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27-01-2010, 08:06 PM
Post: #1
airborne internet
could i have the report or abstract on airborne internet

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27-01-2010, 08:30 PM
Post: #2
RE: airborne internet
The Airborne Internet is network in which all nodes would be located in aircraft. The network is intended for use in aviation communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) and would also be useful to businesses, private Internet users, and military. In time of war, for example, an airborne network might enable military planes to operate without the need for a communications infrastructure on the ground. Such a network could also allow civilian planes to continually monitor each other's positions and flight paths. Airborne Internet is network will serve tens of thousands of subscribers within a super-metropolitan area, by offering ubiquitous access throughout the networkâ„¢s signal "footprint". The aircrafts will carry the "hub" of a wireless network having a star topology. The aircrafts will fly in shifts to provide continuous service, 24 hour per day by 7 days per week, with an overall system reliability of 99.9% or greater. At least three different methods have been proposed for putting communication nodes aloft. The first method would employ manned aircraft, the second method would use unmanned aircraft, and the third method would use blimps. The nodes would provide air-to-air, surface-to-air, and surface-to-surface communications. The aircraft or blimps would fly at altitudes of around 16 km, and would cover regions of about 40 mi (64 mi) in radius. Any subscriber within this region will be able to access the networkâ„¢s ubiquitous multi-gigabit per second "bit cloud" upon demand. what the airborne internet will do is provide an infrastructure that can reach areas that don't have broadband cables & wires. Data transfer rates would be on the order of several gigagabits per second, comparable to those of high-speed cable modem connections. Network users could communicate directly with other users, and indirectly with conventional Internet users through surface-based nodes. Like the Internet, the Airborne Network would use TCP/IP as the set of protocols for specifying network addresses and ensuring message packets arrive. This technology is also called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO) The concept of the Airborne Internet was first proposed at NASA Langley Research Center's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Planning Conference in 1999.

read this links to get better idea
http://www.airborneinternet.org/resource...2_SATS.pdf
http://www.howstuffworks.com/airborne-internet.htm
http://www.airborneinternet.com

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10-02-2010, 08:04 AM
Post: #3
RE: airborne internet

.pdf  Airborne Internet.pdf (Size: 553.87 KB / Downloads: 715)

AIRBORNE INTERNET
Abstract:
Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel to aviation. It is a concept that adopts modern network theory and principles into the transportation realm, creating a system in which aircraft and people in transit will be connected with a scalable, general purpose, and multi-application aviation data channel. A.I. began as a supporting technology for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS The principle behind the A.I. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data channel to aircraft. Establishing the general purpose, multiapplication digital data channel connection to the aircraft is analogous to the connection of a desktop computer to its local area network, or to Internet. A primary application for A.I. is to track aircraft for the air traffic control system. Many other applications can utilize the same A.I. data channel. Secondly, it helps in accurately determining an aircraft's position Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is a nonprofit research organization composed of aviation sector participants that collaboratively research, develop, and promote open standards and Internet protocols for aviation digital communications. With the availability of Internet technologies to all sectors of aviation from commercial to general aviation, from the flight deck to the cabin, and from flightrelated tasks to entertainment, dramatic increases in communication and transportation mobility will be achieved. Internet protocols and services will make aircraft easier to fly with more situational awareness, safety, and security. Airborne Internet has the potential to change the way aircraft receive and send data, or more appropriately, information. A.I. will provide an interconnected digital data network between aircraft and tolfrom the ground. A.I. has the potential to change how aircraft are monitored and tracked by the air traffic control system, how they exchange information with and about other aircraft



Airborne Internet
Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a
general purpose, multi-al~plication data channel to aviation. In doing so, A.I. has the
potential to provide significant cost savings Tor aircrart operalol-s a~id the FAA, as it
allows the consolidation oT many T~~n&tiointso a co~nmond ata channcl.
A primary application for A.I. is to
track aircraft Tor the air traffic control system. Many otllcr applications can ~~t i l izthee
same A.I. data chan~lel. '['he applications available are only limited by the bandwidth
available. A.1. began as a supporting technology Tor NASA's Small AircraTt
Transportation System (SATS). But there is 110 reason that A.I. should be limited to
SATS-class aircraft. All oT aviation, and even transportation, has the potential to benefit
from A.I.
'I'be principle behind the A.1. is to establish a robust,
reliable, and available digital data channel to aircraft. Establisliing tile gel-~erapl urpose,
multi-application digital data channel connection to thc aircrart is analogous to the
connection of a desktop computer to its local area nelworl<, or evcll lhe wide arca nctwork
we call the Internet. But aircraft arc mobile objects. Therefore, mobile routing is required
to maintain the data channcl connectivity while the aircraft moves Tron~ region to region.
The desktop cornpuler, \vhether used in the
office or the home, runs many tlifTcrcnl applications that can all use t l~csa nlc data
channel. The applications are tlcsignctl arouncl thc lntc~netI' rotocol (11') stancla~.ttlo takc
advantage of tlie existence of the network connection to tlic coniputcr. Airbornc Internet
is built upon the same model. A.I. will provide a general purpose, multi-application data
channel tliat numerous applications can use. By combining application and data
functionality over a common data channel, aviation has the potential to significantly
reduce costs for equipage on the ground and in the aircraft.
IT aircrart ~~tilize1dP as network computers do,
functions in the cockpit co1.11db e enabled not currently being provided. It could open LIPa
whole new set of operating capabilities, cost savings, safety and efficiency for
tomorrow's aviation industry. The Tunctions provided today Illat rccluire tlie use of
multiple on-board systems could be reduced to two simple systems. First, a rigorous and
dependable method to maintain thc airplane's connection to the ground-based If' network
is needed. This T~~nctioins feasible u s i ~ ~ag c ombination of V11I7 radio (as is used Tor
today's aircraft co~n~iiunicationsa)n d an alternate, backup commi~nicationm ethod. A
satellite comnli~nication system could be employed for aircrafl that fly in sparsely
opulated areas tliat are beyond Vk1F coverage of tlie existing NAS infrastructure, or for
any aircraft that might lose VHF coverage (even temporarily). Satellite communication is
currently being used for trans-oceanic fight today in which aircralt are clearly beyond
range of the VHF radio system in the NAS.
\
J
Second, a means of accurately deter~niliing an
aircraft's position is rccluircd. Currcnt tcclinology in GI's rcccivcrs provides position
infonnation reliably and accurately. WAAS and LAAS are aviation systems that utilize
GPS and provide en-or correction to allow aircraft the accuracy needed for navigation and
landing.
By combining the GPS provided position
illformation of any moving aircrafl (or other vehicle) with reliable mobile network
connectivity, the aircrart's position could be constantly reported to tlie ground network
for processing. Furtlier, this data could be intelligently parsed to provide position and
tracking information back to aircrart so its flight crew could be aware of other aircraft
movement in its proximity. Air-to-air position reporting is possible (such as Automatic
Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast or ADS-B) if the proper radio method is used. In the
end state, it is possible that enough aircrafl could utilize tlie A.I. arcliitecture to create a
virtual network in tlie sky.
At any given mo~iient, there are between
4500 and 6000 aircraft in flight over the United States. Air transport aircraft could not
only use A.I. for their own purposes, but they could provide a network router function
that could sell excess bandwidth to other less bandwidth-demancling aircraft. l'his
network in tlie sky not only reduces equipage and saves system costs, it could create a
revenue stream for air carriers that does not currently exist. It becon~es a win-win
situation for aviation.


ADVANTAGE
Increase productivity and e c o ~ ~ o ~gnriocw th
The use o~co~i imerciIanlt ernet protocols and services will i11ip1-ovsei tuational
awareness, wliicli will niake aircrart easier to fly and rcducc pilot workload
The growth in conncctivily will enable higher-volume ail-crali opcrations and
alIow peoplc in transit (i.c., passengers) to use otherwise unproductive timc
Communication and transportation mobility will increase, creating new markets
and causing established markets to expand at accelerated rates wliicli will increase
investments in econoniic development and create jobs
Lower cost
Flight deck fu~ictionsin the aircrart will bc coiisolidated and tlic number o r
required radios will be reduced, which will save aircralt owners money in
addition to weight and space
Most communication will occur in a peer-to-peer fashion between aircraft, wliicli
will reduce tlie amount of expensive ground infrastructure (sucli as anten~iast)h e
FAA needs to build and niaintain
Many people are already Li~iiiliarw ith commercial or[-the-sIiclr(C0TS) Intcr~iet
technologies, wliicli wi l l reduce tlie amount or time and money recluired to create
and manage tlie Airborne Internct
Increase security, reliability, and scalability
The use o l XML Web Servicc protocols will makc the Collaborativc Information
Environment (CIE) secure and reliable, i~nliltem any current aviation
communication mctliods
The Airboriie Internet will retain the resilience of the commercial Internet, which
will allow it to scale to events such as extraordinary traffic volume, disruptive
wea'ther, or exponent ional increases in user volume
i
Reduce risk
Many stakeholders will share tlie costs of creating and maintaining the Airborne
Internet, which will reduce tlie possibility of one organization dominating or
abruptly termir~alinglh c data cliannel
Increase innovation
The use of open standards will allow companies to focus on building better radios,
applications, and scrviccs inslead o r competing on basic c o n ~ r n ~ ~ n i c aplrioolo~c~ol s
Increase flexibility
The Airborne Intcrnel will be data link and device-intlcpcndcnl, which will allow
I
aircraft operators lo sclecl ecluipment based 011 111cir avai lablc resources ant1 needs
The use of conimcrcial Inlcrnel tcclinology will allow Ihc Airhome Inlcrnel and
the Collaborative lnfonnalion Environmenl lo be inleroperable with entire
transportation systenl and the rest of the world
I

APPLICATION
US Radar Using A1
A standoff radar plane used by the U.S. Air Force for deep-strike assaults since the 1991
Gulf War has been tested for providing airborne Internet access. IJnder a program called
"Interim c'apability for Airborne Nelworking," Ihe Joint Stars, or Joint Surveillance
Target Attack Radar System, aircraft used its dedicated radios to link to tlie Pentagon's
Secret IP Router Network, or Siprnet. The Air Force and Northrop Grumman Corp, tested
tlie packet data technique at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. The scheme accelerates data
rates considerably from the earlier Dial-Up Rate IP over Existing Radios, or Drier,
program, tested on Joint Stars planes in 2003. The new ICAN system can link to ground
stations via HF, UHF, VHF and satellite links. The tests at Nellis represented the initial
proof-of- concept phase. The next phase of the program includes additional testing and
prototype deployment. ?'he military's need for bandwidth is growing as forces deployed
in Iraq seek speedier access to battlefield data. Meanwhile, the I'entagon is trying to
implement its bandwidth-11uiigry network-centric warfare doctrine
I
Airborne Internet Consortium
The Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is a ilonprofit research organization co~nposed
of aviation sector participants that collaboratively research, develop, and pronlote open
standards and Internet protocols for aviation digital communications
Need
The need for an Airborne Inlernet Consortium (AIC) is basctl on thc Inclt of a colnlnon
organization for the aviation industry to Icvcragc commercial lntcrnct tcchnologics. 7'he
advent of new digital co~i~~i~unicaatnido pnr ocessing tcclinologies is radically changing
the way commercial businesses and social comm~~nicationasrc bcing concluctcd. It would
appear that aviation is the last industrial segment to enlbracc the latest digital and Internet
technologies.
The purpose of the AIC is to accelerate the rate of adoption and abso~yliono f digital and
Internet technologies into aviation. The AIC will provide the necessary research,
certification and guidance metliodologies, advocacy, and inflilence in order to create the
necessary technologies, policies, and reg~~lationresq uired for the use of commercial
Internet protocols in aviation.
With the availability of Internet technologies to all sectors of aviation from coinmercial
to general aviation, froin the flight deck to the cabin, and from flight-related tasks to
entertainment, dramatic increases ill com~unicationa nd transportation mobility will be
achieved. Internet protocols and services will make aircraft casier to fly with more
situational Awareness, salety, and sec~rrityA. lso, the productivity ~Ppassengersw ill be
increased because the growth in connectivity will allow people in transit to use otherwise
unproductive time.
Once this increased coin~nunicationa nd transportation mobility is implemented, new
markets will be created and established markets will expand at accelerated rates which
will increase investments in econoinic developinent and create jobs.
I
i
1 Scalability
To encourage the creation and gro ~1.1o1 f marl<ets, the Airborne Internet Consortiun~m ust
identify and develop technologies that will scalc. The commercial success OF Internet is
not only been due to its ability to incrcase com~iiunicationl nobility, it has also occurred
because of its ability to scale exponentially. The Intemet has been able to meet the
demands placed on it by not having a fixed network topology or architecture. For this
reason, part of the AIC efrort will include moder~ln etwork theory and principles so that
the Airborne Internet will retain the resilience of the commercial Intenlet and not fail to
scale to events such as extraordinary traffic volume, disruptive weather, or exponentional
increases in user volume.
11 JPDO Partnersl~ip
' .
The power of future networked system arcl~itcctures to transform aviation will enable
scalable airspace and aircraft architectures, flexible ground in~rastructurcs, and new
approaches to safety and security in the system of systems known as Aviation. To insure
that the Airborne Internet Consortium is aware or network theory developnlents in
aviation, the AIC will maintain a close worl<ing relationship ~ v i t hth e Joint Planning and
Development.
Objectives:
Create Airborne Internet (AI) giliding principles
Create an Ai rbor~~Inet er~ieOt perational Concept
Create and evaluate Airborne Internet "system of systcms" arcl~itcctures
Influence, tailor, or create standards for the Airborne Internet
Demonstrate the capability of an Airborne lnternet
The mission of the Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is to define, develop, and
promote the common systeln elements nccessary to deploy con~prchensivca viation-based
digital data link capabilities throughout the nation using evolving Internet technologies.
i
Outputs:
Kesearcli Studies - All research reports are copyrighted and treated as shared
data rights alnong Principal n~embers:
o National Airborne Internet operations concept
Standards and Guideli~icsR eports - All standards and guidelines reports
prepared for release into Che public domain:
o National Airborne Internet standards
o Guidelines for Airborne Internet product certification
Standards Setting Liaison - All o~~goinstga ndards liaison services provided to
nien~bersa s long as ncccssary to acliicvc thc targctcd goals for i~illi~cncinagn dlor
creating standards:
o Standards liaison worlting groups
Public and Private Benefits
The AIC intends to undertake its research through collaborations with the pirblic sector in
a manner that will:
Enable a safer, more secure, more cost efficient global airspace system by
eliminating commu~~icationas a constraint on the economic viability of aviation
related applications
Facilitate collaborative rescarcli and development in the field or aviation
communications
Develop open systems architecture and standards for aviation digital
comn~unications
Foster and proniote general purpose, multi-application, scalable data channel
protocols in aviation
Develop intellectilal content to guide public and private investment in aviation
digital communications
Prqniote inter~iationaal doption of open systems architecture, standards,
information nianagknient stri~cturesa, nd protocols Tor aviation digital
communications
Foster use of advanced aviation digital comm~~nicationtesc hnology for public
security
I
I
I How Ail-bol-11eI nternet Works
I'lic \\ old 011 Just ahout ~\~c t I.nyt crnct ~ ~ s c rli'pss these days is "broadband." We have so
ml~cli more data to scnd and dowliload today, including audio files, video files and
pllotos. that it's cloggilig our wiliipy modems. Many Internet users are switching to cable
~iiodc~iai1si d digital subscriber lilics (DSL's) to increase their bandwidth. There's also a
tqpe of service being developed tliat will take broadband into the air.
At Icast rlircc companies are planning to provide high-speed wireless Internet connection
by placing aircraft i l l fixed patterns o\/cr hundreds of cities. Angel Technologies is
platlni~lg an ail.bornc Intcrnct nc[\\;oslc, called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO),
\\-hicll \\.oulrl 11sc liglit\\!ciglit planes to cil-clc overhead and provide data delivery faster
[I1311 a -1'1 line Tor busiliesses. Cons~uncrs would get a connection coinparable to DSL.
Also. AeroVironn~elit has teamed up \\/it11 NASA on a solar-powered, unmanned plane
tliat \ \ .o~~\lvdo rk like the HALO networlc, and Sky Station International is planning a
similar using blimps instead of planes.
L
L
Architecture Development Methodology
Architecture defines thc structural and collaborativc relationships of systcm components.
Ofien described using views (e.g., r~~nctionacl,o mponent, implementation, temporal,
user), the architecture provides infomiation to guide system ant1 sortware developers
during initial development and inevitable system improvement activities. In addition to
defining the fi~nctional and physical relationships between system components,
architecture often providcs dcsign guitlance in an attcnlpt to achicvc othcr dcsirablc
objectives such as crficicnt rcsourcc utilization, inc~.cmcntal tlcvclopn~cnt, vcriliabilily,
use of COTS products, ease of maintenance, and system extensibility.
1) Understand the SATS operational concepts
2) Define system level requirements
33 Investigate and evaluate the external environment
4) Identify trends and issues that must be addressed
5) Apply mod en^ system design tcchniclues
6) Document the result and submit [or revicw
I) Understard the SATS opemtior~c~col rlce/7ts - Everyone tends to relate to SATS in a
unique way. It is more a new way of thinking about air transportation than a technical
concept that becltons to be explored. This leads to a variety of dcfinitions or what SAYS
is - or shobld be. To bind the A1 architeclure problem, we developed a set of system
operation assun~ptionsA. sampling or these key assun~ptionsi s listed below:
Pilot - Until such time as highly automated systems can be fully tested and
certified, SATS aircraft will have at least one qualilied, instrumenl rated pilot on
board. Because of the level of automation on board, the SATS system will enable
i
this pilot to be much more proficient and able to fly in nearly all weather
conditioils into a large n~unbero f minimally equipped airports.
Airspace - SATS aircraft will share airspace wit11 non-SATS aircraft. This
implies a minimum level of system co~npatibilitya nd equipage in both SATS and
non-SATS aircraft. SATS aircraft en route will operate in Class A airspace,
SATS aircraft landing at small/n~edium sized airports will operate in Class C, D,
or E airspace.
\
Avionics - in addition to the minimum set of avio~iicsre quired of normal IFRl[2]
aircraft, SATS aircraft will have 011 board additional avionics equipment to enable
the pilot to operate in near all-weather situations. \If SATS is to be prototyped in
2005 and operational in 2025, this equipment will need to be compatible with
systems used by co~nmercial and general aviation airports to not require
expensive new ground support systems not currently l>lanned by the FAA.
Flight rules - to meet its objectives, SATS aircraft will need to be able to access
sniall ant1 medium sized airports. These same airports currently support VFR2[3]
traffic in addition to IFR traffic. Flight rules will have to be modified to support a
mixture of IFR, VFR and SATS traffic.
2) Defilze syslenl level requit-ettietlts - Specific, verifiable requirements for a SATS
communications system ~ i i ~b~e sdte veloped. The co~iini~~nicatiosynsst em is unique in
that it is both an end systeni and an enabling infrastructure. As an end system it must
provide pilot-controller, pilot-pilot, and pilot-fl~ght operations communications. As an
enabling infrastructure it must support applications associated with navigation,
surveillance, and other f~lnctious.
Requirements need to be developed in the trad~tional areas of communication, navigation,
and surveillance, including both avionics and ground infrastructure, consistent with the
infrastructure defined in Ilie task below. System level I-equirements also need to be
developed for onboard f l i ~ l i tm anageine~~atn d sensor/actuator systems capable of
providing tlie level of support necessary to achieve the SATS goal of two crew
performance with a single crew nieniber. Other requirenients will include support for
passenger support systems
-3) l~rlvcstigc~cleit ltl evcllrrctte the exter-rltrl environnient - SATS, although a revolutionary
transportation concept w~ll have to work within tlie National Airspace System (NAS).
This is true both dur~ngS A'TS prototyping in 2005 and during full-scale development, in
2025. ' h e NAS itself is evolving ~iecessitating developi~ig an understanding of the
capabilities of NAS over time. This can be very tricky as the NAS is subject to many
forces that a1.e political, not technical, and as such is difficult to predict. For example,
there al-e currently three competing conimunication teclinologies to provide aircraftaircraft
position reporting. Clearly, there is agreement that position reporting is desirable,
but wh~clite chnological approach will survive is like trying to choose between VHS and
Bctamax before the ~i~arkctplachca s spolccn. .,
4) l(1enrfi tl-etlcls c~trtli sszies thcrl t7111sht e citltlr-essetl - To be successf~~Sl,A TS must
f~~nctiown~ lliint he context of technology evolution and systems development. We
present a suniniary of some of the trends and issues in Ihe next section of this paper.
I
(I
(I
4
Avionics - in addition to the minimum set of avionics required of normal IFRl[2]
aircraft, SATS aircraft will have on board additional avionics equipment to enable
the pilot to operate in near all-weather situations. \If SATS is to be prototyped in
2005 and operational in 2025, this equipment will need to be compatible with
systems used by comniercial and general aviation airports to not require
expensive new groilnd support systems not currenlly pl:unned by the FAA.
Flight rl-lles - to meet its objectives, SATS aircraft will need to be able to access
- sniall and medium sized airports. These same airports currently support VFR2[3]
traffic in addiiion to IFR traffic. Flight rules will have to be modified to support a
mixture of TFR, VFR and SATS traffic.
2) Defille system level requireltlenls - Specific, verifiable requirements for a SATS
communications system nus st be developed. The commiinications system is unique in
that it is both an end system and an enabling infrastructure. As an end system it must
provide pilot-controller, pilot-pilot, and pilot-flight operations communications. As an
enablin~ infrastructure it nus st support applications associated with navigation,
surveillance, and other runctions.
Requirements need to be developed in the traditional areas of comniunication, navigation,
and surveillance, including both avionics and groi~nd infrastructure, consistent with the
infrastructure defined in the task below. System level requirements also need to be
developed for onboard flight ~nanagement and sensor/acti~ator systems capable of
provitling the level or support necessary to achieve the SATS goal of two crew
performance with a single crew meniber. Other requiremenls will include support for
passenger support systems
3) I~l~~estigttrrrlzetl evcrl~rrlle( he e,ule~-nnel llvirolznlerlt - SATS, although a revolutionary
transporlatioii concept will have to work within the National Airspace System (NAS).
This is [rue both during SA'TS prototypii~g in 2005 and during full-scale development, in
2025. The NAS itself is evolving necessitating developing an understanding of the
capabilities of NAS over time. 'This can bc very tricky as llie NAS is subject to many
forces that are political, not Lech~iical, and as such is difficult to predict. For example,
there are currently three competing co1~~1i1iinicatiot1e1c hnolo~iest o provide aircraftaircraft
position reporting. Clearly, there is agrecn~entIl ia1 position reporting is des'irable,
but which technological approach will survive is like trying to clioose between VHS and
Bclamax belbre Ilic marketplace has spoken.
4) I(lelllrfi) tl-ends rcntl isslles thcrt mlrst he tc(ltfressec1 - To be si~ccessfirl, SATS must
filnction within the context of technology evolutio~a~n d systems development. We
present a summary of some of the trends and issues in the next section of this paper.
5) Apply ntoderrt systerlt tleslgrt lechrtiylres - SATS presents an ideal opportunity to apply
object-oriented design techniclues for the collection, analysis and doculnentation of
system architecture. Elements of tlie resulting design include:
Design patterns to identify key components of llie design
layers of abstraction to niini~nizec oupling of user level f~lnctionalityto
implen~entationd etails
Exploitation of natural coliesive~iessc, ommon sonware f i~~~c t i op~atitearln s
Communications prolocols between major fi~nctionalo bjects
Docur~zerlll lle result clntl sirbruit for revie~v- Peer review is a vital step in tlie
development of architecture for a systenl as co~nplexa nd sarety critical as a new aircraft
transportation system.
C
*<
The Airborne Irzterrret (AI) is about informalion connectivity. It is n conccpt !hat adopts
modern network theory and principlcs into the transportation realm, crealing a systenl in
which aircrafi and people in transit will be connected with a scalable, general purpose,
and multi-application aviation data channel. It connects airct-aft and pcople in transit.
Airborrre Interrret provides aircrafi to the ground,
ground to ground and aircraft to aircraft communicatiot~s in support of air trariic
management, fleet operations, and passenger support services.
Airborrre Irrterrret has the potential to change the way
aircraft receive and scnd data, or more appropriately, inforniation. A.1. will provide an
interconnected digital data networlc between aircraft and to/from the groi~ndA. .I. has tlie
potential to change how aircraft are t-nonitored atltl tracl<ed by tlie air traffic control
system, how they exchange infomiation with and about other aircraft


ABOUT A.I.
ADVANTAGES
APPLICATIONS
AIC
HOW AIRBORNE INTERNET WORKS
ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPMENT METHODOGY
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
05-04-2010, 08:46 PM
Post: #4
RE: airborne internet

.doc  AIRBORNE INTERNET.doc (Size: 240 KB / Downloads: 184)


1. INTRODUCTION
Airborne Internet is a private, secure and reliable peer-to-peer aircraft communications network that uses the same technology as the commercial Internet. It is an implementation which connects aircraft to a ground-based Internet access node, including the information which is passed across this communication link. It provides airborne access to wealth of Internet information and resources. It is convenient and has several uses like flight planning, en route reservations, travel arrangements. It is useful in providing the information about weather, surrounding airspace environment and for aircraft-to-aircraft communications. The security applications include flight tracking/deviation monitoring, in-flight video monitoring, cockpit voice/video recording.
This Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel to aviation. In doing so, A.I. has the potential to provide significant cost savings for aircraft operators as it allows the consolidation of many functions into a common data channel. A primary application for A.I. is to track aircraft for the air traffic control system. Many other applications can utilize the same A.I. data channel. The applications available are only limited by the bandwidth available.
A.I. began as a supporting technology for NASAâ„¢s Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). But there is no reason that A.I. should be limited to SATS-class aircraft. All of aviation, and even transportation, has the potential to benefit from A.I. The principle behind the A.I. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data channel to aircraft.
How does satellite Internet operate?
How do you access the Internet other than dial-up if you live too far from a phone company office for DSL and there is no cable TV on your street? Satellite Internet access may be worth considering. It's ideal for rural Internet users who want broadband access. Satellite Internet does not use telephone lines or cable systems, but instead uses a satellite dish for two-way (upload and download) data communications. Upload speed is about one-tenth of the 500 kbps download speed. Cable and DSL have higher download speeds, but satellite systems are about 10 times faster than a normal modem.
Firms that offer or plan to offer two-way satellite Internet include Star Band, Pegasus Express, Telexes and Tachyon. Tachyon service is available today in the United States, Western Europe and Mexico. Pegasus Express is the two-way version of Direct PC.
Two-way satellite Internet consists of:
¢ Approximately a two-foot by three-foot dish
¢ Two modems (uplink and downlink)
¢ Coaxial cables between dish and modem
The key installation planning requirement is a clear view to the south, since the orbiting satellites are over the equator area. And, like satellite TV, trees and heavy rains can affect reception of the Internet signals.
2. WORKING
The word on just about every Internet user's lips these days is "broadband." We have so much more data to send and download today, including audio files, video files and photos, that it's clogging our wimpy modems. Many Internet users are switching to cable modems and digital subscriber lines (DSLâ„¢s) to increase their bandwidth. There's also a new type of service being developed that will take broadband into the air.
Photo courtesy Angel Technologies
This diagram shows how the HALO Network will enable a high-speed wireless Internet connection
At least three companies are planning to provide high-speed wireless Internet connection by placing aircraft in fixed patterns over hundreds of cities. Angel Technologies is planning an airborne Internet network, called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO), which would use lightweight planes to circle overhead and provide data delivery faster than a T1 line for businesses. Consumers would get a connection comparable to DSL. Also, Aero Vironment has teamed up with NASA on a solar-powered, unmanned plane that would work like the HALO network, and Sky Station International is planning a similar venture using blimps instead of planes. Now weâ„¢ll look at the networks in development, the aircraft and how consumers may use this technology at their homes.
The Net Takes Flight
The computer most people use comes with a standard 56K modem, which means that in an ideal situation your computer would downstream at a rate of 56 kilobits per second. That speed is far too slow to handle the huge streaming-video and music files that more consumers are demanding today. That's where the need for bigger bandwidth Broadband comes in, allowing a greater amount of data to flow to and from your computer. Land-based lines are limited physically in how much data they can deliver because of the diameter of the cable or phone line. In an airborne Internet, there is no such physical limitation, enabling a broader capacity.
Several companies have already shown that satellite Internet access can work. The airborne Internet will function much like satellite-based Internet access, but without the time delay. Bandwidth of satellite and airborne Internet access are typically the same, but it will take less time for the airborne Internet to relay data because it is not as high up. Satellites orbit at several hundreds of miles above Earth. The airborne-Internet aircraft will circle overhead at an altitude of 52,000 to 69,000 feet (15,849 to 21,031 meters). At this altitude, the aircraft will be undisturbed by inclement weather and flying well above commercial air traffic.
Networks using high-altitude aircraft will also have a cost advantage over satellites because the aircraft can be deployed easily -- they don't have to be launched into space. However, the airborne Internet will actually be used to compliment the satellite and ground-based networks, not replace them. These airborne networks will overcome the last-mile barriers facing conventional Internet access options. The "last mile" refers to the fact that access to high-speed cables still depends on physical proximity, and that for this reason, not everyone who wants access can have it. It would take a lot of time to provide universal access using cable or phone lines, just because of the time it takes to install the wires. An airborne network will immediately overcome the last mile as soon as the aircraft takes off.
The airborne Internet won't be completely wireless. There will be ground-based components to any type of airborne Internet network. The consumers will have to install an antenna on their home or business in order to receive signals from the network hub overhead. The networks will also work with established Internet Service Providers (ISPs), who will provide their high-capacity terminals for use by the network. These ISPs have a fiber point of presence -- their fiber optics are already set up. What the airborne Internet will do is provide an infrastructure that can reach areas that don't have broadband cables and wires.
Photo courtesy Angel Technologies
Airborne-Internet systems will require that an antenna be attached to the side of your house or work place.
In the next three sections, we will take a look at the three aircraft that could be bringing you broadband Internet access from the sky.
3. Compare/Contrast to ground based internet
4. IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEMS
A HALO Overhead
The Angel Technologies is developing an air borne internet network through its HALO Network. The centerpiece of this network is the Proteus plane, which will carry wireless networking equipment into the air.
Photo courtesy Angel Technologies
The Proteus plane will carry the network hub for the HALO Network.
The Proteus plane, developed by Scaled Composites is designed with long wings and the low wing loading needed for extended high-altitude flight. Wing loading is equal to the entire mass of the plane divided by its wing area. Proteus will fly at heights of 9.5 and 11.4 miles (15.3 and 18.3 km) and cover an area up to 75 miles (120.7 km) in diameter.
Proteus Aircraft
Weight 9,000 pounds at takeoff
5,900 pounds empty
Wingspan 77 ft 7 inches (23.7 m)
Expandable to 92 feet (28 m)
Length 56.3 ft (17.2 m)
Height 17.6 ft (5.4 m)
Engines 2 turbofan engines
2,300 pounds of thrust
Range 18 hours
Speed 65 knots (75 mph/120.7 kph)
to 250 knots (288 mph/463.5 kph)
At the heart of Angel's Proteus plane is the one-ton airborne-network hub, which allows the plane to relay data signals from ground stations to workplaces and homes. The AI network hub consists of an antenna array and electronics for wireless communication. The antenna array creates hundreds of virtual cells, like mobile-phone cells, on the ground to serve thousands of users. An 18-foot dish underneath the plane is responsible for reflecting high-speed data signals from a ground station to your computer. Each city in the HALO Network will be allotted three piloted Proteus planes. Each plane will fly for eight hours before the next plane takes off and after takeoff it will climb to a safe altitude, above any bad weather or commercial traffic, and begin an 8-mile loop around the city.
a)Floating On Air:
Sky Station International is counting on its blimps, in the race to deliver high-speed Internet access from high altitudes and calls them as lighter-than-air platforms, and plans to station these airships, one over each city. Each station would fly at an altitude of 13 miles (21 km) and provide wireless service to an area of approximately 7,500 square miles (19,000 square km).
Sky Station Blimp
Diameter 203 ft (62 m)
Length 515 ft (157 m)
Width approx. 300 ft (91 m)
Power Solar and fuel cells
Each blimp will be equipped with a telecommunications payload to provide wireless broadband connections. The blimps will be able to carrying payloads of up to about 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg). Each blimp will have a life span of about five to 10 years. Sky Station says that its user terminals will enable broadband connections of between 2 and 10 megabits per second (Mbps).
b) NASAâ„¢s Sub-space Plans:
NASA is also playing a role in a potential airborne Internet system being developed by AeroVironment.
Photo courtesy NASA
The Helios aircraft will be equipped with telecommunications equipment and stay airborne for six months straight.
Helios Aircraft
Weight 2,048 pounds (929 kg)
Wingspan 247 ft (75.3 m)
Length 12 ft (3.7 m)
Wing Area 1,976 square ft (183.6 m2)
Propulsion 14 brushless, 2-horsepower,
direct-current electric motors
Range 1 to 3 hours in prototype tests
6 months when fully operational
Speed 19 to 25 mph (30.6 to 40.2 kph)
The Helios prototype is constructed out of materials such as carbon fiber, graphite epoxy, Kevlar and Styrofoam, covered with a thin, transparent skin. The main pole supporting the wing is made out of carbon fiber, and is thicker on the top than on the bottom in order to absorb the constant bending during flight. The wing's ribs are made of epoxy and carbon fiber. Styrofoam comprises the wing's front edge, and a clear, plastic film is wrapped around the entire wing body. The all-wing plane is divided into six sections, each 41 ft (12.5 m) long. A pod carrying the landing gear is attached under the wing portion of each section. These pods also house the batteries, flight-control computers and data instrumentation. Network hubs for AeroVironment's telecommunications system would likely be placed here as well.
It seems that airborne Internet could take off in the very near future. If and when those planes and blimps start circling to supplement our current modes of connection, downloading the massive files we've come to crave for entertainment or depend on for business purposes will be a snap -- even if we live somewhere in that "last mile."
Why all this detail?
The rather lengthy and detailed explanation just provided is to illustrate how the use of IP can very dependably be relied on to deliver network communications. Aircraft use of communication and navigation information must be nearly real time, highly dependable and it must have backup redundancy. IP has inherent redundancy in its digital delivery system, making it an excellent candidate for aircraft use. The reason IP has never been used in an aircraft context before is because until now there has not been a method proposed to keep the aircraft connected to the network, so that the IP connection is never lost. Now it is appropriate to examine how aircraft currently operate so we can draw both analogy and cite the differences between present day aircraft networks and an IP based aviation network (Airborne Internet).
5. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS
We intend to continue applying the methodology defined above to develop
Airborne Internet alternatives, analyze the advantages and disadvantages of an air Borne
Each alternative and arrive at a recommendation. Then, working with other SATS into
Organizations we will refine the architecture and document it for use by system developers.
Key elements of the architecture will be prototyped and evaluated to better understand their
Applicability to SATS. Estimates of performance and cost will be made. A separate security
Assessment will be produced.
6. CONCLUSION
Thus this airborne internet technology has a wide range of utilities in the field
of aviation services like aircraft monitoring and air traffic management, weather information etc., and also provides an opportunity for the passengers to access the internet at very high altitudes that is, in the aero planes and other conventional services. Thus it is a further new trend in this mobile world which is establishing the connectivity by building network in the air.
7. REFERENCES
¢ http://www.airborneinternet.org
¢ http://www.airborneinternet.com
¢ airborneinternet.pbwiki.com
¢ spacecom.grc.nasa.gov/icnsconf/docs/2006/02_Session_A1
¢ acb100.tc.faa.gov/Briefings/Sept28,2005Keegan
¢ web.uwaterloo.ca/uwsearch.php?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&q=related:www.aerosat.com
¢ ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/10432/33126/01559440.pdf?arnumber=15594
¢ http://www.datev.de/dpilexikon/ShowLexik...=buchstabe
¢ http://www.tc.faa.gov/act4/insidethefence

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05-07-2010, 05:27 PM
Post: #5
RE: airborne internet

.doc  Air Borne Internet.doc (Size: 303.5 KB / Downloads: 174)
Æ’

ABSTRACT

The word on just about every Internet user's lips these days is "broadband." We have so much more data to send and download today, including audio files, video files and photos, that it's clogging our wimpy modems. Many Internet users are switching to cable modems and digital subscriber lines (DSLâ„¢s) to increase their bandwidth. There's also a new type of service being developed that will take broadband into the air.
Our paper explains some of the drawbacks that exist in satellite Internet and introduces the airborne Internet, called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO), which would use lightweight planes to circle overhead and provide data delivery faster than a T1 line for businesses. Consumers would get a connection comparable to DSL. The HALO Network will serve tens of thousands of subscribers within a super-metropolitan area, by offering ubiquitous access throughout the networkâ„¢s signal "footprint". The HALO aircraft will carry the "hub" of a wireless network having a star topology. The initial HALO Network is expected to provide a raw bit capacity exceeding 16 Gbps.
The concept of basic network connectivity could be used to connect mobile vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, trains, and even aircraft. Network connectivity could be obtained between vehicles and a ground network infrastructure.

INTRODUCTION

High Altitude Long Operation (HALO) airplane is specially engineered for providing wireless communications networks, as a compliment to the existing system. The HALO airplane has a fixed-wing airframe with twin turbofan propulsion. The HALO Network will serve tens of thousands of subscribers within a super-metropolitan area, by offering ubiquitous access throughout the networkâ„¢s signal "footprint". The HALO aircraft will carry the "hub" of a wireless network having a star topology. The initial HALO Network is expected to provide a raw bit capacity exceeding 16 Gbps, which by utilizing packet-switching could, for example, serve 50,000 to 100,000 subscribers requiring links with DSL-equivalent peak data rates in both directions.
Three HALO aircraft will fly in shifts to provide continuous service, 24 hour per day by 7 days per week, with an overall system reliability of 99.9% or greater. The HALO airplane will fly above commercial airline traffic and adverse weather at altitudes higher than 51,000 and will provide a communications service footprint or "Cone of Commerce" of approximately 120 kilometers in diameter. Any subscriber within that region will be able to access the HALO Networkâ„¢s ubiquitous multi-gigabit per second "bit cloud" upon demand.

SATELLITE INTERNET

It takes weeks, sometimes months, to get a terrestrial broadband connection installed. Sometimes it takes that long before the provider admits that it cannot be delivered at all. Satellite Internet does not require the user to have any particular type of software, hardware or network. The system meshes with any combination of PCs, Macs, and UNIX or mainframe computers. It will plug into any network and performs well. Adding capacity can be handled remotely, meaning your satellite Internet can easily grow as your company grows. A temporary increase for a special situation can be handled without any difficulty.

WORKING

The data travels from the satellite equipment at the customers location to the satellite, and then to the teleport for routing to the Internet. The teleport is a secure facility where many large aperture satellite dishes are operated. The SES American operations center is located at the teleport and our equipment is located in a leased area inside the Network Operations Center (NOC).
At the NOC, routers are connected to the Internet using optical connections to a Internet backbone provider. Proprietary acceleration and advanced spoofing technology is employed to provide IP transparency and increase throughput speed.
Spoofing makes the service capable of very high speeds. The entire Internet is based on TCP/IP. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) manages and controls transmissions using IP (Internet Protocol). TCP sends data and looks for acknowledgments (receipts) sent back from the receiving end to indicate that everything was received. If the acknowledgments are not received, TCP resends the packets and slows down its transmission speed for future data. TCP expects these acknowledgments to be received within a certain time frame. Because of the long round-trip (90,000+ miles) that the packets must travel over the satellite link and back, the acknowledgments are delayed by several hundred milliseconds. If uncorrected, this delay would cause TCP to throttle back its speed dramatically.
Spoofing is accomplished by special NOC equipment (Hybrid Gateway) that causes TCP acknowledgments to be returned to the sender very quickly. It does this by spoofing (pretending to be the remote site) and acknowledging the packets instantly, at the same time as it forwards the packets to the remote site.

DRAWBACKS

GEO satellites, when compared to terrestrial networks, are not as well suited to the tasks of connecting regional telecommuters to their corporate backbone and of transacting small information packets.
GEO satellites are less desirable than terrestrial networks for performing highly interactive collaborative work, now commonly occurring on modern corporate and campus networks.
Though GEOs offer a large amount of bandwidth downstream, they are challenged to offer a high enough upstream rate for truly interactive broadband services involving peer-to-peer active collaboration.
The cost to provide sufficient power in terrestrial end-user terminals in order to uplink the signals to the satellite at a high rate, especially through dense rain, are considered too high for the consumer, the small office/home office (SOHO), and even for most small- and medium-size businesses.
If you are located on the equator and are communicating with a satellite directly overhead then the total distance (up and down again) is nearly 72,000 km so the time delay is 240 ms. A satellite is visible from a little less than one third of the earth's surface and if you are located at the edge of this area the satellite appears to be just above the horizon. The distance to the satellite is greater and for earth stations at the extreme edge of the coverage area, the distance to the satellite is approx 41756 km. If you were to communicate with another similarly located site, the total distance is nearly 84,000 km so the end to end delay is almost 280 ms, which is a little over quarter of a second.
Extra delays occur due to the length of cable extensions at either end, and very much so if a signals is routed by more than one satellite hop. Significant delay can also be added in routers, switches and signal processing points along the route. The use of the TCP/IP protocol over satellite is not good and a number of companies have developed ways of temporarily changing the protocol to XTP over the satellite link to achieve IP acceleration.

AIRBORNE INTERNET

It was already shown that satellite Internet access can work. The airborne Internet will function much like satellite-based Internet access, but without the time delay. Bandwidth of satellite and airborne Internet access are typically the same, but it will take less time for the airborne Internet to relay data because it is not as high up. Satellites orbit at several hundreds of miles above Earth. The airborne-Internet aircraft will circle overhead at an altitude of 52,000 to 69,000 feet (15,849 to 21,031 meters). At this altitude, the aircraft will be undisturbed by inclement weather and flying well above commercial air traffic.
An airborne Internet network, called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO), which would use lightweight planes to circle overhead and provide data delivery faster than a T1 line for businesses. Consumers would get a connection comparable to DSL. The equipment will connect to existing networks and telecommunications equipment using standard broadband protocols such as ATM and SONET. The HALO Gateway provides access to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and to the Internet backbone for such services as the World Wide Web and electronic commerce.
Key Features
The key features of the HALO Network are summarized below:
¢ Seamless ubiquitous multimedia services
¢ Adaptation to end user environments
¢ Enhanced user connectivity globally
¢ Rapidly deployable to sites of opportunity
¢ Secure and reliable information and data transactions
¢ Bandwidth on demand for efficient use of available spectrum
HALO - overview
There are various classes of service to be provided: (a) 1-5 Mbps communication links to consumers; and (b) 5-12.5 Mbps links for business users. Since the links would be bandwidth-on-demand, the total available spectrum would be shared between concurrent active sessions. The nominal data rates would be low while the peak rates would expand to a specified level. A gateway type service can be provided for dedicated links at 25-155 Mbps.
Network Access various methods for providing access to the users on the ground are feasible. The figure below shows one approach where each spot beam from the payload antenna serves a single cell on the ground in a frequency-division multiplex fashion with 5-to-1 frequency reuse, four for subscriber units and the fifth for gateways to the public network and to high-rate subscribers. Other reuse factors such as 7:1 and 9:1 are possible. Various network access approaches are being explored.

HALO Network Architecture

The HALO node provides a multitude of connectivity options as shown on the next page. It can be used to connect physically separated Local Area Networks (LANs) within a corporate intranet through frame relay adaptation or directly through LAN bridges and routers. Or it can provide videoconference links through standard ISDN or T1 interface hardware. The HALO Network may use standard SONET and ATM protocols and equipment to minimize the cost of the equipment and to take advantage of the wide availability of these components.
At the apex of a wireless Cone of Commerce, the payload of the HALO Aircraft becomes the hub of a star topology network for routing data packets between any two subscribers possessing premise equipment within the service coverage area. A single hop with only two links is required, each link connecting the payload to a subscriber. The links are wireless, broadband and line of sight.

HALO Network Architecture

Information created outside the service area is delivered to the subscriberâ„¢s consumer premise equipment (CPE) through business premise equipment (BPE) operated by businesses, Internet Service Providers (ISPs), or content providers within that region, and through the HALO Gateway ("HG") equipment directly connected to distant metropolitan areas via leased trunks. The HG is a portal serving the entire network. It avails system-wide access to content providers or advertisers, and it allows any subscriber to extend their communications beyond the HALO Network service area by connecting them to dedicated long-distance lines such as inter-metro optical fiber.
As with all wireless millimeter wave links, high rainfall rates can reduce the effective data throughput of the link to a given subscriber. It is planned to ensure maximum data rates more than 99.7% of the time, reduced data rates above an acceptable minimum more than 99.9% of the time, and to limit outages to small areas (due to the interception of the signal path by very dense rain columns) less than 0.1% of the time. It is planned to locate the HG close to the HALO orbit center to reduce the slant range from its high-gain antenna to the aircraft and hence its signal path length through heavy rainfall.

HALO Aircraft

The aircraft has been specially designed for the HALO Network with the Communications Payload Pod suspended from the underbelly of its fuselage. The HALO Aircraft will fly above the metropolitan center in a circular orbit of five to eight nautical miles diameter. The Communications Payload Pod is mounted to a pylon under the fuselage. As the aircraft varies its roll angle to fly in the circular orbit, the Communications Payload Pod will pivot on the pylon to remain level with the ground.
HALO Aircraft

Communications Payload

The HALO Network will use an array of narrow beam antennas on the HALO Aircraft to form multiple cells on the ground. Each cell covers a small geographic area, e.g., 4 to 8 square miles. The wide bandwidths and narrow beam widths within each beam or cell are achieved by using MMW frequencies. Small aperture antennas can be used to achieve small cells.

SUBSCRIBER UNITS

The block diagram entails three major sub-groups of hardware: the RF Unit (RU) which contains the MMW Antenna and MMW Transceiver; the Network Interface Unit (NIU); and the application terminals such as PCs, telephones, video servers, video terminals, etc. The RU consist of a small dual-feed antenna and MMW transmitter and receiver which is mounted to the antenna. An antenna tracking unit uses a pilot tone transmitted from the HALO Aircraft to point its antenna at the airplane.
The MMW transmitter accepts an L-band (950 - 1950 MHz) IF input signal from the NIU, translates it to MMW frequencies, amplifies the signal using a power amplifier to a transmit power level of 100 - 500 mW of power and feeds the antenna. The MMW receiver couples the received signal from the antenna to a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), down converts the signal to an L-band IF and provides subsequent amplification and processing before outputting the signal to the NIU. Although the MMW transceiver is broadband, it typically will only process a single 40 MHz channel at any one time. The particular channel and frequency is determined by the NIU.
The NIU interfaces to the RU via a coax pair which transmits the L-band TX and RX signals between the NIU and the RU. The NIU comprises an L-band tuner and down converter, a high-speed (up to 60 Mbps) demodulator, a high-speed modulator, multiplexers and de-multiplexers, and data, telephony and video interface electronics. Each user terminal will provide access to data at rates up to 51.84 Mbps each way. In some applications, some of this bandwidth may be used to incorporate spread spectrum coding to improve performance against interference (in this case, the user information rate would be reduced).
The NIU equipment can be identical to that already developed for LMDS and other broadband services. This reduces the cost of the HALO Network services to the consumer since there would be minimal cost to adapt the LMDS equipment to this application and we could take advantage of the high volume expected in the other services.
Also, the HALO RU can be very close in functionality to the RU in the other services (like LMDS) since the primary difference is the need for a tracking function for the antenna. The electronics for the RF data signal would be identical if the same frequency band is utilized. The subscriber equipment can be readily developed by adapting from existing equipment for broadband services.

CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES

The HALO Network is capable of providing high rate communications to users of multimedia and broadband services. The feasibility of this approach is reasonably assured due to the convergence of technological advancements.
The key enabling technologies at hand include:
 GaAs (Gallium Arsenide) RF devices which operate at MMW frequencies
 ATM/SONET Technology and Components
 Digital Signal Processing for Wideband Signals
 Video Compression
 Very Dense Memory Capacity
 Aircraft Technology
These technologies are individually available, to a great extent, from commercial markets. The HALO Network seeks to integrate these various technologies into a service of high utility to small and medium businesses and other multimedia consumers at a reasonable cost.

ADVANTAGES

Wireless Communications from High Altitude Aircraft
The HALO aircraft will operate above 52,000 feet, high above commercial airline traffic and adverse weather. Viewed as a very tall tower or an "atmospheric satellite," the HALO aircraft with its large antenna array and network components will serve customers throughout an area of thousands of square miles. The HALO aircraft has a fixed-wing airframe with twin turbofan propulsion.

Ubiquitous Access through the HALO Network

Prospective customers, irrespective of their location within the service area will be able to access the HALO Network unobstructed by foliage, buildings, and local terrain. This attribute, referred to as "ubiquitous access," results from the high operating altitude of the HALO aircraft.

The HALO Network Compared to Terrestrial Wireless Networks

The HALO Network utilizes a frequency re-use pattern to cover the service area with hundreds of contiguous virtual cells, each comparable to a terrestrial tower offering broadband service at millimeter-wave frequencies. The deployment of a terrestrial wireless network may be sporadic and local since it requires negotiations of roof rights, compliance with local zoning laws, and construction of many towers. In contrast, the HALO Network can offer ubiquitous access and a consistent quality of service to prospective subscribers throughout the entire super-metropolitan region on the first day of service. In addition, Angel can easily and immediately implement network-wide performance enhancements through scheduled upgrades of modular components.

The HALO Network Compared to Satellite Systems

The HALO Network can complement satellite systems by transmitting local or regional content, and by serving as a local concentrator of data traffic. The HALO aircraft is 10 to 1,000 times closer to the user than a satellite, with 10 times the available electrical power.

Consequently, the HALO Network can allocate significant capacity directly to densely populated regions. Unlike satellite systems, which are "all or nothing" multi-billion dollar investments, the HALO Network can be financed one market at a time. In addition, the central node of the HALO Network, the airborne hub, can be routinely serviced for optimal performance, and be steadily enhanced with emerging technologies resulting from world-wide competition.

Routine Operations and Maintenance

HALO aircraft will be certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for piloted commercial operation and can operate from regional airports without special authorization. The aircraft can utilize alternate airports anywhere within a 300 mile radius of the city if required. Such operational flexibility ensures service availability. Prior to each flight, the aircraft and their HALO Network components undergo scheduled maintenance to guarantee high service quality. Each HALO site is serviced by a fleet of three HALO aircraft which operate in overlapping shifts around-the-clock.

Broadband Services for Businesses

Corporations with local area networks and intranets will use the HALO Network to extend their LANs outside the corporate firewall to their employeeâ„¢s homes, regional offices, field locations, key suppliers and customers. Corporations also will be able to utilize video conferencing and allow their employees to telecommute, saving both time and money. Entrepreneurs, consultants, and small companies will form virtual corporations interconnected within the Cone of Commerce." Business users will be offered connection speeds ranging from 5 to 12.5 Mbps. Initial high capacity users can enjoy links at 25 Mbps and higher.

Ease of Installation


It is designed the HALO Network and the consumer premise equipment (CPE) to ensure ease of installation by the consumer. The CPE, whether delivered or purchased through a retailer, is designed for rapid installation and ease of use. The antenna is self-pointing and is mounted on an outside area offering a clear view of the HALO aircraft.

CONCLUSION

Using this wireless broadband "super-metropolitan" area network, tens to hundreds of thousands of subscribers could be integrated each at multi-megabit per second data rates. A HALO aircraft will operate above commercial airline traffic to serve as the hub of the millimeter wave wireless broadband network providing ubiquitous coverage as well as dedicated point-to-point connections. Broadband wireless services will be delivered to diverse enterprises to promote new forms of dialogue and interaction.


REFERENCES

1. J. Martin and N. Colella , "Broadband Wireless Services from High Altitude Long Operation (HALO) Aircraft,"
2. N. Colella and J. Martin, "The Cone of Commerce".
3.G. Djuknic, J. Freidenfelds, et al., "Establishing Wireless Communications Services via High-Altitude Aeronautical Platforms: A Concept Whose Time Has Come.

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