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AIR TICKET RESERVATION
Submitted by SANDEEP S. ELDHO PAUL MATHEW ANIL SUKUMARAN
SEA Airlines is a leading travel company offering leisure and business travelers the widest selection of low fares as well as deals on lodging and vacation packages. The site was created to address the need for an unbiased, comprehensive display of fares and rates in a single location for consumers. SEA Airlines search results are presented in an easy-to-use Matrix that displays a vast array of travel options for you. SEA Airlines is the first and only travel site with a seasoned Customer Care Team that monitors nationwide travel conditions for our travelers around the clock, everyday.
SEA Airlines is a site, which helps the flight travelers. Its mission is to offer flexible leisure travelers a quick and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. All purchases made on SEA Airlines are not final and can be cancelled, refunded or changed. If you want, you can also receive your updates by calling Arabian Travels toll-free number and using your personalized PIN. When customers prefer a specific travel itinerary, they offer the widest range of flight options and fares.
The project will be in any platform with Front End as JSP and ORACLE 8i as Back End.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION 1
1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECT 1
2. PROBLEM DEFINITION 3
2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM 3
2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM 4
3. SYSTEM STUDY 5 3.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 5
4. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 7
5. REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION 8
5.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY 8
5.1.1 Operation Feasibility 8
5.1.2 Technical Feasibility 8
5.1.3 Economic Feasibility 9
5.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 9
5.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 10
5.4 TECHNOLOGY SPECIFICATION 10
6. SYSTEM DESIGN 12
6.1 LOGICAL DESIGN 12
6.2 INPUT DESIGN 13
6.3 OUTPUT DESIGN 13
6.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN 14
6.5 MODULAR DESIGN 14
7. DATABASE DESIGN 16
7.1 NORMALIZATION 16
8. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 18
8.1 IMPLEMENTATION METHOD S 18
8.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 19
9. EDUCATION & TRAINING 20
9.1 POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 20
10. SYSTEM TESTING 22
10.1 UNIT TESTING 23
10.2 MODULE LEVEL TESTING 24
10.3 INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING 24
10.4 REGRESSION TESTING 24
11 MAINTENANCE 25
12 TABLES 26
13 FIGURES 29
14 CONCLUSION 47 APPENDIX 1 48
LIST OF TABLES
12.1 FLIGHT DETAILS 26
12.2 FLIGHT TIME 27
12.3 PASSENGER 27
12.4 REGISTRATION 28
12.5 RESERVATION 29
12.6 PAYSPARE 29
12.7 PAYMENT 30
12.8 CONFIRM 30
12.9 ROUTE 31
LIST OF FIGURES
13.1 LEVEL 0 DFD 32
13.2 LEVEL 1 DFD 33
13.3 LEVEL 2 DFD 34
13.4 LEVEL 3 DFD 35
13.5 LEVEL 4 DFD 36
13.6 LOGIN FORM 37
13.7 REGISTRATION FORM 38
13.8 ADMIN HOME 39
13.9 USER HOME 40
13.10 FLIGHT DETAILS 41
13.11 FLIGHTTIMINGS 42
13.12 ROUTE MAP FLIGHTS 43
13.13 TICKET CANCELLATION 44
13.14 CANCELLATION 45
13.15 VIEW RESERVATION 46
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION
SEA Airlines is a leading travel company offering leisure and business travelers the widest selection of low fares as well as deals on lodging and vacation packages. SEA Airlines search results are presented in an easy-to-use Matrix that displays a vast array of travel options for you. When customers prefer a specific travel itinerary, they offer the widest range of flight options and fares.
1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECT
SEA Airlines is a site, which helps the flight travelers. Its mission is to offer flexible leisure travelers a quick and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. Through partnerships with leading travel companies, it can negotiate special prices that can't be found anywhere else.
The working of the project is as follows.
The first page provides several links. The Home link contains several informations about the site; it provides a link to the login page.
In the Login link a user have to login before ordering for tickets. An already registered user can simply type in -his\her valid username and password, and then click the "Login" button. But those visitors who are not registered have to go to the registration page before they login. In that page user have to enter First name, Last name, Address, Postal Code, City, Phone number, Username and password.
About Us Link contains some information regarding SEA Airlines and its developers.
After registration user can reserve the seats in particular flights by using the flights date and time. The user can enter the number of seats required and the details of the passengers by specifying adult or child. Then goes to the payment or confirmation page. It will display the total rate and a PNR number. This PNR number can be used for cancellation.
Logout Link will help the user to logout from the site.
CHAPTER 2 PROBLEM DEFINITION
SEA Airlines is a site, which is very helpful to users. The aim of this project is to provide the users flexible leisure travelers an immediate and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. They can find attractive prices that can't be found anywhere else through partnerships with leading travel companies. Its working is that partners allow to access their empty seats on flights -- all at big savings. The site pass these savings on to those travelers who can be flexible about their plans. Sea airline's founding organizations are industry leaders in their respective areas. With their backing, SEA Airlines will continue to grow - ultimately providing a wide breadth of products and services at the best prices.
User Login module helps the user to login to the site. For that he must type the username and password correctly. The login provision in this page helps the already registered user to directly access the site and there is a link for registration to a user who is new to this site.
Member Registration module helps the new user to register into the site. The information entered by the users is added into the table registration.
Air Ticket Request module helps the user to make a request for Air Ticket. In this page the user enters the full details about his flight such as the start and destination place, number of tickets, cabin and the convenient date.
Air Ticket confirmation module helps the user to confirm the air ticket.
2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM
The existing system is manual entry of up keeping of the details of the persons who are registered already. And it is very difficult for each person to come to the office. Users can also enquire about the tickets through phones. It is very difficult for the user to remember all the
details that they received through phones. And it is also very difficult to calculate how many peoples registered in a month by hand. This requires quite a lot of time and wastage of money as it requires quite lot of manpower to do that. Another factor that takes into account that is the possibility of errors and which requires verification and checking of data relating to various operations which is done manually. Data's are stored globally and are retrieved in the same manner. Most of the data are hidden from outside the world. The limitations of existing system is that it is not all personalized. It cannot be used for personal and quick reference. Even the other staff members can make quick entries if the responsible person is not present.
2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The modern computerized system is developed with the aim to overcome the drawbacks of existing system. The proposed system has got many advantages. People from different parts of the world can register very easily. The new system is more personalized. It is maze in such a manner that all the new users can understand all the options in it very easily. It is made in a quick and easy referential manner. This system helps the user to go through the rates quoted by different travel agencies and select the convenient rate that is suitable for him.
Access to all important matters are not always locked and can be opened easily at the time of urgency. The advantages of proposed system are that security is maintained in the new system. Securities for all important data are maintained confidentially. As it is easily understandable and user friendly, quick entries can be made in this system.
CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM STUDY
The system study phase involves the initial investigation of the structure of the System, which is currently in use, with the objective of identifying the problem and difficulties with the existing system. The major steps involved in this phase included defining the user requirements and studying the present system to verify the problem. The performance expected by the new system was also defined in this phase in order to meet the user requirements. The information gathered from various documents were analyzed and evaluated and the findings reviewed in order to establish specific system objectives.
3.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS
System analysis is the way of studying a system with an eye on solving its problem -using computer. It is the most essential part of the development of a project of a system analysis. System analysis consists of system element, process and technology.
To analyze a system, has to study the systems in details. The analyst has to understand the functioning and concept of the system in detail, before design the appropriate computer based system that will meet all the requirements of the existing system. The system analyst has to carry out a customary approach to use the computer for problem solving.
System analysis includes the following basic concepts Â¢ Preliminary investigation
Â¢ Feasibility study
Â¢ Detailed investigation
Â¢ Drawing up of strategies
Â¢ Design and coding
Â¢ Testing and training
The above steps constitute the logical framework for the system analysis. After the preliminary investigation and feasibility study, the scope of the defined and comparable items are set forth and hence detailed investigation is executed. This allows the system analyst to comprehend the full scope of the project. Soon after the implementation of the newly developed system, followed by the training of the users, the system analysis is included.
A request to receive assistance from information system can be made for many reasons, but in case a manager, employee or system specialist initiates the request. When that request is made, the first system activity preliminary investigation begins. The activity has three parts
> Request clarification: the request from employee may not be well stated. Sometimes the request may not be well defined. Therefore before any system investigation can be considered, the project request must be examined to determine precisely the actual requirements of the organization.
> Feasibility study: the basic idea of feasibility study is to determine whether the requested project is feasible.
> Request approval: all projects that are requested are not desirable or feasible .some organization receive so many projects requests from employee that only a few of them can be pursued. However those projects that are feasible and desirable should put into a schedule. The management decides request that are most important. After a project request is approved the cost priority, the completion time and the personal required are estimated. Once the request is approved, the collection of data and determination of requirements can be started.
CHAPTER 5 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
The primary goal of the system analyst is to improve the efficiency of the existing system. For that the study of specification of the requirements is very essential. For the development of the new system, a preliminary survey of the existing system will be conducted. Investigation done whether the upgradation of the system into an application program could solve the problems and eradicate the inefficiency of the existing system.
5.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY
The initial investigation points to the question whether the project is feasible. A feasibility is conducted to identify the best system that meets the all the requirements. This includes an identification description, an evaluation of the proposed systems and selection of the best system for the job
The requirements of the system are specified with a set of constraints such as system objectives and the description of the out puts. It is then duty of the analyst to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system to generate the above results. Three key factors are to be considered during the feasibility study.
5.1.1 Operation Feasibility
An estimate should be made to de4termine how much effort and care will go into the developing of the system including the training to be given to the user. Usually, people are reluctant to changes that come in their progression. The computer initialization will certainly affected the turn over, transfer and employee job status. Hence an additional effort is to be made to train and educate the users on the new way of the system.
5.1.2 Technical Feasibility
The main consideration is to be given to the study of available resources of the organization where the software is to be implemented. Here the system analyst evaluates the technical merits of the system giving emphasis on the performance, Reliability, maintainability and productivity.
By taking the consideration before developing the proposed system, the resources availability of the organization was studied. The organization was immense computer facilities equipped with sophisticated machines and the software hence this technically feasible.
5.1.3 Economic Feasibility
Economic feasibility is the most important and frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system. It is very essential because the main goal of the proposed system is to have economically better result along with increased efficiency. Cost benefit analysis is usually performed for this purpose. It is the comparative study of the cost verses the benefit and savings that are expected from the proposed system. Since the organization is well equipped with the required hard ware, the project was found to be economically.
5.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
PROCESSOR : PENTIUM II
CLOCK SPEED : 800 MHZ
SYSTEM BUS : 32 BIT
RAM : 128 MB
HDD : 5GB
MONITOR : SVGA COLOR
KEY BOARD : 108 KEYS
MODEM : 56 KBPS
MOUSE : LOGITECH
FDD : 1.44 MB
5.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
OPERATING SYSTEM : WINDOWS XP
BROWSER : INTERNET EXPLORER 5.5 OR ANY HTTP BROWSER
FRONT END : MICROSOFT FRONTPAGE
DATABASE LAYER : ORACLE 8i
WEB SERVER : JBOSS
SERVER SIDE SCRIPTING : JSP
CLIENT SIDE SCRIPTING : JAVA SCRIPT
CONNECTION : TCP / IP
PROTOCOL : HTTP, SMTP, POP3,WAP
5.4 TECHNOLOGY SPECIFICATION
Typical client-server systems are based on the 2-tiered architecture, whereby there is a clear separation between the data and the presentation/business logic. These are generally data driven, with the application existing entirely on the client machine while the database server is deployed somewhere in the organization.
In a traditional 2- Tiered application, the processing load is given to the client PC while the server simply acts as a traffic controller between the application and data. As a result, not only does the application performance suffer due to the limited resources of the PC, but the network traffic tends increase as well.
3- Tier Architecture
In 3- Tier architecture an application is broken into three separate logical layers, each with a well - defined set of interfaces. The first tier is referred to as the presentation layer and typically consists of graphical user interface of some kind. The middle tier, or business layer, consists of application or business layer and the third layer- the data layer contains the data that is needed for the application. The middle tier is basically the code that the user calls upon to retrieve the desired data. The presentation layer then receives the data and formats it for display. This separation of application logic from the user interface adds enormous flexibility to the design of application. The third tier contains the data that is needed for the application.
n- Tier Architecture
In an n - tier architecture the application logic is divided by function rather than physically. N - Tier architecture then breaks down like this:
> A user interface that handle the user's interaction with the application; this can be web browser running through a firewall, a heavier desktop application or even a wireless device
> Presentation logic that defines what the user interface displays and how a user's requests are handled- depending on what user interfaces are supported we need to have slightly different versions of the presentation logic to handle the client appropriately.
> Business logic that models the application's business rules, often through the interaction with the application's data.
> Interface services that provide additional functionality required by the application components, such as messaging, transactional support etc.
> The Data layer where the enterprise's data resides.
CHAPTER 6 SYSTEM DESIGN
System design is the solution to the creation of a new system. This phase is composed of several systems. This phase focuses on the detailed implementation of the feasible system. It emphasis on translating design specifications to performance specification. System design has two phases of development logical and physical design.
During logical design phase the analyst describes inputs (sources), out puts (destinations), databases (data sores) and procedures (data flows) all in a format that meats the uses requirements. The analyst also specifies the user needs and at a level that virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system and the data resources. Here the logical design is done through data flow diagrams and database design.
The physical design is followed by physical design or coding. Physical design produces the working system by defining the design specifications, which tell the programmers exactly what the candidate system must do. The programmers write the necessary programs that accept input from the user, perform necessary processing on accepted data through call and produce the required report on a hard copy or display it on the screen.
6.1 LOGICAL DESIGN
Logical design of an information system shows the major features and also how they are related to one another. The first step of the system design is to design logical design elements. This is the most creative and challenging phase and important too. Design of proposed system produces the details of the state how the system will meet the requirements identified during the system analysis that is, in the design phase we have to find how to solve the difficulties faced by the existing system. The logical design of the proposed system should include the details that contain how the solutions can be implemented. It also specifies how the database is to be built for storing and retrieving data, what kind of reports are to be created and what are the inputs to be given to the system. The logical design includes input design, output design, and database design and physical design
6.2 INPUT DESIGN
The input design is the link between the information system and the user. It comprises the developing specification and procedures for data preparation and those steps are necessary to put transaction data into a usable form for processing data entry. The activity of putting data into the computer for processing can be achieved by inspecting the computer to read data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people keying the data directly into the system. The design of input focuses on controlling the amount of input required, controlling errors, avoiding delay, avoiding extra steps and keeping the process simple.
The system needs the data regarding the asset items, depreciation rates, asset transfer, physical verification for various validation, checking, calculation and report generation.. The error raising method is also included in the software, which helps to raise error message while wrong entry of input is done. So in input design the following things are considered.
What data should be given as input
Â¢ How the data should be arranged or coded
Â¢ The dialogue to guide the operating personnel in providing input.
Â¢ Methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur
Â¢ The samples of screen layout are given in the appendix.
6.3 OUTPUT DESIGN
Computer output is the most important and direct information source to the user. Output design is a process that involves designing necessary outputs in the form of reports that should be given to the users according to the requirements. Efficient, intelligible output design should improve the system's relationship with the user and help in decision making. Since the reports are directing referred by the management for taking decisions and to draw conclusions they must be designed with almost care and the details in the reports must be simple, descriptive and clear to the user. So while designing output the following things are to be considered.
Â¢ Determine what information to present
Â¢ Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format
Â¢ Decide how to distribute the output to intended receipts
Depending on the nature and future use of output required, they can be displayed on the monitor for immediate need and for obtaining the hardcopy. The options for the output reports are given in the appendix.
6.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN
The process of developing the program software is referred to as physical design. We have to design the process by identifying reports and the other outputs the system will produce. Coding the program for each module with its logic is performed in this step. Proper software specification is also done in this step.
6.5 MODULAR DESIGN
A software system is always divided into several sub systems that makes it easier for the development. A software system that is structured into several subsystems makes it easy for the development and testing. The different subsystems are known as the modules and the process of dividing an entire system into subsystems is known as modularization or decomposition.
A system cannot be decomposed into several subsystems in any way. There must some logical barrier, which facilitates the separation of each module. The separation must be simple but yet must be effective so that the development is not affected.
The system under consideration has been divided into several modules taking in consideration the above-mentioned criteria. The different modules are
1) Customer registration Module
2) Travel agent registration Module.
3) Ticket Request Module.
4) Rate comparison Module.
5) Ticket confirmation module.
6) Administrator module.
CHAPTER 7 DATABASE DESIGN
The overall objective in the development of database technology has been to treat data as an organizational resource and as an integrated whole. DBMS allow data to be protected and organized separately from other resources. Database is an integrated collection of data. The most significant form of data as seen by the programmers is data as stored on the direct access storage devices. This is the difference between logical and physical data.
Database files are the key source of information into the system. It is the process of designing database files, which are the key source of information to the system. The files should be properly designed and planned for collection, accumulation, editing and retrieving the required information.
The organization of data in database aims to achieve three major objectives: -
Â¢ Data integration.
Â¢ Data integrity.
Â¢ Data independence.
The proposed system stores the information relevant for processing in the MS SQL SERVER database. This database contains tables, where each table corresponds to one particular type of information. Each piece of information in table is called a field or column. A table also contains records, which is a set of fields. All records in a table have the same set of fields with different information. There are primary key fields that uniquely identify a record in a table. There are also fields that contain primary key from another table called foreign keys.
Normalization is a technique of separating redundant fields and braking up a large table in to a smaller one. It is also used to avoid insertion, deletion and updating anomalies. All the tables have been normalized up to the third normal form. In short the rules for each of the three normal forms are as below.
Â¢ First normal form
A relation is said to be in 1NF if all the under lying domain of attributes contain simple individual values.
Â¢ Second normal form
The 2NF is based on the concept of full functional dependency. A relation said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on candidate key of the table.
Â¢ Third normal form
The 3NF is based on the concept of transitive dependency. A relation in 2NF is said to be in 3NF if every non-key attribute is non-transitively.
Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new. The old system consists of manual operations, which is operated in a very different manner from the proposed new system. A proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet the requirements of the organizations. An improper installation may affect the success of the computerized system.
8.1 IMPLEMENTATION METHODS:
There are several methods for handling the implementation and the consequent conversion from the old to the new computerized system.
The most secure method for conversion from the old system to the new system is to run the old and new system in parallel. In this approach, a person may operate in the manual older processing system as well as start operating the new computerized system. This method offers high security, because even if there is a flaw in the computerized system, we can depend upon the manual system. However, the cost for maintaining two systems in parallel is very high. This outweighs its benefits.
Another commonly method is a direct cut over from the existing manual system to the computerized system. The change may be with in a week or with in a day. There are no parallel activities. However, there is no remedy in case of a problem. This strategy requires careful planning.
A working version of the system can also be implemented in one part of the organization and the personnel will be piloting the system and changes can be made as and when required. But this method is less preferable due to the loss of entirety of the system.
8.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN:
The implementation plan includes a description of all the activities that must occur to implement the new system and to put it into operation. It identifies the personnel responsible for the activities and prepares a time chart for implementing the system. The implementation plan consists of the following steps.
o List all files required for implementation.
o Identify all data required to build new files during the implementation. o List all new documents and procedures that go into the new system.
The implementation plan should anticipate possible problems and must be able to deal with them. The usual problems may be missing documents; mixed data formats between current and files, errors in data translation, missing data etc.
EDUCATIONS AND TRAINING
The implementation of the proposed system includes the training of system operators. Training the system operators includes not only instructions in how to use the equipment, but also in how to diagnose malfunctions and in what steps to take when they occur. So proper training should be provided to the system operators. No training is complete without familiarizing users with simple system maintenance activities. Since the proposed system is developed in a GUI, training will be comparatively easy than systems developed in a non-GUI. There are different types of training. We can select off-site to give depth knowledge to the system operators.
Success of the system depends on the way in which it is operated and used. Therefore the quality of training given to the operating person affects the successful implementation of the system. The training must ensure that the person can handle all the possible operations.
Training must also include data entry personnel. They must also be given training for the installation of new hardware, terminals, how to power the system, how to power it down, how to detect the malfunctions, how to solve the problems etc. the operators must also be provided with the knowledge of trouble shooting which involves the determination of the cause of the problem.
The proposed system requires trained personnel for operating the system. Data entry jobs must be done utmost carefully to avoid errors. This will reduce the data entry errors considerably. It is preferable to provide the person with some kind of operating manuals that will explain all the details of the system.
9.1 POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW
After the system is implemented, a review should be conducted to determine whether the system is meeting expectations and where improvements are needed. System quality, user confidence and operating systems statistics are accessed through such technique event logging, impact evaluation and attitude surveys. The review not only assesses how well the proposed system is designed and implemented, but also is a valuable source of information that can be applied to a critical evaluation of the system.
The reviews are conducted by the operating personals as well as the software developers in order to determine how well the system is working, how it has been accepted and whether adjustments are needed. The review of the system is highly essential to determine the future enhancements required by the system. The system can be considered successful only if information system has met it objectives. The review analyses the opinion of the employees and identifies the attitudes towards the new computerized system. Only when the merits and demerits of the implemented system are known, one can determine what all additional features it requires are. The following are the issues to be considered in the evaluation of the system.
CHAPTER 10 SYSTEM TESTING
System testing is a critical aspect of Software Quality Assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. A good test is one that has a probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. The purpose of testing is to identify and correct bugs in the developed system. Nothing is complete without testing. Testing is the vital to the success of the system.
In the code testing the logic of the developed system is tested. For this every module of the program is executed to find an error. To perform specification test, the examination of the specifications stating what the program should do and how it should perform under various conditions.
Unit testing focuses first on the modules in the proposed system to locate errors. This enables to detect errors in the coding and logic that are contained within that module alone. Those resulting from the interaction between modules are initially avoided. In unit testing step each module has to be checked separately.
System testing does not test the software as a whole, but rather than integration of each module in the system. The primary concern is the compatibility of individual modules. One has to find areas where modules have been designed with different specifications of data lengths, type and data element name.
Testing and validation are the most important steps after the implementation of the developed system. The system testing is performed to ensure that there are no errors in the implemented system. The software must be executed several times in order to find out the errors in the different modules of the system.
Validation refers to the process of using the new software for the developed system in a live environment i.e., new software inside the organization, in order to find out the errors. The validation phase reveals the failures and the bugs in the developed system. It will be come to know about the practical difficulties the system faces when operated in the true environment. By testing the code of the implemented software, the logic of the program can be examined. A specification test is conducted to check whether the specifications stating the program are performing under various conditions. Apart from these tests, there are some special tests conducted which are given below:
Peak Load Tests: This determines whether the new system will handle the volume of activities when the system is at the peak of its processing demand. The test has revealed that the new software for the agency is capable of handling the demands at the peak time.
Storage Testings This determines the capacity of the new system to store transaction data on a disk or on other files. The proposed software has the required storage space available, because of the use of a number of hard disks.
Performance Time Testings This test determines the length of the time used by the system to process transaction data.
In this phase the software developed Testing is exercising the software to uncover errors and ensure the system meets defined requirements. Testing may be done at 4 levels
Â¢ Unit Level
Â¢ Module Level
Â¢ Integration & System
10.1 UNIT TESTING
A Unit corresponds to a screen /form in the package. Unit testing focuses on verification of the corresponding class or Screen. This testing includes testing of control paths, interfaces, local data structures, logical decisions, boundary conditions, and error
handling. Unit testing may use Test Drivers, which are control programs to co-ordinate test case inputs and outputs, and Test stubs, which replace low-level modules. A stub is a dummy subprogram.
10.2 MODULE LEVEL TESTING
Module Testing is done using the test cases prepared earlier. Module is defined during the time of design.
10.3 INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING
Integration testing is used to verify the combining of the software modules. Integration testing addresses the issues associated with the dual problems of verification and program construction. System testing is used to verify, whether the developed system meets the requirements.
10.4 REGRESSION TESTING
Each modification in software impacts unmodified areas, which results serious injuries to that software. So the process of re-testing for rectification of errors due to modification is known as regression testing. Installation and Delivery
Installation and Delivery is the process of delivering the developed and tested software to the customer. Refer the support procedures Acceptance and Project Closure
Acceptance is the part of the project by which the customer accepts the product. This will be done as per the Project Closure, once the customer accepts the product, closure of the project is started. This includes metrics collection, PCD, etc.
CHAPTER 11 MAINTENANCE
Maintenance is making adaptation of the software for external changes (requirements changes or enhancements) and internal changes (fixing bugs). When changes are made during the maintenance phase all preceding steps of the model must be revisited.
There are three types of maintenance:
1. Corrective (Fixing bugs/errors)
2. Adaptive (Updates due to environment changes)
3. Perfective (Enhancements, requirements changes
Table 12.1 FLIGHTDETAILS
Field Type Constraints
flight id number primary key
av busseats number
av ecoseats number
The above table stores the available seat's details in the flight.
The above table stores details of passengers.
Table 12.4 REGISTRATION
Field Type Constraints
user id number primary key
logid varchar2 unique
The above table stores the details of each user.
Fig 13.1 LEVEL 0 DFD
SELECT CONVENIENT FLIGHT
REQUEST FOR TICKETS
Fig13.2 LEVEL 1 DFD
Fig 13.3 LEVEL 2 DFD
Fig 13.4 LEVEL 3 DFD
Fig 13.5 LEVEL 4 DFD
Fig 13.6 LOGIN FORM
13.7 REGISTRATION FORM
Fig 13.8 ADMIN HOME
Fig 13.10 FLIGHT DETAILS
3 FLIGHT TIMINGS - Microsoft Internet Explorer - [Working Offline] US
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Ronte ID. Flight No. Aircraft Type Date
Fig 13.11 FLIGHT TIMINGS
Dep.rt.re Time Arrival Time
Fig 13.12 ROUTE MAP OF FLIGHTS
Fig 13.13 TICKET CANCELLATION
Fig 13.14 CANCELLATION
Fig 13.15 VIEW RESERVATION
CHAPTER 14 CONCLUSION
The project report entitled "AIR TICKET RESERVATION" has come to its final stage. The system has been developed with much care that it is free of errors and at the same time it is efficient and less time consuming. The important thing is that the system is robust. Also provision is provided for future developments in the system. The entire system is secured. This online system will be approved and implemented soon.
OVERVIEW OF J2EE
Today, more and more developers want to write distributed transactional applications for the enterprise and leverage the speed, security, and reliability of server-side technology. If you are already working in this area, you know that in today's fast-moving and demanding world of e-commerce and information technology, enterprise applications have to be designed, built, and produced for less money, with greater speed, and with fewer resources than ever before.
To reduce costs and fast-track enterprise application design and development, the Javaâ€žÂ¢ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE ) technology provides a component-based approach to the design, development, assembly, and deployment of enterprise applications. The J2EE platform offers a multitiered distributed application model, the ability to reuse components, integrated Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based data interchange, a unified security model, and flexible transaction control. Not only can you deliver innovative customer solutions to market faster than ever, but your platform-independent J2EE component-based solutions are not tied to the products and application programming interfaces (APIs) of any one vendor. Vendors and customers enjoy the freedom to choose the products and components that best meet their business and technological requirements.
JAVA SERVER PAGES (JSP)
The Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) has taken the once-chaotic task of building an Internet presence and transformed it to the point where developers can use Java to efficiently create multi-tier, server-side applications. Today, the Java Enterprise APIs have expanded to encompass a number of areas: RMI and CORBA for remote object handling, JDBC for database interaction, JNDI for accessing naming and directory services, Enterprise Java Beans for creating
reusable business components, JMS (Java Messaging Service) for message oriented middleware, JAXP for XML processing, and JTA (Java Transaction API) for performing atomic transactions. In addition, J2EE also supports Servlets, an extremely popular Java substitute for CGI scripts. The combination of these technologies allows programmers to create distributed business solutions for a variety of tasks. In late 1999, Sun Microsystems added a new element to the collection of Enterprise Java tools: Java Server Pages (JSP). Java Server Pages are built on top of Java Servlets and are designed to increase the efficiency in which programmers, and even nonprogrammers, can create web content.
> Area of Java Server Pages
Put succinctly, Java Server Pages is a technology for developing web pages that include dynamic content. Unlike a plain HTML page, which contains static content that always remains the same, a JSP page can change its content based on any number of variable items, including the identity of the user, the user's browser type, information provided by the user, and selections made by the user. This functionality is key to web applications such as online shopping and employee directories, as well as for personalized and internationalized content. A JSP page contains standard markup language elements, such as HTML tags, just like a regular web page. However, a JSP page also contains special JSP elements that allow the server to insert dynamic content in the page. JSP elements can be used for a variety of purposes, such as retrieving information from a database or registering user preferences. When a user asks for a JSP page, the server executes the JSP elements, merges the results with the static parts of the page, and sends the dynamically composed page back to the browser.
JSP defines a number of standard elements that are useful for any web application, such as accessing Java Beans components, passing control between pages and sharing information Programmers can also extend the JSP syntax by implementing application-specific elements that perform tasks such as accessing databases and Enterprise Java Beans, sending email, and generating HTML to present application-specific data. One such set of commonly needed custom elements is defined by a specification related to the JSP specification: the JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL) specification. The combination of standard elements and custom elements allows for the creation of powerful web applications.
> Use of JSP
In the early days of the Web, the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) was the only tool for developing dynamic web content. However, CGI is not an efficient solution. For every request that comes in, the web server has to create a new operating-system process, load an interpreter and a script, execute the script, and then tear it all down again. This is very taxing for the server and doesn't scale well when the amount of traffic increases.
Numerous CGI alternatives and enhancements, such as FastCGI, mod_perl from Apache, NSAPI from Netscape, ISAPI from Microsoft, and Java Servlets from Sun Microsystems, have been created over the years. While these solutions offer better performance and scalability, all these technologies suffer from a common problem: they generate web pages by embedding HTML directly in programming language code. This pushes the creation of dynamic web pages exclusively into the realm of programmers. Java Server Pages, however, changes all that.
An Oracle database comprises instance and data storage. The instance comprises a set of operating system processes and memory structures that interact with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor).
Oracle users refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information like data-buffers, SQL commands and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (which hold transactional history). Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication.
The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files. Tablespaces can contain various types of segments, for example, Data
Segments, Index Segments etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. Oracle keeps track of its data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM tablespace. The SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary - and often (by default) indexes and clusters. (A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user objects in the database). Since version 8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces, which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces).
The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.
The developed system is flexible and changes can be made easily. The system is developed with an insight into the necessary modification that may be required in the future. Hence the system can be maintained successfully without much rework.
One of the main future enhancements of our system is to add a mail response from the administrator to the user. So that the user can understand the availability of his tickets, right time of flights etc. directly from the administrator.
1. Barry Burd(2005); JSP: Java Server Pages;WILEY Publications.
2. Pankaj Jalote(2004);An integrated approach to Software Engineering;Narosa Publications.