhat synonymous with a read-only/forward-only cursor over data. The DataReader API supports flat as well as hierarchical data. A DataReader object is returned after executing a command against a database. The format of the returned DataReader object is different from a recordset. For example, you might use the DataReader to show the results of a search list in a web page.
DATASETS AND DATAADAPTERS:
The DataSet object is similar to the ADO Recordset object, but more powerful, and with one other important distinction: the DataSet is always disconnected. The DataSet object represents a cache of data, with database-like structures such as tables, columns, relationships, and constraints. However, though a DataSet can and does behave much like a database, it is important to remember that DataSet objects do not interact directly with databases, or other source data. This allows the developer to work with a programming model that is always consistent, regardless of where the source data resides. Data coming from a database, an XML file, from code, or user input can all be placed into DataSet objects. Then, as changes are made to the DataSet they can be tracked and verified before updating the source data. The GetChanges method of the DataSet object actually creates a second DatSet that contains only the changes to the data. This DataSet is then used by a DataAdapter (or other objects) to update the original data source.
The DataSet has many XML characteristics, including the ability to produce and consume XML data and XML schemas. XML schemas can be used to describe schemas interchanged via WebServices. In fact, a DataSet with a schema can actually be compiled for type safety and statement completion.
The DataAdapter object works as a bridge between the DataSet and the source data. Using the provider-specific SqlDataAdapter (along with its associated SqlCommand and SqlConnection) can increase overall performance when working with a Microsoft SQL Server databases. For other OLE DB-supported databases, you would use the OleDbDataAdapter object and its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects.
The DataAdapter object uses commands to update the data source after changes have been made to the DataSet. Using the Fill method of the DataAdapter calls the SELECT command; using the Update method calls the INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE command for each changed row. You can explicitly set these commands in order to control the statements used at runtime to resolve changes, including the use of stored procedures. For ad-hoc scenarios, a CommandBuilder object can generate these at run-time based upon a select st