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15-02-2010, 04:52 PM
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air car full report

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AIR CAR
Abstract
The Air car is a car currently being developed and, eventually, manufactured by Moteur Developpement International (MDI), founded by the French inventor Guy Nègre. It will be sold by this company too, as well as by ZevCat, a US company, based in California.
The air car is powered by an air engine, specifically tailored for the car. The used air engine is being manufactured by CQFD Air solution, a company closely linked to MDI.
The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a glass or carbon-fibre tank at 4500 psi. The engine has injection similar to normal engines, but uses special crankshafts and pistons, which remain at top dead center for about 70% of the engine's cycle; this allows more power to be developed in the engine.
Though some consider the car to be pollution-free, it must be taken into account that the tanks are recharged using electric (or gasoline) compressors, resulting in some pollution, if the electricity used to operate the compressors comes from polluting power plants (such as gas-, or coal-power plants). Solar power could possibly be used to power the compressors at fuel station.
References
1. Kevin Bonsor (2005-10-25). How Air-Powered Cars Will Work. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
2. Robyn Curnow (2004-01-11). Gone with the wind. The Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
AIR CAR
1.Introduction
An Air Car is a car that can run on compressed air alone without the use of conventional fuels used in present day automobiles. The car is powered by an air engine. The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air. The engines are similar to steam engines as they use the expansion of externally supplied pressurised gas to perform work against a piston.
For practical application to transportation, several technical problems must be first addressed:
¢ As the pressurised air expands, it is cooled, which limits the efficiency. This cooling reduces the amount of energy that can be recovered by expansion, so practical engines apply ambient heat to increase the expansion available.
¢ Conversely, the compression of the air by pumps (to pressurise the tanks) will heat the air. If this heat is not recovered it represents a further loss of energy and so reduces efficiency.
¢ Storage of air at high pressure requires strong containers, which if not made of exotic materials will be heavy, reducing vehicle efficiency, while exotic materials (such as carbon fibre composites) tend to be expensive.
¢ Energy recovery in a vehicle during braking by compressing air also generates heat, which must be conserved for efficiency.
¢ It should be noted that the air engine is not truly emission-free, since the power to compress the air initially usually involves emissions at the point of generation.
This most recent development using pressurized air as fuel in an engine was invented by Guy Nègre, a French engineer. In 1991 the inventor Guy Nègre started up Moteur Developpement International (MDI), Luxembourg and invented a dual-energy engine running on both compressed air as on regular fuel. From this moment on he managed to create a compressed air only-engine, and improved his design to make it more powerful. In the 15 years he's been working on this engine, considerable progress has been made: the engine is now claimed to be competitive with modern ICEs. It is probably still not as powerful as an ICE (although depending on which model of air engine vs model ICE). Proponents claim that this is of little importance since the car can simply be made lighter, or the tanks be put on a higher pressure (psi-level), pushing the engine to above a comparable ICE- engine.
Other people that have been working on the idea are Armando Regusci and Angelo Di Pietro. They too have companies, Rugusci started up Regusci Air and Di Pietro started up Engine Air. They are selling their engines.
2.Engine Design
It uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank. This non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine. The only exhaust gas is cold air (-15 °C), which may also be used for air conditioning in a car. The source for air is a pressurized glass or carbon-fiber tank holding air at around 3,000 lbf/in² (20 MPa). Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two stage process allows improved heat transfer rates.
The Armando Regusci's version of the air engine has several advantages over the original Guy Nègre's one. In the initial Guy Nègre's air engine, one piston compresses air from the atmosphere, holding it on a small container that feeds the high pressure air tanks with a small amount of air. Then that portion of the air is sent to the second piston where it works. During compression for heating it up, there is a loss of energy due to the fact that it cannot receive energy from the atmosphere as the atmosphere is less warm than it. Also, it has to expand as it has the crank. The Guy Nègre's air engine works with constant torque, and the only way to change the torque to the wheels is to use a pulley transmission of constant variation, losing efficiency. In the Regusci's version, the transmission system is direct to the wheel, and has variable torque from zero to the maximum with all the efficiency. When vehicle is stopped, Guy Nègre's engine has to be on and working, losing energy, while the Regusci's version has not.
In July 2004, Guy Nègre abandoned his original design, and showed later a new design where he stated to have it invented back in year 2001, but his new design is identical to the Armando Regusci's air engine which was patented back in 1989 (Uruguay) with the patent number 22976, and back in 1990 (Argentina). In those same patents, it is mentioned the use of electrical motors to compress air in the tanks.
3.Uses of air engine
The Nègre engine is used to power an urban car with room for five passengers and a projected range of about 100 to 200 miles (160 to 320 km), depending on traffic conditions. The main advantages are: no roadside emissions, low cost technology, engine uses food oil for lubrication (just about 1 liter, changes only every 30,000 miles (50,000 km)) and integrated air conditioning. Range could be quickly tripled, since there are already carbon fiber tanks which have passed safety standards holding gas at 10,000 lbf/in² (70 MPa).

The tanks may be refilled in about three minutes at a service station, or in a few hours at home plugging the car into the electric grid via an on-board compressor. However, the air engine and refueling system, considered as a system, are not pollution free except in special cases, as the electric power generation would have its own environmental costs. One of the special cases is where an operator of such a vehicle installs photovoltaic or wind drive electric power generation.
4.MDI CATâ„¢s (Compressed air technology cars)
MDI prepares to introduce compressed air vehicles to the market. MDI has developed a high performance compressed air technology. When it is compared to traditional gasoline powered engines, MDI´s engine is far superior in terms of energy used and thermodynamics.
An overview of the air car
The technology that MDI vehicles use is not new, in fact it had been around for years. Compressed air technology allows for engines that are both non polluting and economical. After ten years of research and development, MDI is prepared to introduce its clean vehicles onto the market. Unlike electric or hydrogen powered vehicles, MDI vehicles are not expensive and do not have a limited driving range. MDI cars are affordable and have a performance rate that stands up to current standards. To sum it up, they are non-expensive cars that do not pollute and are easy to get around cities in.
Two technologies have been developed to meet different needs:
Single energy compressed air engines
Dual energy compressed air plus fuel engines
The single energy engines will be available in both Minicats and Citycats. These engines have been conceived for city use, where the maximum speed is 50 km/h and where MDI believes polluting will soon be prohibited.
The dual energy engine, on the other hand, has been conceived as much for the city as the open road and will be available in all MDI vehicles. The engines will work exclusively with compressed air while it is running under 50 km/h in urban areas. But when the car is used outside urban areas at speeds over 50 km/h, the engines will switch to fuel mode. The engine will be able to use gasoline, gas oil, bio diesel, gas, liquidized gas, ecological fuel, alcohol, etc.
Both engines will be available with 2, 4 and 6 cylinders, When the air tanks are empty the driver will be able to switch to fuel mode by using the carâ„¢s on board computer. The vehicles do not have normal speed gauges. Instead, they will have a small computer screen that shows the speed and engine revolutions. The system allows for infinite possibilities such as GSM telephone systems, GPS satellite tracking systems, programs for delivery people, emergency systems, internet connections, voice recognitions, map presentation, traffic information... in three words: the future is now.
Unlike the majority of traditional cars on the market, MDI´s vehicle's have fibre glass bodies which makes them light, silent urban car. The car's body is tubular, light weight, and is held together using aerospace technology.
Fig 1. An MDI CAT car
Regarding security, the seatbelt system is different from what we know. One part of the belt is anchored to the floor of the car, like traditional cars. The other part of the belt, in stead of being attached to the side of the car, is also anchored to the floor of the vehicle. This helps to secure the bodies of the driver and passengers in the case of a collision.
MDI is also considering a system to replace traditional keys. This system would utilize an access card. With this card it would be possible to open the car from a short distance away without having to actually insert anything in the car.
In the single energy mode MDI cars consume less than one euro every 100Km. (around 0.75 Euros) that is to say, 10 time less than gasoline powered cars.
When there is no combustion, there is no pollution. The vehicle's driving range is close to twice that of the most advanced electric cars (from 200 to 300 km or 8 hours of circulation) This is exactly what the urban market needs where, as previously mentioned, 80% of the drivers move less than 60Km. a day.
The recharging of the car will be done at gas stations, once the market is developed. To fill the tanks it will take about to 2 to 3 minutes at a price of 1.5 euros. After refilling the car will be ready to drive 200 kilometres.

The car also has a small compressor that can be connected to an electrical network (220V or 380V) and will recharge the tanks completely in 3 or 4 minutes.
Because the engine does not burn any fuel the car's oil(a litre of vegetable) only needs to be changed every 50,000Km. The temperature of the clean air expulsed form the exhaust pipe is between 0 and 15 degrees below zero and can be subsequently channelled and used for air conditioning in the interior of the car.
5.The Basic Principle of the CATâ„¢s 34 Engine
The CATâ„¢s 34 Engine is a 4-cylinder engine which will be used in cars in serial production.
Fig 2.CATâ„¢s 34 Engine
This engine was developed between the end of 2001 and the beginning of 2002. It uses an innovative system to control the movement of the 2nd generation pistons and one single crankshaft. The pistons work in two stages: one motor stage and one intermediate stage of compression/expansion.
Fig 3. Detailed view of the MDI engine
The engine has 4 two-stage pistons, i.e. 8 compression and/or expansion chambers. They have two functions: to compress ambient air and refill the storage tanks; and to make successive expansions (reheating air with ambient thermal energy) thereby approaching isothermic expansion.
Its steering-wheel is equipped with a 5kW electric moto-alternator. This motor is simultaneously:
the motor to compress air, the starting motor, the alternator for recharging the battery
an electric moderator/brake, a temporary power supply (e.g. for parking) .
Fig 4. 3D view of the engine interior
No clutch is necessary. The engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the magnetic plate which re-engages the compressed air. Parking manoeuvres are powered by the electric motor.
Fig 5. The engine which will be fitted in the MDI cars in serial production.
Articulated con-rod
The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to be held at Top Dead Centre for 70% of the cycle. This way, enough time is given to create the pressure in the cylinder. The torque is also better so the force exerted on the crankshaft is less substantial than in a classic system.
Fig 6. Articulated con-rod
Gear box
Gear changes are automatic, powered by an electronic system developed by MDI. A computer which controls the speed of the car is effectively continuously changing gears . The latest of many previous versions, this gearbox achieves the objective of seamless changes and mimimal energy consumption.
Moto-alternator
The moto-alternator connects the engine to the gearbox. It has many functions:
¢ It supports the CAT´s motor to allow the tanks to be refilled.
¢ As an alternator it produces brake power.
¢ It starts the vehicle and provides extra power when necessary.
Distribution and valves
To ensure smooth running and to opitimize energy efficiency, the engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system which controls the flow of air into the engine. This system runs on very little energy and alters neither the valve phase nor its rise.
Fig 7. Distribution valve
6.The Air car's technical details
a) Compressed air tanks
The compressed air tank is a glass or carbon-fibre tank. These tanks hold 90 cubic metres of air compressed to 300 bars. This system is not dangerous in case of an accident as there is no risk of operation. Because these are the same tanks used to carry the liquid gas used by buses for public transport. The tanks enjoy the same technology developed to contain natural gas. They are designed and officially approved to carry an explosive product: methane gas.
In the case of a major accident, where the tanks are ruptured, they would not explode since they are not metal. Instead they would crack, as they are made of carbon fibre. An elongated crack would appear in the tank, without exploding, and the air would simply escape, producing a loud but harmless noise. Of course, since this technology is licensed to transport an inflammable and explosive gas (Natural gas), it is perfectly capable inoffensive and non-flammable air.
The tanks in CATs vehicles are composed of an interior thermoplastic container which ensures it is airtight. This is held in a coiled and crossed carbon fibre shell. This technique is the result of many studies into factors such as: mechanical specifications, density of material, choice of fibres etc. The conditions of use are maximum effective pressure (300 bar) and the temperature of use: from “40°C to 60°C.
The tanks are submitted to numerous tests to meet official approval, among which are:
. Airtight testing
. Pressure testing (1.5×300=405 b)
. Rupture testing (2.35×300=705 b)
. Cycles at ambient and extreme temperatures
. Fire-resistance testing
. Resistance to cuts
. Shock and fall testing
During rupture testing, the tank cracks, but does not break up, producing no splinters or fragments. In the event of a cracked tank, it is most likely to occur within the cylinder itself.
Fig 8.Special machines making the tubular shell
The tanks used in the CAT´s vehicles should last for a period of fifteen years, to be tested every five years and are subject to wear and tear according to conditions of use. The tanks weigh 35 - 40 kg for 100 litres of air at 300 bars. In the MiniCat´s the tanks weigh 70 - 80 kg. For extra security, a protective plate is fixed underneath the vehicle´s chassis and in addition limits access to the circuit of high pressure air. There is also an extraction system to deal with water produced by condensation.
b) Brake power recovery
The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems. For example, one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary (at traffic lights, junctions etc). Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system which recovers about 13% of the power used.
c) The body
The MDI car body is built with fibre and injected foam, as are most of the cars on the market today. This technology has two main advantages: cost and weight. Nowadays the use of sheet steel for car bodies is only because of cost - it is cheaper to serially produce sheet steel bodies than fibre ones. However, fibre is safer (it doesn´t cut like steel), is
easier to repair (it is glued), doesn´t rust etc. MDI is currently looking into using hemp fibre to replace fibre-glass, and natural varnishes, to produce 100% non-contaminating bodywork.
d) The Air Filter
The MDI engine works with both air taken from the atmosphere and air pre-compressed in tanks. Air is compressed by the on-board compressor or at service stations equipped with a high-pressure compressor.
Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine. Carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and other particles which, unfortunately, are found in the air in our cities.
This represents a true revolution in automobiles - it is the first time that a car has produced minus pollution, i.e. it eliminates and reduces existing pollution rather than emitting dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust pipe on the MDI cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit (between -15º and 0º) and is harmless to human life. With this system the air that comes out of the car is cleaner than the air that went in.
e) The Chassis
Based on its experience in aeronautics, MDI has put together highly-resistant, yet light, chassis, aluminium rods glued together. Using rods enables to build a more shock-resistant chassis than regular chassis. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding. This system helps to reduce manufacture time.
f) Electrical system
Guy Nègre, inventor of the MDI Air Car, acquired the patent for an interesting invention for installing electrics in a vehicle. Using a radio transmission system, each electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. Thus only one cable is needed for the whole car. So, instead of wiring each component (headlights, dashboard lights, lights inside the car, etc), one cable connects all electrical parts in the car. The most obvious advantages are the ease of installation and repair and the removal of the approximately 22 kg of wires no longer necessary. Whats more, the entire system becomes an anti-theft alarm as soon as the key is removed from the car.
7. Models
a)Family
A spacious car with seats which can face different directions. The vehicle´s design is based on the needs of a typical family.
Characteristics: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats.
Dimensions: 3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m
Weight: 750 kg
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Mileage: 200 - 300 km
Max load: 500 Kg
Recharge time: 4 hours (Mains connector)
Recharge time: 3 minutes (Air station)
Detail of the on-board computer.
b)Van
Designed for daily use in industrial, urban or rural environments, whose primary drivers would be tradesmen, farmers and delivery drivers.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 2 seats, 1.5 m3.

Dimensions: 3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m
Weight: 750 kg
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Mileage: 200 - 300 km
Maximum load: 500 Kg
Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector)
Recharging time: 3 minutes (Air station)
Detail of steering wheel.
c)Taxi
Inspired by the London Taxi, with numerous ergonomic and comfort advantages for the passenger as well as for the driver.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats.
Dimensions: 3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m
Weight: 750 kg
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Mileage: 200 - 300 km
Maximum load: 500 Kg
Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector)
Recharging time: 3 minutes (Air station)
Detail of the driver´s seat.
d)Pick-Up
The "pleasure" car: designed for excursions, outdoor sports or water sports. Also suitable for tradesmen and small businesses.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 2 seats.
Dimensions: 3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m
Weight: 750 kg
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Mileage: 200 - 300 km
Maximum load: 500 Kg
Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector)
Recharging time: 3 minutes (Air station)
e)Mini Catâ„¢s
The smallest and most innovative: three seats, minimal dimensions with the boot of a saloon: a great challenge for such a small car which runs on compressed air. The Minicat is the city car of the future.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 3 seats, 1.5 m3.
Dimensions: 2.65m, 1.62m, 1.64m
Weight: 750 kg
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Mileage: 200 - 300 km
Maximum load: 270 Kg
Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector)
Recharging time: 3 minutes (Air station)
8.Commercialization
As soon as the MDI engines and vehicles are commercially viable (within 1-3
years, depending on the version) they will have a market, with very limited
competition, if any, for an estimated period of 10-15 years.
The commercial strategy is currently concentrated on the urban markets, with
products including taxis, delivery vans and pickup trucks.
Based on a new concept of local vehicle production and sales, MDI promote
regional manufacturing license rights in the form of franchised turnkey factory
systems. Such a turnkey factory will have a normal production capacity of
2000-4000 vehicles per year and will employ some 130 people. A model factory is
being constructed in Brignoles, France.
A taxi called "TOP" (Taxi ZerO Pollution) and pickups truck, were built. In May
1998, the first road tests of these prototypes were done in Brignoles, France.
A great interest in the zero pollution concept has been expressed by the news
media. Since May 1998, the taxi "TOP" has been the subject of more than 40
television programs and several newspaper and magazine articles around the
world.
Fig 9. On-road trials of the MDI taxi

To manage the development process successfully, MDI has contracted its product
research and development activities to CQFD Air Solution, a company based in
Brignoles, France. Here, under the direction of Guy Negre, some 30 engineers and
technicians have at their disposal the most modern equipment for engine
and vehicle development, testing and production, supported by the latest in
information technology.


The company says the cars will initially go on sale in France, where the first assembly line is due to start production in the middle of next year.
The MiniCATS three-seater compact, a commercial version of a prototype showcased at the 2002 Paris Motor Show, will be priced at $9,850. The CityCATS six-seater sedan will retail for $16,000.
9.Conclusion
The air car which is the result of a long research and development is a clean, easy to drive, high performance car. MDI has achieved what the large car manufactures have promised in a hundred years time.
The end product is a light weight vehicle that can reach speeds up to 220 km/h (even though the legal limit is 120), a product that does not pollute like twentieth century vehicles and does not take a lifetime to pay off. Essentially, MDI has developed a modern, clean, and cheap car that meets most peopleâ„¢s needs.
The principle advantages for an air powered vehicle are:
¢ Fast recharge time
¢ Long storage lifetime (electric vehicle batteries have a limited useful number of cycles, and sometimes a limited calendar lifetime, irrespective of use).
¢ Potentially lower initial cost than battery electric vehicles when mass produced.
03-03-2010, 06:33 PM
Post: #2
RE: air car full report

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1. INTRODUCTION
We know that our world is facing fuel crisis now.All kinds of convensional source of fuels are on the verge of exhaustion.Gasoline which has been the main source of fuel for the history of cars, is becoming more and more expensive and impractical (especially from an environmental standpoint). These factors are leading car manufacturers to develop cars fueled by alternative energies. Two hybrid cars took to the road in 2000, and in three or four years fuel-cell-powered cars will roll onto the world's highways.
While gasoline prices in the United States have not yet reached their highest point ($2.66/gallon in 1980), they have climbed steeply in the past two years. In 1999, prices rose by 30 percent, and from December 1999 to October 2000, prices rose an additional 20 percent, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. In Europe, prices are even higher, costing more than $4 in countries like England and the Netherlands. But cost is not the only problem with using gasoline as our primary fuel. It is also damaging to the environment, and since it is not a renewable resource, it will eventually run out. One possible alternative is the air-powered car.
.
Air powered cars runs on compressed air instead of gasoline. This car is powered by a two cylinder compressed engine. This engine can run either on compressed air alone or act as an IC engine. Compressed air is stored in glass or fiber tanks at a pressure of 4351 psi.
Fig.1 An air powered car
Within the next two years, you could see the first air-powered vehicle motoring through your town. Most likely, it will be the e.Volution car that is being built by Zero Pollution Motors.
The cars have generated a lot of interest in recent years, and the Mexican government has already signed a deal to buy 40,000 e.Volutions to replace gasoline- and diesel-powered taxis in the heavily polluted Mexico City.
2. VEHICLE PARTS
2.1 Compressed air tanks
Compressed air tanks are one of the major part of this cars. These tanks hold 90 cubic meters of air compressed to 300 bars.It is similar to the tanks used to carry the liquid gas used by buses for public transport. The tanks enjoy the same technology developed to contain natural gas. They are designed and officially approved to carry an explosive product: methane gas.
In the case of a major accident, where the tanks are ruptured, they would not explode since they are not metal. Instead they would crack, as they are made of carbon fiber. An elongated crack would appear in the tank, without exploding, and the air would simply escape, producing a loud but harmless noise. Of course, since this technology is licensed to transport an inflammable and explosive gas (Natural gas), it is perfectly capable inoffensive and non-flammable air.
It is fitting, therefore, that MDI has reached an agreement with the European leader in aerospace technology air bus industries for the manufacture of the compressed air storage tanks. With a remote supervision arrangement, Airbus Industries oversees the making of the storage tanks at each MDI factory. The coiled carbon fibre technology used in the construction of the tanks is complex and requires a substantial quality control process which the multinational company, home of the Airbus aircraft, will provide for our vehicles.
2.2 Brake power recovery
The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems. For example, one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary (at traffic lights, junctions etc). Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system which recovers about 13% of the power used.
2.3 The body
The MDI car body is built with fibre and injected foam, as are most of the cars on the market today. This technology has two main advantages: cost and weight. Nowadays the use of sheet steel for car bodies is only because of cost - it is cheaper to serially produce sheet steel bodies than fibre ones. However, fibre is safer (it doesnâ„¢t cut like steel), is easier to repair (it is glued), doesnâ„¢t rust etc. MDI is currently looking into using hemp fibre to replace fibre-glass, and natural varnishes, to produce 100% non-contaminating bodywork.
2.4 The Air Filter
The MDI engine works with both air taken from the atmosphere and air pre-compressed in tanks. Air is compressed by the on-board compressor or at service stations equipped with a high-pressure compressor.
Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine. Carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and other particles, which unfortunately, are found in the air in our cities.
This represents a true revolution in automobiles - it is the first time that a car has produced minus pollution, i.e. it eliminates and reduces existing pollution rather than emitting dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust pipe on the MDI cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit (between -15º and 0º) and is harmless to human life. With this system the air that comes out of the car is cleaner than the air that went in.
2.5 The chassis
Based on its experience in aeronautics, MDI has put together highly resistant, yet light, chassis, aluminium rods glued together. Using rods enables us to build a more shock-resistant chassis than regular chasses. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding. This system helps to reduce manufacture time.
2.6 Electrical system
Guy Nègre, inventor of the MDI Air Car, acquired the patent for an interesting invention for installing electrics in a vehicle. Using a radio transmission system, each electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. Thus only one cable is needed for the whole car. So, instead of wiring each component (headlights, dashboard lights, lights inside the car, etc), one cable connects all electrical parts in the car. The most obvious advantages are the ease of installation and repair and the removal of the approximately 22 kg of wires no longer necessary. Whats more, the entire system becomes an anti-theft alarm as soon as the key is removed from the car.
3. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION
The following is the technology description of the actual functionality of the motor.
Fig 2 lay out
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
1. The first piston takes in ambient air and compresses it to approximately 300 psi and 200*f in the compression chamber during the first cycle of the engine
2. When the piston pause, a small amount of compressed air from the tanks is released into the expansion chamber to create a low pressured, low temperature volume of about 140psi.
3. Shortly before the valve to the exhaust cylinder is opened, a high-speed shutter connects the compression and expansion chambers. The sudden pressure and temperature difference between the low chambers creates pressure waves in the expansion chamber, thereby producing work in the exhaust chamber that drives the piston to power the engine.
The air tanks for storing the compressed air are localized underneath the vehicle. They are constructed of reinforced carbon fiber with a thermoplastic liner. Each tank can hold 3,180 ft3 of air at a pressure of up to 4,300 psi. When connected to a special compressor station, the tanks can be recharged within 3-4 minutes. They can also be recharged using the on-board compressor 3-4 hours after connecting to a standard power outlet.
3.1 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
These new vehicles incorporate various innovative and novel systems such as storing energy in the form of compressed air, using new materials such as fiberglass to build the car and vegetable oil for the motor lubrication.
Numerous innovations have been integrated in the engine design. As an example, there is a patented system of articulated conrods that allow the piston to pause at top dead center. The following graph indicates this movement of the piston in relation to the driving shaft rotation.
Fig 3 the graph showing the working
The car engine runs on compressed air and incorporates the three laws of thermodynamics.
1. The first law states that energy can neither be destroyed nor be wasted.
2. The second law describes the disorder within substances.
3. The third law defines that only in crystals at 0o k, there is absolute disorder.
The car incorporates these laws of thermodynamics in the following way. First, the pressure that is created within on-board tanks during compression is in direct proportion to the energy that has been stored in it. This process is equivalent to the energy stored in a wire spring when it is compressed. Furthermore, thermal energy is dissipating from the system, thereby lowering the temperature of a compressed gas volume that expands. This process is equivalent to harnessing energy that has been stored
4. WORKING
Air powered cars run on compressed air instead of gasoline. Since the car is working on air there is no pollution. A two cylinder, compressed air engine, powers the car. The engine can run either on compressed air alone or act as an internal combustion engine. Compressed air is stored in fiber or glass fiber tanks at a pressure of 4351 pounds per square inch. The air is fed through an air injector to the engine and flows into a small chamber, which expands the air. The air pushing down on the piston moves the crankshaft, which gives the vehicle power.
This car is also working on a hybrid version of their engine that can run on traditional fuel in combination with air. The change of energy source is controlled electronically. When the car is moving at speeds below 60kph,it runs on air. At higher speeds, it runs on a fuel such as gasoline diesel or natural gas.
Air tanks fixed to the underside of the vehicle can hold about 79 gallons (300 litres) of air. This compressed air can fuel the car upto 200km at a top speed of 96.5kph.When the tank nears empty it can be refilled at the nearest air pump. The car motors require a small amount of oil about 0.8 litres worth that have to change just every 50,000km.
4.1 GEAR BOX
Gear changes are automatic, powered by an electronic system device. A computer which controls the speed of the car is effectively continuously changing gears. The latest of many previous versions, this gearbox achieves the objective of seamless changes and minimal energy consumption.
4.2 DISTRIBUTION AND VALVES
To ensure smooth running and to optimize energy efficiency, engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system which controls the flow of air into the engine. This system runs on very little energy and alters neither the valve phase nor its rise.
4.3 MOTO-ALTERNATOR
The moto-alternator connects the engine to the gearbox. It has many functions:
¢ It supports the vehicles motor to allow the tanks to be refilled.
¢ As an alternator it produces brake power
It starts the vehicle and provides extra power when necessary.
5. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY ENGINE
It uses an innovative system to control the movement of the second-generation pistons and one single crankshaft. The pistons work in two stages and one intermediate stage of compression and expansion.
The engine has four stage pistons that are 8 compression and or expansion chambers. They have two functions:
1. To compress ambient air
2. To make successive expansions thereby approaching isothermic expansion.
5.1 THE DUAL ENERGY SYSTEM
The engine can be equipped with and run on dual engines. Fossil fuels and compressed air and incorporate a reheating mechanism between the storage tank and the engine. This mechanism allows the engine to run exclusively on fossil fuel, which permits compatible autonomy on the road. While the car is running on the fossil fuel, the compressor air tanks. The control system maintains a zero pollution emission in the city at speeds upto 60 km per hour.
5.2 THE AIR FILTER
The air compressed engine works on with both air taken from the atmosphere and air pre compressed in tanks. Air is compressed by the on board compressor or at service stations equipped with a high-pressure compressor.

Before compression the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine. Carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and abundant abrasive particles that unfortunately exist in the air from our cities.
This system eliminates and reduces existing pollution rather than emitting dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust pipe on the air-powered cars produces clean air which is cold on exit (between 15o and 0o) and is harmless to human life. With this system the air that comes out of the car is cleaner than the air that went in.
6. CRYOGENIC HEAT ENGINE
Another version of an air-powered car is being developed by researchers at the University of Washington using the concept of a steam engine, except there is no combustion. The Washington researchers use liquid nitrogen as the propellant for their LN2000 prototype air car. The researchers decided to use nitrogen because of its abundance in the atmosphere -- nitrogen makes up about 78 percent of the Earth's atmosphere -- and the availability of liquid nitrogen. There are five components to the LN2000 engine:
A 24-gallon stainless steel tank.
A pump that moves the liquid nitrogen to the economizer.
An economizer that heats the liquid nitrogen with leftover exhaust heat.
A heat exchanger that boils the liquid nitrogen, creating a high pressure gas.
An expander, which converts nitrogen's energy into usable power.
The liquid nitrogen, stored at -320 degrees Fahrenheit (-196 degrees Celsius), is vaporized by the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is the heart of the LN2000's cryogenic engine, which gets its name from the extremely cold temperature at which the liquid nitrogen is stored. Air moving around the vehicle is used to heat the liquid nitrogen to a boil. Once the liquid nitrogen boils, it turns to gas in the same way that heated water forms steam in a steam engine
. Nitrogen gas formed in the heat exchanger expands to about 700 times the volume of its liquid form. This highly pressurized gas is then fed to the expander, where the force of the nitrogen gas is converted into mechanical power by pushing on the engine's pistons. The only exhaust is nitrogen, and since nitrogen is a major part of the atmosphere, the car gives off little pollution. However, the cars may not reduce pollution
as much as you think. While no pollution exits the car, the pollution may be shifted to another location. As with the e.Volution car, the LN2000 requires electricity to compress the air. That use of electricity means there is some amount of pollution produced somewhere else. Some of the leftover heat in the engine's exhaust is cycled back through the engine to the economizer, which preheats the nitrogen before it enters the heat exchanger, increasing efficiency. Two fans at the rear of the vehicle draw in air through the heat exchanger to enhance the transfer of heat to the liquid nitrogen.
The Washington researchers have developed a crude prototype of their car, using a converted 1984 Grumman-Olson Kubvan mail truck. The truck has a radial five-cylinder that produces 15 horsepower with the liquid nitrogen fuel. It also features a five-speed manual transmission. Currently, the vehicle is able to go only about two miles (3.2 km) on a full tank of liquid nitrogen, and its top speed is only 22 mph (35.4 kph). However, because a liquid nitrogen-propelled car will be lighter, the researchers think that a 60-gallon (227 liters) tank will give the LN2000 a potential range of about 200 miles (321.8 km). With gas prices soaring, as they have over the past two years, it might not be long before many motorists turn to vehicles powered by alternative fuels. Although air-powered vehicles are still behind their gasoline counterparts when it comes to power and performance, they cost less to operate and are arguably more environmentally friendly, which makes them attractive as the future of highway transportation.
7.NEW MODELS, NEW APPLICATIONS
The MiniCAT's prototype is featured in the latest edition of the 'Salon Mondial de l'Automobile Paris 2002'. This model is as ecologically sound as its predecessors and has equally low fuel consumption; one tank of air is enough for 200 km, at a cost of only 2 Euro. Like its "sister" vehicles, the MiniCAT's emits only clean air at a temperature of -20ºC. A main innovation is that with 2.65 meters in length, and with a three seat configuration (the driver is in the center) the boot is as capacious as a conventional family saloon.
Guy Nègre has also designed a dual-energy vehicle for longer distances, which works on compressed air in the city, and air/petrol on motorways. This vehicle (the RoadCAT's) can travel more than 2000 km on 100 m3 of air and 50 litres of petrol, so can be used for long journeys and is not an exclusively urban vehicle. Other applications of the technology include power generation, compressing air as a means of storing energy, and powering boats.
MDI also presented the MultiCAT's concept of a zero pollution urban transportation system which incorporates several important economic advantages. Consisting of a Driver module and up to 4 transport modules, (as in a train with tyres) it has been developed with a view to transporting up to 135 people at a cost of only 2.5 Euros for each 100 km per module, which could allow local and/or national governments to offer practically free urban transport to its citizens. At the moment the sale of the first license to manufacture the MultiCAT's for the Spanish and Portuguese market is in an advanced stage of negotiation with a group of investors consisting of the MDI license holders for Spain and other companies involved in the transport and energy sectors of those countries.
8. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
8.1 ADVANTAGES
¢ Economical.
¢ Pollution free.
¢ Better fuel efficiency.
¢ Better comfort.
¢ Less maintenance
¢ Low cost.
8.2 DISADVANTAGES
¢ Less power is produced.
¢ Air pumping stations are less in number.
9. COMPARISON WITH COMPETITION
Table 1 Comparison between three different vehicles.
10. CONCLUSION
In this seminar I have presented the working of air powered cars. Air powered cars is a realization of latest technology in automobile field. It eliminates the use of non-renewable fuels like gasoline, diesel petrol etc, and Thereby preventing pollution caused by millions of automobiles all over the world. This could be the future of automobiles and step to a healthier environment.
11. REFERENCES
http://www.theaircar.com
http://www.zeropollution.com
http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://www.necnp.org
http://www.zevcat.com
http://www.e.volution.co.za
01-04-2010, 06:18 PM
Post: #3
RE: air car full report
im not able to open ppt...pls help me...
01-04-2010, 06:36 PM
Post: #4
RE: air car full report
please use MS Office 2007 ,


i opened the ppt file now...
no problem for opening in the file air car ppt.ppt

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01-04-2010, 06:59 PM
Post: #5
RE: air car full report
I USE 2007 OLY...BUT STILL NOT OPENING..
01-04-2010, 07:43 PM
Post: #6
RE: air car full report
i may post content of the presentation file here, check it,,,
AIR CAR

PRESENTED BY
KAMALIJAS
S7 ME
4411
ABSTRACT
The Air Car is a car currently being developed, and, eventually, manufactured by Moteur Developpement International (MDI), founded by French inventor Guy Nègre. The air car is powered by an air engine, specifically tailored for the car. The used air engine is being manufactured by CQFD Air solution, a company closely linked to MDI. The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a glass or carbon-fibre tank at 4500 psi. The engine has injection similar to normal engines, but uses special crankshafts and pistons, which remain at top dead centre for about 70% of the engine's cycle; this allows more power to be developed in the engine. Though some consider the car to be pollution-free, it must be taken into account that the tanks are recharged using electric (or gasoline) compressors, resulting in some pollution, if the electricity used to operate the compressors comes from polluting power plants (such as gas-, or coal-power plants). Solar power could possibly be used to power the compressors at fuel station.
1.INTRODUCTION
The air car is powered by air engine.
It is an emission free piston engine using compressed air as the fuel.
It was invented by Guy Nègre, a French engineer; in 1991 started Moteur Developpement International (MDI) Luxembourg.
He invented a dual-energy engine running on both compressed air as on regular fuel; then managed to create a compressed air only-engine, and improved his design to make it more powerful in the 15 years.
Other people that have been working on the idea are Armando Regusci and Angelo Di Pietro. They too have companies, Rugusci started up Regusci Air and Di Pietro started up Engine Air. They are selling their engines.
2.ENGINE DESIGN
It uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine.
Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank.
This non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine.
The only exhaust gas is cold air (-15 °C), which may also be used for air conditioning in a car.
The source for air is a pressurized glass or carbon-fibre tank holding air at around 3,000 lbf/in² (20 MPa).
Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system.
3.USES OF AIR ENGINE
Used to power an urban car with room for five passengers and a projected range of about 100 to 200 miles (160 to 320 km), depending on traffic conditions.
Main advantages are: no roadside emissions, low cost technology, engine uses food oil for lubrication (just about 1 litre, changes only every 30,000 miles (50,000 km))and integrated air conditioning.
The tanks may be refilled in about three minutes at a service station, or in a few hours at home plugging the car into the electric grid via an on-board compressor.
4.MDI CATâ„¢s (COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY CARS)
Compressed air technology allows for engines that are both non polluting and economical; do not have a limited driving range, are easy to get around cities in.
Two technologies have been developed to meet different needs: Single energy compressed air engines & Dual energy compressed air plus fuel engines.
The single energy engines will be available in both Minicats and Citycats; conceived for city use, maximum speed is 50 km/h and where MDI believes polluting will soon be prohibited.
The dual energy engine, has been conceived as much for the city as the open road, available in all MDI vehicles; engines work exclusively with compressed air while running under 50 km/h in urban areas, outside urban areas at speeds over 50 km/h, the engines will switch to fuel mode.
Both engines will be available with 2, 4 and 6 cylinders.
When the air tanks are empty the driver will be able to switch to fuel mode by using the carâ„¢s on board computer.
Instead of normal speed gauges they have a small computer screen that shows the speed and engine revolutions.
MDI´s vehicle's have fibre glass bodies which makes them light, silent urban car; body is tubular, light weight, and is held together using aerospace technology.
The seatbelt system is different; one part of the belt is anchored to the floor of the car, like traditional cars, other part of the belt, in stead of being attached to the side of the car, is also anchored to the floor of the vehicle, helps to secure the bodies of the driver and passengers in the case of a collision.
MDI is also considering a system to replace traditional keys by an access card; it would be possible to open the car from a short distance away without having to actually insert anything in the car.
The recharging of the car will be done at gas stations, once the market is developed; to fill the tanks it will take about to 2 to 3 minutes at a price of 1.5 euros. After refilling, the car will be ready to drive 200 kilometres.
Also has a small compressor that can be connected to an electrical network (220V or 380V) and will recharge the tanks completely in 3 or 4 minutes.
5.BASIC PRINCIPLE OF CATâ„¢S 34 ENGINE
The CATâ„¢s 34 Engine is a 4-cylinder engine which will be used in cars in serial production.
It was developed between the end of 2001 and the beginning of 2002, uses an innovative system to control the movement of the 2nd generation pistons and one single crankshaft.
The pistons work in two stages: one motor stage and one intermediate stage of compression/expansion.
The engine has 4 two-stage pistons, i.e. 8 compression and/or expansion chambers; have two functions: to compress ambient air and refill the storage tanks; and to make successive expansions (reheating air with ambient thermal energy) thereby approaching isothermic expansion.
Steering-wheel is equipped with a 5kW electric moto-alternator. This motor is simultaneously: the motor to compress air, the starting motor, the alternator for recharging the battery, an electric moderator/brake, a temporary power supply (e.g. for parking) .
Detailed view of the MDI engine
3D view of the engine interior
The engine which will be fitted in MDI cars in serial production
No clutch is necessary, the engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the magnetic plate which re-engages the compressed air.
Articulated con-rod
The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to be held at Top Dead Centre for 70% of the cycle, so enough time is given to create the pressure in the cylinder.
Gear box
Gear changes are automatic, powered by an electronic system developed by MDI. A computer which controls the speed of the car is effectively continuously changing gears .
Moto-alternator
It connects the engine to the gearbox, supports the CAT´s motor to allow the tanks to be refilled, as an alternator it produces brake power, starts the vehicle and provides extra power when necessary.
Distribution and valves
The engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system which controls the flow of air into the engine.
6.THE AIR CARâ„¢S TECHNICAL DETAILS
a) Compressed air tanks
The compressed air tank is a glass or carbon-fibre tank, hold 90 cubic metres of air compressed to 300 bars.
This system is not dangerous in case of an accident as there is no risk of operation. In the case of a major accident, where the tanks are ruptured, they would not explode since they are not metal, instead they would crack, as they are made of carbon fibre.
The tanks in CATs vehicles are composed of an interior thermoplastic container which ensures it is airtight, is held in a coiled and crossed carbon fibre shell.
Special machines making the tubular shell
The tanks used in the CAT´s vehicles should last for a period of fifteen years, to be tested every five years.
The tanks weigh 35 - 40 kg for 100 litres of air at 300 bars.
For extra security, a protective plate is fixed underneath the vehicle´s chassis, there is also an extraction system to deal with water produced by condensation.
b) Brake power recovery
The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems, ie one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary (at traffic lights, junctions etc).
Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system which recovers about 13% of the power used.
c) The body
The MDI car body is built with fibre and injected foam.
Two main advantages: cost and weight.
Nowadays the use of sheet steel for car bodies is only because it is cheaper to serially produce sheet steel bodies than fibre ones, however, fibre is safer (it doesn´t cut like steel), is easier to repair (it is glued), doesn´t rust etc.
d) The Air Filter
Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine; carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and other particles; the exhaust pipe on the MDI cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit (between -15º and 0º) and is harmless to human life.
e) The Chassis
MDI has put together highly-resistant, yet light, chassis, aluminium rods glued together; using rods enables to build a more shock-resistant chassis than regular chassis. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding, helps to reduce manufacture time.
f) Electrical system
Guy Nègre acquired the patent for an interesting invention for installing electrics in a vehicle; using a radio transmission system, each electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. So, instead of wiring each component (headlights, dashboard lights, lights inside the car, etc), one cable connects all electrical parts in the car; advantages are the ease of installation and repair, the removal of the approximately 22 kg of wires no longer necessary, also the entire system becomes an anti-theft alarm as soon as the key is removed from the car.
7.MODELS
a) Family
A spacious car with seats which can face different directions, vehicle´s design is based on the needs of a typical family.
Characteristics: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats.
Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Max load: 500 Kg Recharge time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharge time:3 minutes (Air station)
Detail of the on-board computer
b) Van
Designed for daily use in industrial, urban or rural environments, whose primary drivers would be tradesmen, farmers and delivery drivers.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 2 seats
Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 500 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).
Detail of steering wheel
c) Taxi
Inspired by the London Taxi, with numerous ergonomic and comfort advantages for the passenger as well as for the driver.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats
Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 500 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).
Detail of the driver´s seat
d) Pick-Up
The "pleasure" car: designed for excursions, outdoor sports or water sports. Also suitable for tradesmen and small businesses.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 2 seats
Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 500 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).
e) Mini Catâ„¢s
The smallest and most innovative: three seats, minimal dimensions with the boot of a saloon: a great challenge for such a small car which runs on compressed air. The Minicat is the city car of the future.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 3 seats
Dimensions:2.65m, 1.62m, 1.64mWeight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 270 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).
8.COMMERCIALIZATION
The commercial strategy is currently concentrated on the urban markets with products including taxis, delivery vans and pickup trucks.
A model factory is being constructed in Brignoles, France.
A taxi called "TOP" (Taxi ZerO Pollution) and pickups truck, were built. In May 1998, the first road tests of these prototypes were done in Brignoles, France.

To manage the development process successfully, MDI has contracted its product research and development activities to CQFD Air Solution, a company based in
Brignoles, France. Here, under the direction of Guy Negre, some 30 engineers and technicians have at their disposal the most modern equipment for engine
and vehicle development, testing and production, supported by the latest in information technology.





On-road trials of the MDI taxi


9.CONCLUSION
The air car is a clean, easy to drive, high performance car. MDI has achieved what the large car manufactures have promised in a hundred years time.
The end product is a light weight vehicle that can reach speeds up to 220 km/h (even though the legal limit is 120), does not pollute like twentieth century vehicles and does not take a lifetime to pay off.
The principle advantages for an air powered vehicle are: Fast recharge time; Long storage lifetime (electric vehicle batteries have a limited useful number of cycles, and sometimes a limited calendar lifetime, irrespective of use); Potentially lower initial cost than battery electric vehicles when mass produced.

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25-04-2010, 08:59 PM
Post: #7
RE: air car full report

.doc  COMPRESSED AIR CAR technology.doc (Size: 754 KB / Downloads: 318)

COMPRESSED AIR CARâ„¢S TECHNOLOGY

Presented By
Mr. Manish R. Hatwar
Final Year Mechanical Engineering
Shri Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Engineering,
Shegaon “ 444 203(M. S.)

ABSTRACT
In this modern era we want more comfortable life & to achieve this, there are many inventions and researches are going on in the field of engineering but as each action having there some opposite reaction that may be good or bad. Some achievements may lead to problems in future and one of these achievements is fossil fuel engines which were a good achievement for us before 30-40 years but now they are one of the sources of contributor of global worming and pollution with fossil fuel crises.
To cope up with this problem we have to use such engines which emits less or zero COx & NOx particles, for that one of the solutions is hybrid electrical vehicle but again they emit some COx & NOx so this is not a complete solution for this problem. The best feasible solution is Zero Emission Vehicle i.e. Compressed Air Technology (CAT) which does not require any type of fossil fuel. The gasoline-powered engine requires 4 Rs/mile where as for air powered engines it is 75% less i.e. 1 Rs/mile with no emission COx & NOx pollutants. The cost the hybrid electric vehicle is approximately $50,999 which requires the charging period of 5 to 6 hours whereas the cost of air powered vehicle $14,000 i.e. less than half which requires only 3 to 4 minutes for recharging.
INTRODUCTION
We are confident that Compressed Air Technology (CAT) holds the key to the automobile's future. At the same time, though we are aware that no one type of vehicle can meet all societyâ„¢s needs. That's why we are pushing ahead with research on a range of vehicle propulsion technologies.
Our environment must be protected against various anthropogenic contaminations, among which the emission of large amounts of CO, NOx, hydrocarbons and soot produces some of the most adverse environmental effects. These emissions, which are above all caused by road traffic and power plants, damage the flora and fauna and deteriorate human health. NOx, for example, after oxidation forming nitric acid, contributes to the acid rain which has caused severe forest damage in the past decades. On the other hand, the photolysis of NO2 leads to the formation of ozone which, in elevated concentration, can cause diseases of the human lung and bronchial system. For this reason, the legal emission standards have recently been repeatedly tightened up.
The internal combustion engine is still the predominant means of propulsion, and we have made great strides in reducing its impact on the environment. We have also come a long way in solving the practical problems of electric vehicles, and in developing applications that make full use of their potential. And of course, need leads the world in hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles have been contributing to a cleaner environment since 1997. Finally, Compressed Air Technology (CAT), which is the zero emission vehicle , may become the ultimate power source of the 21st century.
The ultimate eco fuel will combine high efficiency with minimal environmental impact. It must be available in sufficient quantities, and it must be possible to harness and refine economically. Further, there needs to be an adequate distribution infrastructure in place. But what about the 700 million conventional vehicles already on the road and the many more to come these vehicles need cleaner-burning fuels, too. Hydrogen may indeed turn out to be the ultimate eco fuel, but we must also consider the alternatives, and arrive at creative solutions to help solve the problems of today which is Compressed Air Technology (CAT).
In order to comply with the increasingly stringent standards in the field of emissions from road traffic, the automobile industry as well as other firms and research institutions have increasingly placed emphasis on the development of zero emission vehicles i.e. Compressed Air Technology (CAT) .
COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY (CAT)
Compressed Air Technology (C.A.T.) uses compressed air as its energy source and requires no gasoline or batteries to drive the engine. C.A.T. is developed by Mr. Guy Negre to run engines with compressed air. Although the technology is new, the idea isn't completely unknown to Formula One Cars & those interested in engine technology. In fact, every Formula One engine starts with a shot of compressed-air as an Energy-Booster. Guy Negre has simply extended its potential by turning it into a single source of energy for running the engine.
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
Fig.1:- Chassis of air powered car
In practical terms compressed air at 300 bars is stored in the carbon fibre tanks A. The air is released through the main line firstly to an alternator B where the first stage of decompression takes place. The now cold air passes through a heat exchanger C which adds thermal energy to the air and provides a convenient opportunity for air conditioning D. The warmed compressed air now passes to the motor E. where a two more stages of decompression and re-heating take place. The motor drives the rear axle G through the transmission F. Control of engine speed is through a conventional accelerator pedal H controlling a valve within the motor.
An energy recycler J is under test which uses engine braking K to recompress air during braking into a secondary storage facility, providing additional energy for re-start and acceleration. Conventional hydraulic braking L is supplied. The vehicle can be refilled by using the onboard compressor M or by refilling the tank at an air station at N. Ultimately the engine generates 37 Kilowatts, notwithstanding the small size of this unit.
The "exhaust" leaves the engine at about zero degrees Celsius, a result of the expansion and cooling action. The exhaust is totally pure and fit to breathe. A compressed air driven engine offers enormous benefits to the car designer. Because of its small size and weight, and the removal of a host of devices and parts not required, the designer has free rein to maximize his materials and space to provide a simple, economic platform for the vehicle.
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
Fig.1:- Chassis of air powered car
In practical terms compressed air at 300 bars is stored in the carbon fibre tanks A. The air is released through the main line firstly to an alternator B where the first stage of decompression takes place. The now cold air passes through a heat exchanger C which adds thermal energy to the air and provides a convenient opportunity for air conditioning D. The warmed compressed air now passes to the motor E. where a two more stages of decompression and re-heating take place. The motor drives the rear axle G through the transmission F. Control of engine speed is through a conventional accelerator pedal H controlling a valve within the motor.
An energy recycler J is under test which uses engine braking K to recompress air during braking into a secondary storage facility, providing additional energy for re-start and acceleration. Conventional hydraulic braking L is supplied. The vehicle can be refilled by using the onboard compressor M or by refilling the tank at an air station at N. Ultimately the engine generates 37 Kilowatts, notwithstanding the small size of this unit.
The "exhaust" leaves the engine at about zero degrees Celsius, a result of the expansion and cooling action. The exhaust is totally pure and fit to breathe. A compressed air driven engine offers enormous benefits to the car designer. Because of its small size and weight, and the removal of a host of devices and parts not required, the designer has free rein to maximize his materials and space to provide a simple, economic platform for the vehicle.
WORKING OF C.A.T. ENGINES
In principle the technology is very similar to the internal combustion system in that compressed air is used to drive a piston in a barrel. The secret of the engine lies in the way it efficiently converts the energy stored in the tanks of compressed air.
By way of explanation, it has long been known that to compress air to high pressures a staged process should be used, compressing air to first 50 bars, then to 150 bars then three hundred and so on. This technique, commonly employed by the air and gas liquefaction industries, uses a fraction of the energy used to compress the gas in one operation. The secret of the compressed air motor is simply to reverse the process - decompress the air in stages and in so doing efficiently release energy at each point in the chain.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
1. The first piston takes in ambient air compressed it to approximately 300psi and 200°F in the compression chamber during the first cycle of engine
Fig.2:- working of air operated engine
2. When the piston pauses, a small amount of compressed air from the tanks is released into the expansion chamber to create a low pressured, low temperature volume of about 140 psi.
3. Shortly before the valve to the expansion cylinder is opened a high-speed shutter connects the compression and expansion chambers this sudden pressure and temperature difference between the two chambers creates pressure waves in the expansion chamber, thereby producing work in the expansion cylinder that drives the piston to power the engine The air tanks for storing the compressed are located underneath the vehicle they are constructed of reinforced carbon fiber with a thermoplastic liner each tank can held 3180 ft3 of air at a pressure of up to 4,300 psi when connected to a special compressor station the tanks can be recharged within 3-4 mints they can also be recharged using the on-board compressor within 3-4 hours after connection to standard power outlet.
To
Fig.3:- flow of air tank to exhaust
Compensate for the cooling effect that takes place, a thermal exchanger heats the compressed air using the warmth of external air. This process is repeated as many times as possible to extract the maximum energy efficiency from the compressed air. For the somewhat technically minded, the following drawing illustrates the theoretical explanation for this process.
COMPARISON WITH ELECTRICAL VEHICLEâ„¢S
Table 1:- Comparison between air car and electric vehicle
SPECIFICATIONS
Power source
Electronically injected compressed air
Compressed air: 3200 cubic ft at 4500psi
Recharge
Charger: On board 5.5kwh 220 volt compressor
Recharge time: Less than 3 minutes at Compressed air station
Alternative Recharge Outlet: 220V electric outlet less than 4 hours
Oil change: 0.8 liters per 50,000 miles
Engine
Intake and compression cylinder: 230 c.c.
Expansion and exhaust cylinder: 500 c.c.
Power max. HP (kW): 25(18.3) at 3000 rpm
Torque max. Kgm (NM): 6.3(61.7) at 500-2500 rpm
Performance
Maximum speed: 60 mph
Range: 120 miles or 10 hours
Acceleration times: 0-30 mph in less than 3 seconds
Exterior and Body
Overall length: 151 in.
Overall width: 68 in.
Overall height: 69 in.
Weight: 1543 lbs.
Light weight provides Good road-holding due to low center of gravity and low energy consumption.
Engine Mount: Rear
Suspension: Front coil springs, rear pneumatic
Steering mechanism: Rack and pinion
Body materials: Aluminum & fiberglass, Ensures good shock absorption.
Compressed Air Tanks: Composite fiberglass
ADVNATAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES
¢ Zero emission vehicle
¢ No fossil fuel required.
¢ Operating cost 75% less as compare to the gasoline engines.
¢ Price is also less then half of the electric vehicles.
¢ The recharging time is much more less that EV.
¢ The recharging of tank can be done at house.
DISADVANTAGES
¢ It can™t give much higher speed.
¢ The recharging stations.
CONCLUSION
Nowadays the earth is facing the biggest problem of global warming. The major cause for this is the environmental pollution. Fossil fuel vehicles are the major contributors to this pollution. In order to irradiate this problem the solution is hybrid electrical vehicles but again they emit some pollutants, hence it is not a complete solution. The compressed air technology i.e. zero emission vehicles is the best feasible alternative and hence the complete solution of this problem.
REFRENCES
¢ http://www.theaircar.com/
¢ http://auto.howstuffworks.com/air-car.htm
¢ http://www.planetsave.com/ViewStory.asp?ID=24
¢ http://www.evworld.com/databases/shownew...s040303-06
¢ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/2281011.stm
¢ htto://zevcat.com/
INDEX
INTRODUCTION
COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY (CAT)
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
WORKING OF C.A.T. ENGINES
COMPARISON WITH ELECTRICAL VEHICLEâ„¢S
SPECIFICATIONS
¢ Power source
¢ Recharge
¢ Engine
¢ Performance
¢ Exterior and Body
ADVNATAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
CONCLUSION
REFRENCES

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08-08-2010, 11:37 PM
Post: #8
RE: air car full report
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11-08-2010, 11:21 AM
Post: #9
RE: air car full report
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20-10-2010, 12:52 PM
Post: #10
RE: air car full report
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07-01-2011, 10:35 PM
Post: #11
RE: air car full report
1.INTRODUCTION

 The air car is powered by air engine.
 It is an emission free piston engine using compressed air as the fuel.
 It was invented by Guy Nègre, a French engineer; in 1991 started Moteur Developpement International (MDI) Luxembourg.
 He invented a dual-energy engine running on both compressed air as on regular fuel; then managed to create a compressed air only-engine, and improved his design to make it more powerful in the 15 years.

2.ENGINE DESIGN

 It uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine.
 Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank.
 This non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine.
 The only exhaust gas is cold air (−15 °C), which may also be used for air conditioning in a car.
 The source for air is a pressurized glass or carbon-fibre tank holding air at around 3,000 lbf/in² (20 MPa).
 Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system.

3.USES OF AIR ENGINE

 Used to power an urban car with room for five passengers and a projected range of about 100 to 200 miles (160 to 320 km), depending on traffic conditions.
 Main advantages are: no roadside emissions, low cost technology, engine uses food oil for lubrication (just about 1 litre, changes only every 30,000 miles (50,000 km))and integrated air conditioning.
 The tanks may be refilled in about three minutes at a service station, or in a few hours at home plugging the car into the electric grid via an on-board compressor.

4.MDI CAT’s (COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGY CARS)

 Compressed air technology allows for engines that are both non polluting and economical; do not have a limited driving range, are easy to get around cities in.
 Two technologies have been developed to meet different needs: Single energy compressed air engines & Dual energy compressed air plus fuel engines.


 The single energy engines will be available in both Minicats and Citycats; conceived for city use, maximum speed is 50 km/h and where MDI believes polluting will soon be prohibited.
 The dual energy engine, has been conceived as much for the city as the open road, available in all MDI vehicles; engines work exclusively with compressed air while running under 50 km/h in urban areas, outside urban areas at speeds over 50 km/h, the engines will switch to fuel mode.
 Both engines will be available with 2, 4 and 6 cylinders.
 When the air tanks are empty the driver will be able to switch to fuel mode by using the car’s on board computer.
 Instead of normal speed gauges they have a small computer screen that shows the speed and engine revolutions.
 MDI´s vehicle's have fibre glass bodies which makes them light, silent urban car; body is tubular, light weight, and is held together using aerospace technology.
 The seatbelt system is different; one part of the belt is anchored to the floor of the car, like traditional cars, other part of the belt, in stead of being attached to the side of the car, is also anchored to the floor of the vehicle, helps to secure the bodies of the driver and passengers in the case of a collision.

 MDI is also considering a system to replace traditional keys by an access card; it would be possible to open the car from a short distance away without having to actually insert anything in the car.
 The recharging of the car will be done at gas stations, once the market is developed; to fill the tanks it will take about to 2 to 3 minutes at a price of 1.5 euros. After refilling, the car will be ready to drive 200 kilometres.
 Also has a small compressor that can be connected to an electrical network (220V or 380V) and will recharge the tanks completely in 3 or 4 minutes.

5.BASIC PRINCIPLE OF CAT’S 34 ENGINE

 The CAT’s 34 Engine is a 4-cylinder engine which will be used in cars in serial production.



 The pistons work in two stages: one motor stage and one intermediate stage of compression/expansion.
 The engine has 4 two-stage pistons, i.e. 8 compression and/or expansion chambers; have two functions: to compress ambient air and refill the storage tanks; and to make successive expansions (reheating air with ambient thermal energy) thereby approaching isothermic expansion.
 Steering-wheel is equipped with a 5kW electric moto-alternator. This motor is simultaneously: the motor to compress air, the starting motor, the alternator for recharging the battery, an electric moderator/brake, a temporary power supply (e.g. for parking) .
 No clutch is necessary, the engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the magnetic plate which re-engages the compressed air.




The engine which will be fitted in MDI cars in serial production




Articulated con-rod

 The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to be held at Top Dead Centre for 70% of the cycle, so enough time is given to create the pressure in the cylinder.


Gear box

 Gear changes are automatic, powered by an electronic system developed by MDI. A computer which controls the speed of the car is effectively continuously changing gears .

Moto-alternator

 It connects the engine to the gearbox, supports the CAT´s motor to allow the tanks to be refilled, as an alternator it produces brake power, starts the vehicle and provides extra power when necessary.







Distribution and valves

 The engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system which controls the flow of air into the engine.



6.THE AIR CAR’S TECHNICAL DETAILS

a) Compressed air tanks

 The compressed air tank is a glass or carbon-fibre tank, hold 90 cubic metres of air compressed to 300 bars.
 This system is not dangerous in case of an accident as there is no risk of operation. In the case of a major accident, where the tanks are ruptured, they would not explode since they are not metal, instead they would crack, as they are made of carbon fibre.
 The tanks in CATs vehicles are composed of an interior thermoplastic container which ensures it is airtight, is held in a coiled and crossed carbon fibre shell.



Special machines making the tubular shell

 The tanks used in the CAT´s vehicles should last for a period of fifteen years, to be tested every five years.
 The tanks weigh 35 - 40 kg for 100 litres of air at 300 bars.
 For extra security, a protective plate is fixed underneath the vehicle´s chassis, there is also an extraction system to deal with water produced by condensation.




b) Brake power recovery

 The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems, ie one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary (at traffic lights, junctions etc).
 Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system which recovers about 13% of the power used.

c) The body

 The MDI car body is built with fibre and injected foam.
 Two main advantages: cost and weight.
 Nowadays the use of sheet steel for car bodies is only because it is cheaper to serially produce sheet steel bodies than fibre ones, however, fibre is safer (it doesn´t cut like steel), is easier to repair (it is glued), doesn´t rust etc.

d) The Air Filter

 Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine; carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and other particles; the exhaust pipe on the MDI cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit (between -15º and 0º) and is harmless to human life.


e) The Chassis

 MDI has put together highly-resistant, yet light, chassis, aluminium rods glued together; using rods enables to build a more shock-resistant chassis than regular chassis. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding, helps to reduce manufacture time.

f) Electrical system

 Guy Nègre acquired the patent for an interesting invention for installing electrics in a vehicle; using a radio transmission system, each electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. So, instead of wiring each component (headlights, dashboard lights, lights inside the car, etc), one cable connects all electrical parts in the car; advantages are the ease of installation and repair, the removal of the approximately 22 kg of wires no longer necessary, also the entire system becomes an anti-theft alarm as soon as the key is removed from the car.











7.MODELS

a) Family

 A spacious car with seats which can face different directions, vehicle´s design is based on the needs of a typical family.


Characteristics: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats.

 Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Max load: 500 Kg Recharge time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharge time:3 minutes (Air station)










b) Van

 Designed for daily use in industrial, urban or rural environments, whose primary drivers would be tradesmen, farmers and delivery drivers.


Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 2 seats

 Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 500 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).














b) Taxi

 Inspired by the London Taxi, with numerous ergonomic and comfort advantages for the passenger as well as for the driver.


Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats

 Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 500 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).













c) Pick-Up

 The "pleasure" car: designed for excursions, outdoor sports or water sports. Also suitable for tradesmen and small businesses.


Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 2 seats

 Dimensions:3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 500 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).














e) Mini Cat’s

 The smallest and most innovative: three seats, minimal dimensions with the boot of a saloon: a great challenge for such a small car which runs on compressed air. The Minicat is the city car of the future.



Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 3 seats

 Dimensions:2.65m, 1.62m, 1.64mWeight:750 kg Maximum speed:110 km/h Mileage:200 - 300 km Maximum load: 270 Kg Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector) Recharging time:3 minutes (Air station).












8.COMMERCIALIZATION

 The commercial strategy is currently concentrated on the urban markets with products including taxis, delivery vans and pickup trucks.
 A model factory is being constructed in Brignoles, France.
 A taxi called "TOP" (Taxi ZerO Pollution) and pickups truck, were built. In May 1998, the first road tests of these prototypes were done in Brignoles, France.
 To manage the development process successfully, MDI has contracted its product research and development activities to CQFD Air Solution, a company based in
Brignoles, France. Here, under the direction of Guy Negre, some 30 engineers and technicians have at their disposal the most modern equipment for engine
and vehicle development, testing and production, supported by the latest in information technology.



On-road trials of the MDI taxi
















9.CONCLUSION

 The air car is a clean, easy to drive, high performance car. MDI has achieved what the large car manufactures have promised in a hundred years time.
 The end product is a light weight vehicle that can reach speeds up to 220 km/h (even though the legal limit is 120), does not pollute like twentieth century vehicles and does not take a lifetime to pay off.
 The principle advantages for an air powered vehicle are: Fast recharge time; Long storage lifetime (electric vehicle batteries have a limited useful number of cycles, and sometimes a limited calendar lifetime, irrespective of use); Potentially lower initial cost than battery electric vehicles when mass produced.


Attached File(s)
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22-01-2011, 02:43 PM
Post: #12
RE: air car full report



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Abstract
The Air car is a car currently being developed and, eventually, manufactured by Moteur Developpement International (MDI), founded by the French inventor Guy Nègre. It will be sold by this company too, as well as by ZevCat, a US company, based in California.
The air car is powered by an air engine, specifically tailored for the car. The used air engine is being manufactured by CQFD Air solution, a company closely linked to MDI.
The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a glass or carbon-fiber tank at 4500 psi. The engine has injection similar to normal engines, but uses special crankshafts and pistons, which remain at top dead center for about 70% of the engine's cycle; this allows more power to be developed in the engine.
Though some consider the car to be pollution-free, it must be taken into account that the tanks are recharged using electric (or gasoline) compressors, resulting in some pollution, if the electricity used to operate the compressors comes from polluting power plants (such as gas-, or coal-power plants). Solar power could possibly be used to power the compressors at fuel station.


Introduction
An Air Car is a car that can run on compressed air alone without the use of conventional fuels used in present day automobiles. The car is powered by an air engine. The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air. The engines are similar to steam engines as they use the expansion of externally supplied pressurized gas to perform work against a piston.
For practical application to transportation, several technical problems must be first addressed:
• As the pressurized air expands, it is cooled, which limits the efficiency. This cooling reduces the amount of energy that can be recovered by expansion, so practical engines apply ambient heat to increase the expansion available.
• Conversely, the compression of the air by pumps (to pressurize the tanks) will heat the air. If this heat is not recovered it represents a further loss of energy and so reduces efficiency.
• Storage of air at high pressure requires strong containers, which if not made of exotic materials will be heavy, reducing vehicle efficiency, while exotic materials (such as carbon fibere composites) tend to be expensive.
• Energy recovery in a vehicle during braking by compressing air also generates heat, which must be conserved for efficiency.
It should be noted that the air engine is not truly emission-free, since the power to compress the air initially usually involves emissions at the point of generation.
Two technologies have been developed to meet different needs:
1. Single energy compressed air engines
2. Dual energy compressed air plus fuel engines
The single energy engines will be available in both Minicabs and City cats. These engines have been conceived for city use, where the maximum speed is 50 km/h and where MDI believes polluting will soon be prohibited.
The dual energy engine, on the other hand, has been conceived as much for the city as the open road and will be available in all MDI vehicles. The engines will work exclusively with compressed air while it is running under 50 km/h in urban areas. But when the car is used outside urban areas at speeds over 50 km/h, the engines will switch to fuel mode. The engine will be able to use gasoline, gas oil, bio diesel, gas, liquidized gas, ecological fuel, alcohol, etc.
Both engines will be available with 2, 4 and 6 cylinders, When the air tanks are empty the driver will be able to switch to fuel mode by using the car’s on board computer. The vehicles do not have normal speed gauges. Instead, they will have a small computer screen that shows the speed and engine revolutions. The system allows for infinite possibilities such as GSM telephone systems, GPS satellite tracking systems, programs for delivery people, emergency systems, internet connections, voice recognitions, map presentation, traffic information... in three words: the future is now.
Unlike the majority of traditional cars on the market, MDI´s vehicle's have fiber glass bodies which makes them light, silent urban car. The car's body is tubular, light weight, and is held together using aerospace technology.
Regarding security, the seatbelt system is different from what we know. One part of the belt is anchored to the floor of the car, like traditional cars. The other part of the belt, in stead of being attached to the side of the car, is also anchored to the floor of the vehicle. This helps to secure the bodies of the driver and passengers in the case of a collision.

MDI is also considering a system to replace traditional keys. This system would utilize an access card. With this card it would be possible to open the car from a short distance away without having to actually insert anything in the car.
In the single energy mode MDI cars consume less than one euro every 100Km. (around 0.75 Euros) that is to say, 10 time less than gasoline powered cars.
When there is no combustion, there is no pollution. The vehicle's driving range is close to twice that of the most advanced electric cars (from 200 to 300 km or 8 hours of circulation) This is exactly what the urban market needs where, as previously mentioned, 80% of the drivers move less than 60Km. a day.
The recharging of the car will be done at gas stations, once the market is developed. To fill the tanks it will take about to 2 to 3 minutes at a price of 1.5 euros. After refilling the car will be ready to drive 200 kilometers.
The car also has a small compressor that can be connected to an electrical network (220V or 380V) and will recharge the tanks completely in 3 or 4 minutes.
Because the engine does not burn any fuel the car's oil (a liter of vegetable) only needs to be changed every 50,000Km. The temperature of the clean air expulsed form the exhaust pipe is between 0 and 15 degrees below zero and can be subsequently channeled and used for air conditioning in the interior of the car.


History
It cannot be claimed that compressed air as an energy and locomotion vector is precisely recent technology. In fact at the end of the 19th century the first approximations to what could one day become a compressed air driven vehicle already existed, through the arrival of the first pneumatic locomotives. Yet even two centuries before that Dennis Papin apparently came up with the idea of using compressed air (Royal Society London, 1687). The first recorded compressed-air vehicle in France was built by the Frenchmen Andraud and Tessie of Motay in 1838. A car ran on a test track at Chaillot on the 9th July 1840, and worked well, but the idea was not pursued further.
1890 and 1902 ten compressed air trams circulated in Bern, Switzerland.
In 1892, Robert Hardie introduced a new method of heating that at the same time served to increase the range of the engineIn
1926 Lee Barton Williams of Pittsburg USA presented his invention: an automobile which, he claims, runs on air. The motor starts on gasoline, but after it has reached a speed of ten miles an hour the gasoline supply is shut off and the air starts to work. At the first test his invention attained a speed of 62 miles an hour.
In January 1932 what appears to be the first journalistic article ever written about a car driven by compressed air was published.
In 1934, 21-year-old Johannes Wardenier announced he developed the world’s first fuel-less automobile. For weeks Dutch newspapers reported of an incredible invention that would change the world for ever. Not long after that he was mysteriously imprisoned in a mental institution, his design for the engine was stolen and he was kept under constant guard and never allowed to see anyone.
In 1976 Ray Starbard from Vacaville, California developed a truck that is able to drive on compressed air. He felt that he had invented the power system of the future, a system that would greatly change the automotive face of the world. ´It’s the car of the future, there’s absolutely no doubt in my mind´ Starbard comments ´and all because of mother nature’s purest gift – Air¨.
In 1979, Terry Miller decided that compressed air was the perfect medium for storing energy. He developed Air Car One, which he built for $ 1,500. Terry’s engines showed that it was feasible to manufacture a car that could run on compressed air. He patented his method in 1983 (US4370857).
George Miller said the air car he invented in 1984 would run forever. Miller envisioned his invention to be a solution to fuel and pollution problems, and the end to the middle east wars. The 58 year old retired coal miner and bricklayer from Johnstown, USA used a medium size, four cylinder engine out of a twelve year old Opel. Air from one of the tanks is fed into it through the spark plug holes, and air pressure moves the piston. The air is circulated out of the engine and back into the tank.
Until 1987 the German company Arnold Jung Lokomotivenfabrik GmbH produced locomotives functioning on compressed air to be used in mines. In the 1980’s they were still selling and renovating locomotives.
Currently the tram association in Bern Switzerland (BTG) is developing a locomotive according to the original plans. It is expected to be ready in 2012.
At present (2010) various persons and companies are developing compressed air motors applicable to transportation, apart from the many companies that produce and commercialize compressed air motors for industrial purposes.

Working
Air powered cars run on compressed air instead of gasoline. Since the car is working on air there is no pollution. A two cylinder, compressed air engine, powers the car. The engine can run either on compressed air alone or act as an internal combustion engine. Compressed air is stored in fiber or glass fiber tanks at a pressure of 4351 pounds per square inch. The air is fed through an air injector to the engine and flows into a small chamber, which expands the air. The air pushing down on the piston moves the crankshaft, which gives the vehicle power.
This car is also working on a hybrid version of their engine that can run on traditional fuel in combination with air. The change of energy source is controlled electronically. When the car is moving at speeds below 60kph,it runs on air. At higher speeds, it runs on a fuel such as gasoline diesel or natural gas.
Air tanks fixed to the underside of the vehicle can hold about 79 gallons (300 litres) of air. This compressed air can fuel the car upto 200km at a top speed of 96.5kph.When the tank nears empty it can be refilled at the nearest air pump. The car motors require a small amount of oil about 0.8 litres worth that have to change just every 50,000km.
Technology description
1. The first piston takes in ambient air and compresses it to approximately 300 psi and 200*f in the compression chamber during the first cycle of the engine
2. When the piston pause, a small amount of compressed air from the tanks is released into the expansion chamber to create a low pressured, low temperature volume of about 140psi.
3. Shortly before the valve to the exhaust cylinder is opened, a high-speed shutter connects the compression and expansion chambers. The sudden pressure and temperature difference between the low chambers creates pressure waves in the expansion chamber, thereby producing work in the exhaust chamber that drives the piston to power the engine.
The air tanks for storing the compressed air are localized underneath the vehicle. They are constructed of reinforced carbon fiber with a thermoplastic liner. Each tank can hold 3,180 ft3 of air at a pressure of up to 4,300 psi. When connected to a special compressor station, the tanks can be recharged within 3-4 minutes. They can also be recharged using the on-board compressor 3-4 hours after connecting to a standard power outlet.

TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
These new vehicles incorporate various innovative and novel systems such as storing energy in the form of compressed air, using new materials such as fiberglass to build the car and vegetable oil for the motor lubrication.
Numerous innovations have been integrated in the engine design. As an example, there is a patented system of articulated conrods that allow the piston to pause at top dead center. The following graph indicates this movement of the piston in relation to the driving shaft rotation.
The car engine runs on compressed air and incorporates the three laws of thermodynamics.
1. The first law states that energy can neither be destroyed nor be wasted.
2. The second law describes the disorder within substances.
3. The third law defines that only in crystals at 0o k, there is absolute disorder.
The car incorporates these laws of thermodynamics in the following way. First, the pressure that is created within on-board tanks during compression is in direct proportion to the energy that has been stored in it. This process is equivalent to the energy stored in a wire spring when it is compressed. Furthermore, thermal energy is dissipating from the system, thereby lowering the temperature of a compressed gas volume that expands. This process is equivalent to harnessing energy that has been stored

Components of the Air car
• Compressed air tanks
The compressed air tank is a glass or carbon-fiber tank. These tanks hold 90 cubic meters of air compressed to 300 bars. This system is not dangerous in case of an accident as there is no risk of operation. Because these are the same tanks used to carry the liquid gas used by buses for public transport. The tanks enjoy the same technology developed to contain natural gas. They are designed and officially approved to carry an explosive product: methane gas.
In the case of a major accident, where the tanks are ruptured, they would not explode since they are not metal. Instead they would crack, as they are made of carbon fiber. An elongated crack would appear in the tank, without exploding, and the air would simply escape, producing a loud but harmless noise. Of course, since this technology is licensed to transport an inflammable and explosive gas (Natural gas), it is perfectly capable inoffensive and non-flammable air.
The tanks in CATs vehicles are composed of an interior thermoplastic container which ensures it is airtight. This is held in a coiled and crossed carbon fiber shell. This technique is the result of many studies into factors such as: mechanical specifications, density of material, choice of fibers etc. The conditions of use are maximum effective pressure (300 bar) and the temperature of use: from –40°C to 60°C.
The tanks are submitted to numerous tests to meet official approval, among which are:
Airtight testing
Pressure testing (1.5×300=405 b)
Rupture testing (2.35×300=705 b)
Cycles at ambient and extreme temperatures
Fire-resistance testing
Resistance to cuts
Shock and fall testing
During rupture testing, the tank cracks, but does not break up, producing no splinters or fragments. In the event of a cracked tank, it is most likely to occur within the cylinder itself.
The tanks used in the CAT´s vehicles should last for a period of fifteen years, to be tested every five years and are subject to wear and tear according to conditions of use. The tanks weigh 35 - 40 kg for 100 liters of air at 300 bars. In the MiniCat´s the tanks weigh 70 - 80 kg. For extra security, a protective plate is fixed underneath the vehicle’s chassis and in addition limits access to the circuit of high pressure air. There is also an extraction system to deal with water produced by condensation.
• Engine
The CAT’s 34 Engine is a 4-cylinder engine which will be used in cars in serial production.
This engine was developed between the end of 2001 and the beginning of 2002. It uses an innovative system to control the movement of the 2nd generation pistons and one single crankshaft. The pistons work in two stages: one motor stage and one intermediate stage of compression/expansion.
The engine has 4 two-stage pistons, i.e. 8 compression and/or expansion chambers. They have two functions: to compress ambient air and refill the storage tanks; and to make successive expansions (reheating air with ambient thermal energy) thereby approaching isothermal expansion.
Its steering-wheel is equipped with a 5kW electric motto-alternator. This motor is simultaneously:
The motor to compress air, the starting motor, the alternator for recharging the battery
An electric moderator/brake, a temporary power supply (e.g. for parking).
No clutch is necessary. The engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the magnetic plate which re-engages the compressed air. Parking maneuvers are powered by the electric motor.
• Gear box
Gear changes are automatic, powered by an electronic system developed by MDI. A computer which controls the speed of the car is effectively continuously changing gears. The latest of many previous versions, this gearbox achieves the objective of seamless changes and minimal energy consumption.
• Moto-alternator
The moto-alternator connects the engine to the gearbox. It has many functions:
• It supports the CAT´s motor to allow the tanks to be refilled.
• As an alternator it produces brake power.
• It starts the vehicle and provides extra power when necessary.
• The Air Filter
The MDI engine works with both air taken from the atmosphere and air pre-compressed in tanks. Air is compressed by the on-board compressor or at service stations equipped with a high-pressure compressor.
Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine. Carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and other particles which, unfortunately, are found in the air in our cities.
This represents a true revolution in automobiles - it is the first time that a car has produced minus pollution, i.e. it eliminates and reduces existing pollution rather than emitting dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust pipe on the MDI cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit (between -15º and 0º) and is harmless to human life. With this system the air that comes out of the car is cleaner than the air that went in.
• Brake power recovery
The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems. For example, one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary (at traffic lights, junctions etc). Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system which recovers about 13% of the power used.
• Articulated con-rod
The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to be held at Top Dead Centre for 70% of the cycle. This way, enough time is given to create the pressure in the cylinder. The torque is also better so the force exerted on the crankshaft is less substantial than in a classic system.

• Distribution and valves
To ensure smooth running and to optimize energy efficiency, the engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system which controls the flow of air into the engine. This system runs on very little energy and alters neither the valve phase nor its rise.

8. The body
The MDI car body is built with fiber and injected foam, as are most of the cars on the market today. This technology has two main advantages: cost and weight. Nowadays the use of sheet steel for car bodies is only because of cost - it is cheaper to serially produce sheet steel bodies than fiber ones. However, fiber is safer (it doesn’t cut like steel), is
Easier to repair (it is glued), doesn’t rust etc. MDI is currently looking into using hemp fiber to replace fiber-glass, and natural varnishes, to produce 100% non-contaminating bodywork.
10. The Chassis
Based on its experience in aeronautics, MDI has put together highly-resistant, yet light, chassis, aluminum rods glued together. Using rods enables to build a more shock-resistant chassis than regular chassis. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding. This system helps to reduce manufacture time.
11. Electrical system
Guy Nègre, inventor of the MDI Air Car, acquired the patent for an interesting invention for installing electrics in a vehicle. Using a radio transmission system, each electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. Thus only one cable is needed for the whole car. So, instead of wiring each component (headlights, dashboard lights, lights inside the car, etc), one cable connects all electrical parts in the car. The most obvious advantages are the ease of installation and repair and the removal of the approximately 22 kg of wires no longer necessary. Whets more, the entire system becomes an anti-theft alarm as soon as the key is removed from the car.

Developers and manufacturers
Various companies are investing in the research, development and deployment of Compressed air cars. Overoptimistic reports of impending production date back to at least May 1999. For instance, the MDI Air Car made its public debut in South Africa in 2002, and was predicted to be in production "within six months" in January 2004. As of January 2009, the air car never went into production in South Africa. Most of the cars under development also rely on using similar technology to Low-energy vehicles in order to increase the range and performance of their cars.
1. MDI (Motor Development International)
MDI has proposed a range of vehicles made up of Air Pod, OneFlowAir, CityFlowAir, MiniFlowAir and MultiFlowAir. One of the main innovations of this company is its implementation of its "active chamber", which is a compartment which heats the air (through the use of a fuel) in order to double the energy output. This 'innovation' was first used in torpedoes in 1904.
2. Tata Motors
As of May 2007 Tata Motors of India had planned to launch a car with an MDI compressed air engine in 2008. Tata subsequently announced that the technology was still in development stage and the launch of a commercially viable vehicle in the near future was not possible.
In December 2009 Tata's vice president of engineering systems confirmed that the limited range and low engine temperatures were causing difficulties.
3. Air Car Factories
Air Car Factories SA is proposing to develop and build a compressed air engine. This Spanish based company was founded by Miguel Celades. Currently there is a bitter dispute between Motor Development International, another firm called Luis which developed compressed-air vehicles, and Mr. Celades, who was once associated with that firm.
4. Energine
The Energine Corporation was a South Korean company that claimed to deliver fully assembled cars running on a hybrid compressed air and electric engine. These cars are more precisely named pneumatic-hybrid electric vehicles.[27] Engineers from this company made, starting from a Daewoo Matiz, a prototype of a hybrid electric/compressed-air engine (Pne-PHEV, pneumatic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle). The compressed-air engine is used to activate an alternator, which extends the autonomous operating capacity of the car. The CEO is the first compressed air car promoter to be arrested for fraud.
A similar (but only for braking energy recovery) concept using a pneumatic accumulator in a largely hydraulic system has been developed by U.S. government research laboratories and industry, and is now being introduced for certain heavy vehicle applications such as refuse trucks.
5. K'Airmobiles
K'Airmobiles vehicles were intended to be commercialized from a project developed in France in 2006-2007 by a small group of researchers. However, the project has not been able to gather the necessary funds.
People should note that, meantime, the team has recognized the physical impossibility to use on-board stored compressed air due to its poor energy capacity and the thermal losses resulting from the expansion of the gas.
These days, using the patent pending 'K'Air Fluid Generator', converted to work as a compressed-gas motor, the project should be launched in 2010, thanks to a North American group of investors, but for the purpose of developing first a green energy power system.
6. Engineair
Engineair is an Australian company which manufactures small industrial vehicles using an air engine of its own design.

Models
A) Family
A spacious car with seats which can face different directions. The vehicle’s design is based on the needs of a typical family.
Characteristics: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats.

B) Van
Designed for daily use in industrial, urban or rural environments, whose primary drivers would be tradesmen, farmers and delivery drivers.
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 2 seats, 1.5 m3.

c) Taxi
Inspired by the London Taxi, with numerous ergonomic and comfort advantages for the passenger as well as for the driver.

Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats.

D) Pick-Up
The "pleasure" car: designed for excursions, outdoor sports or water sports. Also suitable for tradesmen and small businesses.
Dimensions: 3.84m, 1.72m, 1.75m
Weight: 750 kg
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Mileage: 200 - 300 km
Maximum load: 500 Kg
Recharging time: 4 hours (Mains connector)
Recharging time: 3 minutes (Air station)
Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, 2 seats.


E) Mini Cat’s
The smallest and most innovative: three seats, minimal dimensions with the boot of a saloon: a great challenge for such a small car which runs on compressed air. The Minicat is the city car of the future.

Specifications: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 3 seats, 1.5 m3.

Commercialization
As soon as the MDI engines and vehicles are commercially viable (within 1-3
years, depending on the version) they will have a market, with very limited
competition, if any, for an estimated period of 10-15 years.
The commercial strategy is currently concentrated on the urban markets, with
products including taxis, delivery vans and pickup trucks.
Based on a new concept of local vehicle production and sales, MDI promote
regional manufacturing license rights in the form of franchised turnkey factory
systems. Such a turnkey factory will have a normal production capacity of
2000-4000 vehicles per year and will employ some 130 people. A model factory is
being constructed in Brignoles, France.
A taxi called "TOP" (Taxi Zero Pollution) and pickups truck, were built. In May
1998, the first road tests of these prototypes were done in Brignoles, France.
A great interest in the zero pollution concept has been expressed by the news
media. Since May 1998, the taxi "TOP" has been the subject of more than 40
television programs and several newspaper and magazine articles around the
world.
To manage the development process successfully, MDI has contracted its product research and development activities to CQFD Air Solution, a company based in
Brignoles, France. Here, under the direction of Guy Negre, some 30 engineers and
technicians have at their disposal the most modern equipment for engine
and vehicle development, testing and production, supported by the latest in
information technology.
The company says the cars will initially go on sale in France, where the first assembly line is due to start production in the middle of next year.
The MiniCATS three-seater compact, a commercial version of a prototype showcased at the 2002 Paris Motor Show, will be priced at $9,500(Rs.4,00,000). The City CATS six-seater sedan will retail for $16,500(Rs.7,00,000).

Advantages
Compressed-air vehicles are comparable in many ways to electric vehicles, but use compressed air to store the energy instead of batteries. Their potential advantages over other vehicles include:
1. Much like electrical vehicles, air powered vehicles would ultimately be powered through the electrical grid. Which makes it easier to focus on reducing pollution from one source, as opposed to the millions of vehicles on the road.
2. Transportation of the fuel would not be required due to drawing power off the electrical grid. This presents significant cost benefits. Pollution created during fuel transportation would be eliminated.
3. Compressed-air technology reduces the cost of vehicle production by about 20%, because there is no need to build a cooling system, fuel tank, Ignition Systems or silencers.
4. Air, on its own, is non-flammable.
5. The engine can be massively reduced in size.
6. The engine runs on cold or warm air, so can be made of lower strength light weight material such as aluminium, plastic, low friction teflon or a combination.
7. Low manufacture and maintenance costs as well as easy maintenance.
8. Compressed-air tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than batteries.
9. Compressed-air vehicles are unconstrained by the degradation problems associated with current battery systems.
10. The air tank may be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be recharged, with re-filling rates comparable to liquid fuels.
11. Lighter vehicles cause less damage to roads, resulting in lower maintenance cost.
12. The price of filling air powered vehicles is significantly cheaper than petrol, diesel or biofuel. If electricity is cheap, then compressing air will also be relatively cheap.

Disadvantages
The principal disadvantage is the indirect use of energy. Energy is used to compress air, which - in turn - provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms results in loss. For conventional combustion motor cars, the energy is lost when chemical energy in fossil fuels is converted to heat energy, most of which goes to waste. For compressed-air cars, energy is lost when chemical energy is converted to electrical energy, and then when electrical energy is converted to compressed air.
1. When air expands in the engine it cools dramatically (Charles law) and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger. The heating is necessary in order to obtain a significant fraction of the theoretical energy output. The heat exchanger can be problematic: while it performs a similar task to an intercooler for an internal combustion engine, the temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in cool, moist climates.
2. Conversely, when air is compressed to fill the tank it heats up: as the stored air cools, its pressure decreases and available energy decreases. It is difficult to cool the tank efficiently while charging and thus it would either take a long time to fill the tank, or less energy is stored.
3. Refueling the compressed air container using a home or low-end conventional air compressor may take as long as 4 hours, though specialized equipment at service stations may fill the tanks in only 3 minutes. To store 14.3 kWh @300 bar in 300 l (90 m3 @ 1 bar) reservoirs, you need at least 93 kWh on the compressor side (with an optimum single stage compressor working on the ideal adiabatic limit), or rather less with a multistage unit. That means, a compressor power of over 1 Megawatt (1000 kW) is needed to fill the reservoirs in 5 minutes from a single stage unit, or several hundred horsepower for a multistage one.
4. The overall efficiency of a vehicle using compressed air energy storage, using the above refueling figures, cannot exceed 14%, even with a 100% efficient engine—and practical engines are closer to 10-20%.For comparison, well to wheel efficiency using a modern internal-combustion drivetrain is about 20%,Therefore, if powered air compressed using a compressor driven by an engine using fossil fuels technology, a compressed air car would have a larger carbon footprint than a car powered directly by an engine using fossil fuels technology.
5. Early tests have demonstrated the limited storage capacity of the tanks; the only published test of a vehicle running on compressed air alone was limited to a range of 7.22 km.
6. A 2005 study demonstrated that cars running on lithium-ion batteries out-perform both compressed air and fuel cell vehicles more than three-fold at the same speeds. MDI has recently claimed that an air car will be able to travel 140 km in urban driving, and have a range of 80 km with a top speed of 110 km/h (68 mph) on highways, when operating on compressed air alone, but in as late as mid 2009, MDI has still not produced any proof to that effect.
7. A 2009 University of Berkeley Research Letter found that "Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix.

Conclusion
The air car which is the result of a long research and development is a clean, easy to drive, high performance car. MDI has achieved what the large car manufactures have promised in a hundred years time.
The end product is a light weight vehicle that can reach speeds up to 220 km/h (even though the legal limit is 120), a product that does not pollute like twentieth century vehicles and does not take a lifetime to pay off. Essentially, MDI has developed a modern, clean, and cheap car that meets most people’s needs.



24-03-2011, 04:52 PM
Post: #13
RE: air car full report
Presented By
SIDHANT KUMAR PATRO


.docx  prangya ray.docx (Size: 2.07 MB / Downloads: 265)
Introduction
Compressed air has been used since the 19th century to power mine locomotives, and was previously the basis of naval torpedo propulsion. Yet even two centuries before that Dennis Papin apparently came up with the idea of using compressed air (1687).
In 1903, the Liquid Air Company located in London England manufactured a number of compressed air and liquefied air cars. The major problem with these cars and all compressed air cars is the lack of torque produced by the "engines" and the cost of compressing the air.
Recently several companies have started to develop compressed air cars, although none have been released to the public, or have been tested by third parties.
It cannot be claimed that compressed air as an energy and locomotion vector is precisely recent technology. In fact at the end of the 19th century the first approximations to what could one day become a compressed air driven vehicle already existed, through the arrival of the first pneumatic locomotives.
The first recorded compressed-air vehicle in France was built by the Frenchmen Andraud and Tessie of Motay in 1838. A car ran on a test track at Chaillot on the 9th July 1840, and worked well, but the idea was not pursued further.
Also in 1896, Porter supplied ten compressed air motor cars for the Eckington System in Washington, D.C. There was a tank on the front of the engine and it was recharged at the station.
Between 1890 and 1902 ten compressed air trams circulated in Bern, Switzerland.
Charles B. Hodges will always be remembered as the true father of the compressed air concept applied to cars, being the first person, not only to invent a car driven by a compressed air engine but also to have considerable commercial success with it.
After years of working on a system for driving an automobile by means of compressed air Louis C. Kiser, a 77 year old from Decatur USA has succeeded in converting his gasoline engine into an air compressed system. Kiser removed the entire gasoline line, the cylinder head, water-cooling system, and self starter. A special cylinder head is substituted and a compressed-air tank added in place of the gasoline tank.
In 1926 Lee Barton Williams of Pittsburg USA presented his invention: an automobile which, he claims runs on air. The motor starts on gasoline, but after it has reached a speed of ten miles an hour the gasoline supply is shut off and the air starts to work. At the first test his invention attained a speed of 62 miles an hour.
The first hybrid diesel and compressed air locomotive appeared in 1930, in Germany. The pressures brought to bear by the oil industry in the transport sector were ever greater and the truth of the matter is that they managed to block investigation in this field.
In 1976 Ray Starbard from Vacaville, California developed a truck that is able to drive on compressed air. He felt that he had invented the power system of the future, a system that would greatly change the automotive face of the world. ´It’s the car of the future, there’s absolutely no doubt in my mind´
In 1979, Terry Miller decided that compressed air was the perfect medium for storing energy. He developed Air Car One, which he built for $ 1,500. Terry’s engines showed that it was feasible to manufacture a car that could run on compressed air. He patented his method in 1983.
In May 1987 an article was published about Miami inventor Ricardo Perez-Pomar. The 61 year old pneumatic engineer, originally from Cuba claimed to have developed an engine that will continuously refill the very tank of compressed air that powers it.
Currently the tram association in Bern Switzerland (BTG) is developing a locomotive according to the original plans. It is expected to be ready in 2010.
At present (2008) various persons and companies are developing compressed air motors applicable to transportation, apart from the many companies that produce and commercialize compressed air motors for industrial purposes.
Introducing air as fuel
Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, diesel, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world’s energy demand today, are being depleted rapidly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment, and eventually, for the total life on our planet. These factors are leading automobile manufacturers to develop cars fueled by alternative energies. Hybrid cars, Fuel cell powered cars, Hydrogen fueled cars will be soon into the market as a result of it. One possible alternative is the air-powered car. Air, which is abundantly available and is free from pollution, can be compressed to higher pressures at a very low cost, is one of the prime option since atmospheric pollution can be permanently eradicated. Where as so far all the attempts made to eliminate the pollution has however reduced it, but complete eradication is still rigorously pursued. Compressed air utilization in the pneumatic applications has been long proven. Air motors, pneumatic actuators and other various such pneumatic equipments are in use. Compressed air was also used in some of the vehicle for boosting the initial torque. Turbo charging has become one of the popular techniques to enhance power and improve the efficiencies of the automotive engines. It was also under study to develop a reciprocating automotive engine that completely runs on compressed air. There are at least two ongoing projects (In France, by MDI and in S. Korea) that are developing a new type of car that will run only on compressed air. Similar attempt has been made but to modify the existing engine and to test on compressed air. A single, horizontal cylinder, low speed proto type engine was modified to run on air, the detail specifications are given in table 1. Instead of a conventional connecting rod, a kinematic link was used which has the provision of dwelling at the top dead center. Dwelling Connecting rod Assembly: As shown in figure 1, this assembly has three links namely A, B, and C. The link A reciprocates, link B oscillates which the link C rotates as shown in figure 1 and transmits the rotation of the engine to the other parts. One end of link B is attached to the link A, and is fixed at the other end at point 1. This end can also be fixed at point 2 and 3. If it is fixed at point 1, the piston in the cylinder attached to the link A, dwells at the top dead center for a rotation of 45 degrees of crank angle, while when fixed at 2, the dwell changes to 60 degrees and for point 3, it changes to 80 degrees of crank rotation. A practical constant volume can be obtained when the piston dwells for any angle at TDC. The swept volume inside the cylinder changes when the other end of link B is fixed at points 2 & 3. As the swept volume changes, the compression ratio also changes. This leads to a new relation between compression ratio and angle of dwell, which states “Compression ratio is inversely proportional to the angle of dwell for this link”.
Modifications in injection system: Instead of convention fuel injection system, an electro –mechanical injection system was used for air injection. This consists of an externally operating cam with a roller follower, solenoid valve connected to a non-returnable valve assembly, which fits in the engine cylinder. Cam is so designed that it provides the dwell of 45 degrees as required by the link when it is fixed at position 1 as shown in figure1. Cams with dwelling of 60 and 80 degrees are separately designed to match with the dwelling periods of the link when fixed at positions 2 & 3. The cam through the follower triggers the air injection into the engine cylinder for the period equal to its dwell, during which the piston also dwells. The air injection through cam dwell synchronizes with the piston dwell.
Working Cycle:
Because of the dwell provided by the special connecting rod assembly, the diesel engine works on constant volume cycle instead of constant pressure cycle. During this constant volume, air is injected by the injection system into the engine cylinder.
Working of the Engine:
This Engine Works like a diesel engine. At the end of compression stroke, a very high-pressure air at room temperature is injected into the cylinder. Injection of air by electro-mechanical injection
System is governed by the cam dwell during which the piston also dwells. As the in cylinder hot and compressed air mixes with the externally injected relatively cold and compressed air, injected at relatively higher pressure than the inside pressure, the mixture tries to attain a common equilibrium temperature. As the temperature of this mixture falls down, expansion takes place.
The high inside mixture pressure imparts a very heavy blow on the head of the piston, which is then set in motion and the engine runs. No combustion takes place; it is the expansive forces, which make the engine run. Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the engine.
Experimental procedure of air car
Before starting the experiment, the electric supply to control the flow through the solenoid, is switched “ON”. The pressure regulating valve is opened and an operating pressure of the order of around 20 bars is initially given. The engine is then given an initial torque to set in motion. The cam through the follower triggers the solenoid valve and the high pressure air is injected in to the cylinder. As the air enters in, while the pistons is dwelling as explained in the engine operation, expansion takes place and the engine is set in motion. Amount of air flowing in the cylinder can be noted directly by the air flow meter and the operating or the injection pressures can be noted from the pressure gauge. Initial RPM is noted down, and load is applied on the brake drum. As the load is applied the speed falls down, to maintain it constant, inlet pressure is increased by regulating valve. All the tests are carried out at constant speed of 350 rpm. For the all the applied loads, the air flow meter reading, inlet air injection pressure reading from regulating valve, manometer head of Suction by the engine, exhaust temperature, operating inlet temperatures are noted down.
Compressed air technology
After twelve years of research and development, Guy Negre has developed an engine that could become one of the biggest technological advances of this century. A French engineer by profession, he has designed a low consumption and low pollution engine for urban motoring that runs on compressed air technology
27-04-2011, 03:25 PM
Post: #14
RE: air car full report
Presented by
JAI NARAYAN MISHRA


.pptx  aircar.ppt.pptx (Size: 895.7 KB / Downloads: 141)
Engine Working
Thermodynamic Analysis
Refueling
Advantage & Disadvantages
Advantage
No pollution at tail pipe.
Speed of 35 miles\hr.
Lighter than conventional cars.
Fuel is cheap.
Disadvantage
Not use for large distance.
It have rocket like effect.
Compression of air will heat air.
Difficult construction
Market Value
First air car is launched by MDI.
TATA Motors also launched MINI CAT.
K’Airmobiles-French company.
Air Car Factory- South Africa
It replaces the conventional cars in next 4-5 years.
Conclusion
Plug to Road efficiency is key criteria.
Zero pollution
Simplicity
Operating & life cycle cost
Clean and efficient local transportation.
29-04-2011, 01:19 AM
Post: #15
RE: air car full report
sir pls send me full report on air car of ms word
05-09-2012, 09:04 PM
Post: #16
RE: air car full report
very good.... i want to aopen ppt of this... bt m not able to open it...
21-09-2012, 09:44 PM
Post: #17
RE: air car full report
send me fuul report with ppt.and latest imformation about air powered cars
08-11-2012, 11:28 AM
Post: #18
RE: air car full report
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15-12-2012, 02:55 PM
Post: #19
RE: air car full report
Sir please send me full report of this project and iam g.sachin of trr college dip(mech) final year e-mail:gsachingoud[at]gmail.com,sachinguniganti9133[at]gmail.com
17-12-2012, 01:49 PM
Post: #20
RE: air car full report
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