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android full report

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ABSTRACT

Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code. The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.

1. INTRODUCTION
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.
1.1. THE BIRTH OF ANDROID
1.1.1. Google Acquires Android Inc.
In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc., a small startup company based in Palo Alto, CA. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (one of the first engineers at WebTV). At the time, little was known about the functions of Android Inc. other than they made software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team, led by Rubin, developed a Linux-based mobile device OS which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.
1.1.2. Open Handset Alliance Founded
On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile, Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, an open source mobile device platform based on the Linux operating system.
1.1.3. Hardware
Google has unveiled at least three prototypes for Android, at the Mobile World Congress on February 12, 2008. One prototype at the ARM booth displayed several basic Google applications. A 'd-pad' control zooming of items in the dock with a relatively quick response.
A prototype at the Google IO conference on May 28, 2008 had a 528 MHz Qualcomm processor and a Synaptics capacitive touch screen, and used the UMTS cellular standard. It had 128 MB of RAM and 256 MB of flash, showing that Android's memory requirements are reasonable. The demo was carried out using a 3.6 Mbit/s HSDPA connection.
1.2. FEATURES
1.2.1. Application Framework
It is used to write applications for Android. Unlike other embedded mobile environments, Android applications are all equal, for instance, an applications which come with the phone are no different than those that any developer writes.The framework is supported by numerous open source libraries such as openssl, SQLite and libc. It is also supported by the Android core libraries. From the point of security, the framework is based on UNIX file system permissions that assure applications have only those abilities that mobile phone owner gave them at install time.
1.2.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine
It is extremely low-memory based virtual machine, which was designed especially for Android to run on embedded systems and work well in low power situations. It is also tuned to the CPU attributes. The Dalvik VM creates a special file format (.DEX) that is created through build time post processing. Conversion between Java classes and .DEX format is done by included dx tool.
1.2.3. Integrated Browser
Google made a right choice on choosing WebKit as open source web browser. They added a two pass layout and frame flattening. Two pass layout loads a page without waiting for blocking elements, such as external CSS or external JavaScript and after a while renders again with all resources downloaded to the device. Frame flattening converts founded frames into single one and loads into the browser. These features increase speed and usability browsing the internet via mobile phone.
1.2.4. Optimized Graphics
As Android has 2D graphics library and 3D graphics based on OpenGL ES 1.0, possibly we will see great applications like Google Earth and spectacular games like Second Life, which come on Linux version. At this moment, the shooting legendary 3D game Doom was presented using Android on the mobile phone.
1.2.5. SQLite
Extremely small (~500kb) relational database management system, which is integrated in Android. It is based on function calls and single file, where all definitions, tables and data are stored. This simple design is more than suitable for a platform such as Android.
1.2.6. Handset Layouts
The platform is adaptable to both larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 1.0 specifications, traditional smart phone layouts. An underlying 2D graphics engine is also included. Surface Manager manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications
1.2.7. Data Storage
SQLite is used for structured data storage .SQLite is a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications.
1.2.8. Connectivity
Android supports a wide variety of connectivity technologies including GSM, CDMA, Bluetooth, EDGE, EVDO, 3G and Wi-Fi.
1.2.9. Messaging
SMS, MMS, and XMPP are available forms of messaging including threaded text messaging.
1.2.10. Web Browser
The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit application framework. It includes LibWebCore which is a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view.
1.2.11. Java Virtual Machine
Software written in Java can be compiled into Dalvik bytecodes and executed in the Dalvik virtual machine, which is a specialized VM implementation designed for mobile device use, although not technically a standard Java Virtual Machine.
1.2.12. Media Support
Android will support advanced audio/video/still media formats such as MPEG-4, H.264, MP3, and AAC, AMR, JPEG, PNG, GIF.
1.2.13. Additional Hardware Support
Android is fully capable of utilizing video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS, compasses, accelerometers, and accelerated 3D graphics.
1.2.14. Development Environment
Includes a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling, a plugin for the Eclipse IDE. There are a number of hardware dependent features, for instance, a huge media and connections support, GPS, improved support for Camera and simply GSM telephony. A great work was done for the developers to start work with Android using device emulator, tools for debugging and plugin for Eclipse IDE.
2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TOPIC
2.1. OPERATION
2.1.1. Android Runtime
Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently.
The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included "dx" tool.The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.
2.1.2. Linux Kernel
Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.
It helps to manage security, memory management, process management, network stack and other important issues. Therefore, the user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers required in order to run it.
Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user.Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems.

2.2. ARCHITECTURE
The following diagram shows the major components of the Android operating system. Each section is described in more detail below.
Figure 2.1 : Architecture Of Android
2.2.1. Linux Kernel
Android Architecture is based on Linux 2.6 kernel. It helps to manage security, memory management, process management, network stack and other important issues. Therefore, the user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers required in order to run it. Android provides the support for the Qualcomm MSM7K chipset family. For instance, the current kernel tree supports Qualcomm MSM 7200A chipsets, but in the second half of 2008 we should see mobile devices with stable version Qualcomm MSM 7200, which includes major features:
¢ WCDMA/HSUPA and EGPRS network support
¢ Bluetooth 1.2 and Wi-Fi support
¢ Digital audio support for mp3 and other formats
¢ Support for Linux and other third-party operating systems
¢ Java hardware acceleration and support for Java applications
¢ Qcamera up to 6.0 megapixels
¢ gpsOne “ solution for GPS
¢ and lots of other.
2.2.2. Libraries
In the next level there are a set of native libraries written in C/C++, which are responsible for stable performance of various components. For example, Surface Manager is responsible for composing different drawing surfaces on the mobile screen. It manages the access for different processes to compose 2D and 3D graphic layers.OpenGL ES and SGL make a core of graphic libraries and are used accordingly for 3D and 2D hardware acceleration. Moreover, it is possible to use 2D and 3D graphics in the same application in Android. The media framework was provided by PacketVideo, one of the members of OHA. It gives libraries for a playback and recording support for all the major media and static image files. FreeType libraries are used to render all the bitmap and vector fonts. For data storage, Android uses SQLite. As mentioned before, it is extra light rational management system, which locates a single file for all operations related to database. WebKit, the same browser used by Applesâ„¢ Safari, was modified by Android in order to fit better in a small size screens.
2.2.3. Android Runtime
At the same level there is Android Runtime, where the main component Dalvik Virtual Machine is located. It was designed specifically for Android running in limited environment, where the limited battery, CPU, memory and data storage are the main issues. Android gives an integrated tool dx, which converts generated byte code from .jar to .dex file, after this byte code becomes much more efficient to run on the small processors.

Figure 2.2 : Conversion from .java to .dex file
As the result, it is possible to have multiple instances of Dalvik virtual machine running on the single device at the same time. The Core libraries are written in Java language and contains of the collection classes, the utilities, IO and other tools.
2.2.4. Application Framework
After that, there is Application Framework, written in Java language. It is a toolkit that all applications use, ones which come with mobile device like Contacts or SMS box, or applications written by Google and any Android developer. It has several components.
The Activity Manager manages the life circle of the applications and provides a common navigation back stack for applications, which are running in different processes. The Package Manager keeps track of the applications, which are installed in the device. The Windows Manager is Java programming language abstraction on the top of lower level services that are provided by the Surface Manager.
The Telephony Manager contains of a set of API necessary for calling applications.
Content Providers was built for Android to share a data with other applications, for instance, the contacts of people in the address book can be used in other applications too. The Resource Manager is used to store localized strings, bitmaps, layout file descriptions and other external partsof the application. The View System generates a set of buttons and lists used in UI. Other components like Notification manager is used to customize display alerts and other functions.
2.2.5. Application Layer
At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications, which are used by the final user. By installing different applications, the user can turn his mobile phone into the unique, optimized and smart mobile phone. All applications are written using the Java programming language.
2.3. DEVELOPING APPLICATIONS
2.3.1. Application Building Blocks
We can think of an Android application as a collection of components, of various kinds. These components are for the most part quite loosely coupled, to the degree where you can accurately describe them as a federation of components rather than a single cohesive application.
Generally, these components all run in the same system process. It's possible (and quite common) to create multiple threads within that process, and it's also possible to create completely separate child processes if you need to. Such cases are pretty uncommon though, because Android tries very hard to make processes transparent to your code.
Google provides three versions of SDK for Windows, for Mac OSX and one for Linux.The developer can use Android plugin for Eclipse IDE or other IDEs such as intelliJ.First step for Android developer is to decompose the prospective application into the components, which are supported by the platform. The major building blocks are these:
¢ Activity
¢ Intent Receiver
¢ Service
¢ Content Provider
2.3.1.1. Activity
User interface component, which corresponds to one screen at time. It means that for the simple application like Address Book, the developer should have one activity for displaying contacts, another activity component for displaying more detailed information of chosen name and etc.
2.3.1.2. Intent Receiver
Wakes up a predefined action through the external event. For example,for the application like Email Inbox, the developer should have intent receiver and register his code through XML to wake up an alarm notification, when the user receives email.
2.3.1.3. Service
A task, which is done in the background. It means that the user can start an application from the activity window and keep the service work, while browsing other applications. For instance, he can browse Google Maps application while holding a call or listening music while browsing other applications.
2.3.1.4. Content Provider
A component, which allows sharing some of the data with other processes and applications. It is the best way to communicate the applications between each other.Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications are written using the Java programming language.
2.3.2. AndroidManifest.xml
The AndroidManifest.xml file is the control file that tells the system what to do with all the top-level components (specifically activities, services, intent receivers, and content providers described below) you've created. For instance, this is the "glue" that actually specifies which Intents your Activities receive.
A developer should predefine and list all components, which he wants to use in the specific AndroidManifest.xml file. It is a required file for all the applications and is located in the root folder. It is possible to specify all global values for the package, all the components and its classes used, intent filters, which describe where and when the certain activity should start, permissions and instrumentation like security control and testing.
Here is an example of AndroidManifest.xml file:
1. <xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8">
2. <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
3. package="dk.mdev.android.hello">
4. <application android:icon="@drawable/icon">
5. <activity class=".HelloAndroid" android:label="@string/app_name">
6. <intent-filter>
7. <action android:value="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
8. <category android:value="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER"/>
9. </intent-filter>
10. </activity>
11. </application>
12. </manifest>
The line 2 is a namespace declaration, which makes a standard Android attributes available for that application. In the line 4 there is a single <application> element, where the developer specifies all application level components and its properties used by the package. Activity class in the line 5 represents the initial screen the user sees and it may have one or more <intent-filter> elements to describe the actions that activity supports.
2.3.3. Application Lifecycle
In Android, every application runs in its own process, which gives better performance in security, protected memory and other benefits. Therefore, Android is responsible to run and shut down correctly these processes when it is needed.
It is important that application developers understand how different application components (in particular Activity, Service, and BroadcastReceiver) impact the lifetime of the application's process. Not using these components correctly can result in the system killing the application's process while it is doing important work.
To determine which processes should be killed when low on memory, Android places each process into an "importance hierarchy" based on the components running in them and the state of those components. These process types are (in order of importance).
1. A foreground process is one that is required for what the user is currently doing. Various application components can cause its containing process to be considered foreground in different ways. A process is considered to be in the foreground if any of the following conditions hold:
i. It is running an Activity at the top of the screen that the user is interacting with (its onResume() method has been called).
ii. It has a BroadcastReceiver that is currently running (its BroadcastReceiver.onReceive() method is executing).
iii. It has a Service that is currently executing code in one of its callbacks (Service.onCreate(), Service.onStart(), or Service.onDestroy()).
There will only ever be a few such processes in the system, and these will only be killed as a last resort if memory is so low that not even these processes can continue to run. Generally, at this point, the device has reached a memory paging state, so this action is required in order to keep the user interface responsive.
2. A visible process is one holding an Activity that is visible to the user on-screen but not in the foreground (its onPause() method has been called). This may occur, for example, if the foreground Activity is displayed as a dialog that allows the previous Activity to be seen behind it. Such a process is considered extremely important and will not be killed unless doing so is required to keep all foreground processes running.
3. A service process is one holding a Service that has been started with the startService() method. Though these processes are not directly visible to the user, they are generally doing things that the user cares about (such as background mp3 playback or background network data upload or download), so the system will always keep such processes running unless there is not enough memory to retain all foreground and visible process.
4. A background process is one holding an Activity that is not currently visible to the user (its onStop() method has been called). These processes have no direct impact on the user experience. Provided they implement their Activity life-cycle correctly (see Activity for more details), the system can kill such processes at any time to reclaim memory for one of the three previous processes types. Usually there are many of these processes running, so they are kept in an LRU list to ensure the process that was most recently seen by the user is the last to be killed when running low on memory.
5. An empty process is one that doesn't hold any active application components. The only reason to keep such a process around is as a cache to improve startup time the next time a component of its application needs to run. As such, the system will often kill these processes in order to balance overall system resources between these empty cached processes and the underlying kernel caches.

Figure 2.3 : Flowchart Showing The Lifecycle Of An Activity

In the following example we will display a process flow from the Android System point of view to get a clear idea how the applications behave. Let assume the
Figure 2.4
Possible scenario: A user talks to his friend via mobile phone and he is asked to browse the internet (a talk is hold for a moment), find a picture of him in his Picasa Album, send it via Email back to his friend and resume a talk.
In this situation, there are 4 different applications and 4 different processes running, but from the user point of view none of them are important, as Android manages CPU work and memory usage by itself. It means the user can travel through the applications forward and back without thinking about how much memory is left or which processes are run at the time.Firstly, as the user is talking to his friend, a specific Talk application is opened, which contains the activity manager. In the following stack we can see two processes running, the main system process and Talk application process. Moreover, before going to Web Browser application, the system saves a Talk state T in order to remember that process:

Figure 2.5
At this point, as a user holds a talk and opens a web browser, the system creates a new process and new web browser activity is launched in it. Again, the state of the last activity is saved (W):

Figure 2.6
After that, the user browses the internet, finds his picture in Picasa album and saves it to particular folder. He does not close a web browser, instead he opens a folder to find saved picture. The folder activity is launched in particular process:

Figure 2.7
At this point, the user finds his saved picture in the folder and he creates a request to open an Email application. The last state F is saved. Now assume that the mobile phone is out of the memory and there is no room to create a new process for Email application. Therefore, Android looks to kill a process. It can not destroy Folder process, as it was used previously and could be reused again, so it kills Web Browser process as it is not useful anymore and locates a new Email process instead:

Figure 2.8
The user opens Email application and sends a picture to his friend via email. Now he wants to go back to the Talk application and to resume a talk to his friend. Because of the previously saved states, this work is done fast and easily. In this example, Email application is popped out and the user sees a previous Folder application:

Figure 2.9
Next, the user goes back to Web Browser application. Unfortunately, web browser process was killed previously so the system has to kill another process (in our case it is Email application process, which is not used anymore) in order to locate Web Browser process and manage the stack memory:

Figure 2.10
and finally:

Figure 2.11
Now the user comes back to the Talk application and resumes his talk with his friend.Because of the saved states, going back procedure is fast and useful, because it remembers previous activities and its views.
This example shows, that it does not matter how many applications and processes are active or how much available memory is left, Android it manages fast and without a user interaction.
2.3.4. Application Framework
Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user.
Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems, including:
1. A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
2. Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts), or to share their own data
3. A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files
4. A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar
5. An Activity Manager that manages the life cycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack
2.3.5. Library
¢ Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Android system. These capabilities are exposed to developers through the Android application framework. Some of the core libraries are listed below:
¢ System C library - a BSD-derived implementation of the standard C system library (libc), tuned for embedded Linux-based devices
¢ Media Libraries - based on PacketVideo's OpenCORE; the libraries support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formats, as well as static image files, including MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, and PNG
¢ Surface Manager - manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications .
¢ LibWebCore - a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view
¢ SGL - the underlying 2D graphics engine
¢ 3D libraries - an implementation based on OpenGL ES 1.0 APIs; the libraries use either hardware 3D acceleration (where available) or the included, highly optimized 3D software rasterizer
¢ FreeType - bitmap and vector font rendering
¢ SQLite - a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications
2.4. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
The feedback on developing applications for the Android platform has been mixed. Issues cited include bugs, lack of documentation, inadequate QA .The first publicly available application was the Snake game.
2.4.1. Software Development kit
It includes development and debugging tools, a set of libraries, a device emulator, documentation, sample projects, tutorials, and FAQs. Requirements also include Java Development Kit, Apache Ant, and Python 2.2 or later. The only officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse 3.2 or later, through the Android Development Tools Plugin, but programmers can use command line tools to create, build and debug Android applications.
Partial Listing of Open Handset Alliance Participants
Core Technology Vendors
Figure 2.12
2.5. SECURITY ISSUES
Android mobile phone platform is going to be more secure than Appleâ„¢s iPhone or any other device in the long run. There are several solutions nowadays to protect Google phone from various attacks. One of them is security vendor McAfee, a member of Linux Mobile (LiMo) Foundation. This foundation joins particular companies to develop an open mobile-device software platform. Many of the companies listed in the LiMo Foundation have also become members of the Open Handset Alliance (OHA).
As a result, Linux secure coding practice should successfully be built into the Android development process. However, open platform has its own disadvantages, such as source code vulnerability for black-hat hackers. In parallel with great opportunities for mobile application developers, there is an expectation for exploitation and harm. Stealthy Trojans hidden in animated images, particular viruses passed from friend to friend, used for spying and identity theft, all these threats will be active for a long run.
Another solution for such attacks is SMobile Systems mobile package. SecurityShield “an integrated application that includes anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall and other mobile protection is up and ready to run on the Android operating system. Currently, the main problem is availability for viruses to pose as an application and do things like dial phone numbers, send text messages or multi-media messages or make connections to the Internet during normal device use. It is possible for somebody to use the GPS feature to
track a personâ„¢s location without their knowledge. Hence SMobile Systems is ready to notify and block these secure alerts. But the truth is that it is not possible to secure your mobile device or personal computer completely, as it connects to the internet. And neither the Android phone nor other devices will prove to be the exception.
2.6. COMPARISON
2.6.1. Speculations With Cellular Carriers
Google Android enters a tangled mess of cellular carrier world. As a new player in the mobile market, Android brings an open platform with the new rules. On the one hand there is OHA with major companies and carries, such as T-Mobile and Sprint. On the other hand, there are two largest cellular carries AT&T and Verizon Wireless in United States, which have a vested interest in operating systems of their own. It is predictable,that Sprint or T-Mobile will be first carriers providing devices with Google Android. This ensures equal development time for the networks, GSM side and CDMA.But the main problem, which faces all the cellular carriers around the world, is the availability to download and use free applications that could block almost every communications product they sell. A user does not need to pay for GPS mapping service anymore. He can simply download a free one that taps into Google Maps.
In fact,why pay for cellular minutes at all when a user can download Skype, Gtalk or other client and just use his data plan OSâ„¢s such as Android threaten carriers with a loss of control over the applications on the phones on their network and they may find themselves becoming nothing more than wireless Internet service providers, forced to compete on price and bandwidth.
Another aspect is hardware cost: Google Android owns 10 percent of the total cost of a phone, which combined with falling hardware prices could eventually result a fertile unlocked handset market. In conclusion, Google has a better start in this race than any company had before to bring new rules to the mobile market with all carriers, mobile devices and its customers.
2.6.2. Manufacturersâ„¢ War
Presently, Google main competitors like Nokia, Microsoft and Apple do not see Google Android as a serious rival or threat to their business strategies. However, the current situation is not so unsophisticated. There is a huge flurry in the companies, which are not in the list of OHA.
For instance, Nokia, which is the largest handset manufacturer in the world, nowadays owning some 39% market share, was one of the companies snubbed on the invitation list to the 34-party Open Handset Alliance that is growing daily.
In contrast, Nokia is buying companies and dumping cash into development, while Google is releasing an open platform hoping the applications and services will build themselves with the help of a strong developer community, development contests and large alliance of grand companies.
Despite of this, Nokia is ready to combat whatever Google has to throw with Google Android in 2008. Another company Apple has already stroked the market with iPhone and its closed operating system. Accordingly, iPhone in the US remains loyal to AT&T mobile carrier for five years.
That is plenty of time for Google to conquer the market with open Android.Obvious advantage of Android is cost: while iPhone is priced at a weighty $400, Google says it hopes to reach a more mainstream market by pricing Android-powered devices at around $200. Microsoft, selling 21 millions copies of Windows Mobile software, stays calm at this point, waiting for some particular results from Google Android.
This nice and healthy competition is just what the mobile industry needs at the moment,at least for the consumers. The wars being waged between Google and the field will onlycreate better, cheaper handsets and more advanced applications.
2.6.3. Market Research
A new generation of mobile device users is coming in the next decade. These users are going to explore the mobile internet afresh with its new features, compatible mobile phones, new services and applications.
This is a huge leap for mobile advertisement business, where revenue could rise 8 times more by 2012. Google Android is going to present new solutions through the fast search engine, open source applications and other services.
The Kelsey Group, which works with public opinion polls and statistics, published the results released October 11 2007,which say, that one hundred out of 500, or 20 percent of people would be interested in purchasing a Google phone. Despite the fact, that Google Android is in alpha version and it is unknown for the customers and mobile market, the results look promising.
The diagram below shows the study, which was conducted in September 2007 via an online 30-question survey of 500 U.S. mobile phone users aged 18 and older. People do not find a good Internet experience in their phones today, so they are more interested in gravitating toward an Internet or technology company telephone

Figure 2.13
because they think connectivity between devices and to the Internet is going to be much better on those phones. They use Google search, GMail, Google Maps, Picasa albums and other popular services on their computers, and this is what they expect to have in their mobile devices in the close future.
2.6.4. Mobile Ads
Jaiku - an activity stream and sharing service that works from the Web and mobile phones was bought by Google as important investment into the mobile advertisement.People wondered why Google preferred the micro-blogging service to Twitter, which is much more popular nowadays.
The answer lies in Jaikuâ„¢s unique ability to combine micro-blogging with userâ„¢s location. An integral part of the service is a Jaiku client application for Symbian S60 platform mobile phones, which should come to Android platform as well. The client uses location APIs within device to get the handset and the usersâ„¢ location based on nearby cellular network towers.
Though the location is not very precise, the mobile phone is able to broadcast it automatically. At that point the text can be connected to usersâ„¢ location and create a list of preferences for each place the user frequently visits.
Using such a technology, it is simple to track down a user via phoneâ„¢s IP address, whenever he comes into McDonald or is sitting in the airport.Google is not a million miles away from being able to push advanced advertising to individuals based on their profile, their location and their availability. They already offer regional and local targeting for ads for desktop users, but this could be much more useful for a mobile phone. And if the ads are truly relevant, interesting and unobtrusive, people might actually start to like them.
2.6.5. Mobile Services
Adding to its fast growing suite of mobile applications and services, Google has applied for a patent for a mobile payments service that would allow users to make payments at retail shops using their mobile phones. The Text Message Payment patent describes a system where Google offers mobile focused payments called GPay. This describes a system where a SMS message would be sent containing a payment amount and other information. That payment amount would then be validated, debited from the user's account, and communicated from server to server. Payment confirmation that had been received would also simultaneously be sent to the relevant party, as illustrated in the diagram below:

Figure 2.14 : Figure describes Googleâ„¢s mobile focused payments called GPay
Described as "a computer-implemented method of effectuating an electronic on-line payment," the system mentioned in the patent application is similar to existing mobile payment services.
These services like mobile version of PayPal have been available for some time but have had little success bursting with merchants and with customers. The main difference between existing mobile payment systems and GPay is, of course, that GPay is created by Google and will be easily adopted by Android Platform. The more issues regarding Gpay are yet to be released.
2.6.6. What makes Android special
There are already many mobile platforms on the market today, including Symbian, iPhone, Windows Mobile, BlackBerry, Java Mobile Edi-tion, Linux Mobile (LiMo), and more.
While some of its features have appeared before, Android is the rst environment that combines:
¢ A truly open, free development platform based on Linux and open source. Handset makers like it because they can use and customize the platform without paying a royalty. Developers like it because they know that the platform has legs and is not locked into any one vendor that may go under or be acquired.
¢ A component-based architecture inspired by Internet mash-ups. Partsof one application can be used in another in ways not originallyenvisioned by the developer. You can even replace built-in components with your own improved versions. This will unleash a new round of creativity in the mobile space.
¢ Tons of built-in services out of the box. Location based services use GPS or cell tower triangulation to let you customize the user experience depending on where they are. A full-powered SQL database lets you harness the power of local storage for occasionally connected computing and synchronization. Browser and Map views can be embedded directly in your applications. All these built-in capabilities help to raise the bar on functionality while loweringyour development costs.
¢ Automatic management of the application life cycle. Programs areisolated from each other by multiple layers of security, which will provide a level of system stability not seen before in smart phones.The end user will no longer have to worry about what applications are active, or close some programs so that others can run. Android is optimized for low-power, low-memory devices in a fundamental way that no previous platform has attempted.
¢ High quality graphics and sound. Smooth, anti-aliased 2D vector graphics and animation inspired by Flash is melded with 3D accelerated OpenGL graphics to enable new kinds of games and business applications. Codecs for the most common industry standard audio and video formats are built right in, including H.264 (AVC), MP3, and AAC.
¢ Portability across a wide range of current and future hardware.All your programs are written in Java and executed by Android™s Dalvik virtual machine so your code will be portable across ARM,x86, and other architectures. Support for a variety of input methods is included such as keyboard, touch, tilt, camera, voice, and trackball. User interfaces can be customized for any screen resolution and orientation.Android is a fresh take on the way mobile applications interact with users, along with the technical underpinnings to make it possible. But the best part of Android is the software that you are going to write for it. This book will help you get off to a great start.
2.6.7. Android And Java ME
Java Platform, Micro Edition or Java ME (previously known as Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition or J2ME) is a specification of a subset of the Java platform aimed at providing a certified collection of Java APIs for the development of software for small, resource-constrained devices. Though, do not confuse it with Google Android, even there are some similarities:
¢ Eclipse plug-ins for J2ME and Android look very similar and interface very well with their respective SDKs;
¢ Both J2ME and Android seem to share the same core Java APIs, such as java.util and java.net. But their APIs for graphics, UIs, etc. are very dissimilar and philosophies for developing applications are very different;
¢ Android seems to be more tightly integrated (up to even the OS services provided and how they interact with the APIs), while J2ME is far more liberal in its specifications for the developer and mobile device manufacturer.
A slower application development and performance “ these are the main disadvantages Java's J2ME have for today. J2ME apps are second-rate citizens in the phones. They do not have an access to most of the low-level features, like call API, external connectivity (USB) and other. There is no way to replace or extend built-in phone apps like contacts, calendar and calls.
For instance, J2ME applications in Nokia devices with S60 work great for standard tasks. But more advanced users find difficulties handling Wi-Fi access points with S60, because APIs simply do not seem to be exposed to J2ME. A user may find difficulties synchronizing Google Calendar with his device - nobody seems to have been able to figure out how to make the J2ME calendar interfaces work correctly on S60. There are lots of problems with Java applications on S60, even though S60 probably has one of the best Java implementations.
Android fills a void in Java Mobile applications by providing API to build richer applications - more useful for Smart Phones which contain the ability to provide these types of functionalities. If J2ME filled every void, Android as an API wouldn't be needed (though Android as an OS could still fill a void).
Google has written its own virtual machine for Android most likely as a way to get around licensing issues with Sun. However, Android does not include a complete and compliant Java stack (neither JME nor JSE); only a subset and therefore it is technically not the Java platform, it just looks a lot like it.
2.6.8. Openness Of The Platform
The open source school of thought implies that differentiation and competitive advantage come from innovation on top of the underlying platform rather than the platform itself. The robustness and scalability of the platform is secured by the communityâ„¢s stewardship, and open access to a central repository of updated code. Beyond this, a strong third-party development environment and software development kit (SDK) are critical to attracting innovation.
Open is an invariably subjective term. Symbian and Microsoft can claim a degree of openness for their mobile platforms, for example, but ultimate control of API access and source code remains with a single entity. On the contrary, as Google has pointed out, thereâ„¢s nothing keeping any of the alliance members from using Android to build a Yahoo! Go phone.
Motorola has had some success delivering high-volume Linux-based devices such as the Ming and RAZR II to market. But mobile Linux initiatives have failed to scale on the basis of attractiveness to third-party developers; itâ„¢s been supply-push with the development focus in Java ME or other application framework components.
Importantly, Android includes almost the entirety of the applications-related software stack, less key technical pieces such as telephony protocol stacks, which are left to silicon vendors. Android bundles critical components such as a Linux kernel from Wind River, various optimized graphics engines, codecs, notification software, a clean room JVM implementation, and the KHTML open source browser. The latter forms the basis of Appleâ„¢s Safari and Nokiaâ„¢s S60 offerings.
2.6.9. Advantages
¢ Open - Android allows you to access core mobile device functionality through standard API calls.
¢ All applications are equal - Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and third-party applications -- even the dialer or home screen can be replaced.
¢ Breaking down boundaries - Combine information from the web with data on the phone -- such as contacts or geographic location -- to create new user experiences.
¢ Fast and easy development - The SDK contains what you need to build and run Android applications, including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools.
2.6.10. Disadvantages
¢ Security - Making source code available to everyone inevitably invites the attention of black hat hackers.
¢ Open Source - A disadvantage of open-source development is that anyone can scrutinize the source code to find vulnerabilities and write exploits.
¢ Login - Platform doesn't run on an encrypted file system and has a vulnerable log-in.
¢ Incompetence - Google™s dependence on hardware and carrier partners puts the final product out of their control.

3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
Android has been criticized for not being all open-source software despite what was announced by Google. Parts of the SDK are proprietary and closed source, and some believe this is so that Google can control the platform. Software installed by end-users must be written in Java, and will not have access to lower level device APIs. This provides end-users with less control over their phone's functionality than other free and open source phone platforms, such as OpenMoko.
With all upcoming applications and mobile services Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet. Android participates in many of the successful open source projects. That is, architect the solution for participation and the developers will not only come but will play well together. This is notable contrast with Apple and other companies, where such architecture of participation is clearly belated.
The first Android based official devices may well be launched sometime in the early half of 2009. Obviously, that's an age away when it comes to handset design, and Android may well find itself competing against the forthcoming Nokia touch screen phones and maybe even the iPhone 2.

4. REFERENCES
1. http://www.android.com - Android Official Webpage
2. http://code.google.com/android/ - Official Android Google Code Webpage
3. http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ - Open Handset Alliance Webpage
4. http://www.androidwiki.com “ Android Wiki
5. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/ - Official Google Blog
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(mo...œWikipedia Information
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQLite
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebKit
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eclipse_(software)
10. http://www.itworld.com/google-android-dr-080213

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
11-06-2010, 07:34 PM
Post: #2
RE: android full report
pls help me by making the seminar report and powerpoint presentation of android os...i ll be thankful to you
24-06-2010, 12:00 PM
Post: #3
RE: android full report

.ppt  ANDROID presentation.ppt (Size: 777.5 KB / Downloads: 1878)

ANDROID
AN OPEN HANDSET ALLIANCE PROJECT

PRESENTED BY
SURABHI
MOHIT KUMAR


¢

¢ INTRODUCTION TO ANDROID

o A complete & modern embedded operating system
o A cutting-edge mobile user experience
o A world-class software stack for building applications
o An open platform for developers, users & industry
o Full phone software stack including applications
o Designed as a platform for software development
o Android is open,free
o 100% Java Phone

OPEN HANDSET ALLIANCE

Est. 2007, led by Google,open source
Main product: Android
Platform
Enthusiastic support from
Industry : both equipment
makers and network operators
HTC to deliver Android capable device soon!



¢ HISTORY

July 2005
Google acquired Android Inc.
5 Nov 2007
Open HandSet Alliance formed-
Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm,T-Mobile
Android is the OHA first product
12 Nov 2007
OHA released a preview of the Android OHA


¢ ANDROID FEATURES

SOFTWARE FEATURES

o Integrated browser based on the open source WebKit engine
o SQLite for relational data storage
o Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats
o (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)
o Dalvik Virtual Machine optimized for mobile devices
o
HARDWARE FEATURES

o Cellular networking : GSM, EDGE, 3G (hardware dependent)
o LAN : Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (hardware dependent)
o Graphics Hardware Acceleration
o Camera, GPS and Compass (hardware dependent)
o Touch screen and accelerometer for motion sensing



DEVELOPMENT TOOLS

The Android SDK includes a variety of custom tools that help you develop mobile applications on the Android platform.Three of the most significant tools are:
1. Android Emulator -A virtual mobile device that runs on our computer -use to design, debug, and test our applications in an actual Android run-time environment
2. Android Development Tools Plugin -for the Eclipse IDE - adds powerful extensions to the Eclipse integrated environment
3. Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (DDMS) -Integrated with Dalvik -this tool let us manage processes on an emulator and assists in debugging



¢ REAL TIME APPLICATION

¢ A translater for Android
¢ If you are in a country where no one understands your language
¢ You cannot read anything
¢ No aditional device needed
¢ You have your mobile phone
always with you
¢ Uses the google translator
¢ Can be extended with new languages
¢ Adaptive GUI
¢ Uses XMPP for data transmission
¢ GUI fully defined in XML
¢ Uses camera input and OCR



IMPORTANCE HIERARCHY

Foreground Process -required for what the user is currently doing
Visible Process -holding an Activity - visible to the user on- screen but not in the foreground(on pause)
Service Process -holding a Service - not directly visible to the user- relevant tasks
Background Process -holding an Activity - not visible to the user - can kill at any time(stopped)
Empty Process -doesn't hold any active application components(as a cache to improve start-up time)



¢ FINDINGS

¢ Android uses proven technology like Java, XML andLinux
¢ There is an initial learning effort
¢ Android doesn˜t have many of the limitations of current mobile platforms
¢ It offers a rich API for application development
¢ Android is still in beta
¢ Android development is fun

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
19-10-2010, 10:28 AM
Post: #4
RE: android full report
Android

ABSTRACT


Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system,

middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system

for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and

the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like

language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs

developed in native code. The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007

was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of

34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards

for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be

made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license
02-11-2010, 01:46 PM
Post: #5
RE: android full report

.doc  android.doc (Size: 103 KB / Downloads: 689)



ABSTRACT


The unveiling of the Android platform on was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 48 hardware, software, and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google has made most of the Android platform available under the Apache free-software and open source license.
Android is a freely downloadable open source software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications based on Linux and Java.
Google developed Android collaboratively as part of the Open Handset Alliance, a group of more than 30 mobile and technology companies working to open up the mobile handset environment. Android's development kit supports many of the standard packages used by Jetty, and so, due to that fact and Jetty's modularity and lightweight footprint, it was possible to port Jetty to it so that it will be able to run on the Android platform.
This paper on Android deals with the history of the Android, the early prototypes, basic building blocks of an android application and the features of the android.


Introduction


Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices, based on the Linux kernel, and developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language, controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries. Applications written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code and run, but this development path isn't officially supported by Google.
Android is available as open source. Google threw open the entire source code (including network and telephony stacks) that were not available previously, under an Apache license. Certain parts that relate to a specific hardware can't be made open and are not considered part of the Android platform. With Apache License, vendors are free to add proprietary extensions without submitting those back to the open source community. While Google's contributions to this platform are expected to remain open-sourced, the branches could explode using varieties of licenses.
22-12-2010, 08:12 AM
Post: #6
RE: android full report
Thanks a lot. Smile
I'm going to give a seminar on android.
I'm too lazy to create a ppt.
Thanks for making it available for us. Smile
22-12-2010, 11:27 AM
Post: #7
ANDROID


.ppt  Android Operating System.ppt (Size: 827.5 KB / Downloads: 905)

INTRODUCTION
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications.

Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance.

Google Acquires Android Inc:
In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc,
which was a small startup company based
in Palo Alto.

Open Handset Alliance Founded:
On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance was formed.
Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile, Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA and many more were members and Android was released to market as an Open Source OS.

What makes Android special?
A truly open, free development platform
based on Linux and open source.

A component-based architecture inspired by Internet mash-ups. Parts of one application can be used in another.

Automatic management of the application life cycle. Programs are isolated from each other by multiple layers of security, provide system stability.

High quality graphics and sound. Uses OpenGL for graphics and supports MP3, MP4 etc for audio and videos.

Linux Kernel:
Android Architecture is based on Linux 2.6
kernel. Manage security, memory management, process management, network stack.

CDMA and GPRS network support
Bluetooth 1.2 and Wi-Fi support
Digital audio support for mp3 and other formats
Support for Linux and other third-party operating systems
Java hardware acceleration and support for Java applications
Qcamera up to 6.0 megapixels
gpsOne – solution for GPS
and lots of other.

Libraries :
Native libraries written in C/C++,
which are responsible for stable performance.

Media Libraries - based on PacketVideo's OpenCORE; the libraries support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formatslike MPEG4, MP3, JPG, and PNG.

Surface Manager – Responsible for displaying 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications .

LibWebCore - a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view.

3D libraries - an implementation based on OpenGL ES 1.0 APIs; the libraries use hardware 3D acceleration.

SQLite - a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications

Android Runtime:
Dalvik Virtual Machine.
Android gives an integrated tool “dx”, which
converts byte code from .jar to .dex file which is
much more efficient.

Designed for Android running with limited battery, CPU, memory and data storage.

As the result, it is possible to have multiple instances of Dalvik virtual machine running on the single device at the same time.

Application Framework:
Written in Java language. It is a toolkit that all
applications uses and are developed.

The Activity Manager manages the life circle of the applications and provides a common navigation back stack for applications

The Package Manager keeps track of the applications, which are installed in the device.

Telephony Manager contains of a set of API necessary for calling applications.

Content Providers was built for Android to share a data with other applications

The View System generates a set of buttons and lists used in UI.

Application Layer:
Here we have all the applications, which are used by the final user.

Application Building Blocks:
Android application is a collection of
components, of various kinds.

The major building blocks of an application are:
- Activity: User interface component, which
corresponds to one screen at time.
- Intent Receiver: Wakes up a predefined action
through the external event.
- Service: A task, which is done in the background.
- Content Provider: A component, which allows sharing
some of the data with other processes and
applications.

Advantages of Android:
Open - Android allows access to core
mobile functionality through standard
API calls.

All applications are equal - Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and third-party applications.

Fast and easy development - The SDK contains everything needed to build and run Android applications, including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools.

Disadvantages of Android:
Security - Making source code available
to everyone in unsafe.

Incompetence - Google’s dependence on hardware and carrier partners puts the final product out of their control.

31-12-2010, 02:57 PM
Post: #8
RE: android full report



.doc  Seminar Report Android 2.doc (Size: 182 KB / Downloads: 484)

ABSTRACT
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform is being made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.


Introduction
In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc., a small startup company based in Palo Alto, CA. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (one of the first engineers at WebTV). At the time, little was known about the functions of Android Inc. other than they made software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team, led by Rubin, developed a Linux-based mobile device OS which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.
On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile, Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, an open source mobile device platform based on the Linux operating system.
Google has unveiled at least three prototypes for Android, at the Mobile World Congress on February 12, 2008. One prototype at the ARM booth displayed several basic Google applications. A’d-pad' control zooming of items in the dock with a relatively quick response.
A prototype at the Google IO conference on May 28, 2008 had a 528 MHz Qualcomm processor and a Synaptics capacitive touch screen, and used the UMTS cellular standard. It had 128 MB of RAM and 256 MB of flash, showing that Android's memory requirements are reasonable. The demo was carried out using a 3.6 Mbit/s HSDPA connection.


History

The speculation that Google would be entering the mobile-phone market came in December 2006. Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. More speculation followed reporting that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators.
In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. On the 5th of November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Texas Instruments, Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.
On 9 December 2008, it was announced that 14 new members would be joining the Android project, including Packet Video, ARM Holdings, Atheros Communications, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, Softbank, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba Corp, and Vodafone Group Plc.With the exception of brief update periods, Android has been available under free software / open source license since 21 October 2008. Google published the entire source code (including network and telephony stacks) under Apache License. With the Apache License, vendors can add proprietary extensions without submitting those back to the open source community.
Various Versions of Android is 1.1 Released on 9 February 2009, 1.5 (Cupcake)
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.27 released on 30 April 2009, 1.6 (Donut)
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.29 released on 15 September 2009, 2.0/2.1 (Eclair)
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.29 released on 26 October 2009, 2.2 (Froyo)
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.32 released on 20 May 2010, 2.3 (Gingerbread)
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.33 or .34 scheduled to launch for Q4 2010.






13-01-2011, 03:23 PM
Post: #9
RE: android full report



.doc  Android-Report.doc (Size: 413.5 KB / Downloads: 339)

SUBMITTED BY
Ganesh Waghmare

UNDER GUIDANCE OF
Prof. Smt. Sukhada Bhingarkar



Abstract

Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.
Open - Android allows to access core mobile device functionality through standard API calls. All applications are equal - Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and third-party applications -- even the dialer or home screen can be replaced. Breaking down boundaries - Combine information from the web with data on the phone -- such as contacts or geographic location -- to create new user experiences. Fast and easy development - The SDK contains what need to build and run Android applications, including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools.


INTRODUCTION
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.


THE BIRTH OF ANDROID
Google Acquires Android Inc.
In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc., a small startup company based in Palo Alto, CA. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (one of the first engineers at WebTV). At the time, little was known about the functions of Android Inc. other than they made software for mobile phones.


Open Handset Alliance Founded
On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile, Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, an open source mobile device platform based on the Linux operating system.

Hardware
Google has unveiled at least three prototypes for Android, at the Mobile World Congress on February 12, 2008. One prototype at the ARM booth displayed several basic Google applications. A 'd-pad' control zooming of items in the dock with a relatively quick response.


Application Framework
Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user.
Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems, including:
• A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
• Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts), or to share their own data
• A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and lat files
• A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar
• An Activity Manager that manages the life cycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack

Libraries
Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Android system. These capabilities are exposed to developers through the Android application framework. Some of the core libraries are listed below:
• System C library - a BSD-derived implementation of the standard C system library (libc), tuned for embedded Linux-based devices
• Media Libraries - based on PacketVideo's Open CORE; the libraries support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formats, as well as static image files, including MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, and PNG
• Surface Manager - manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications
• LibWebCore - a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view
• SGL - the underlying 2D graphics engine
• 3D libraries - an implementation based on OpenGL ES 1.0 APIs; the libraries use either hardware 3D acceleration (where available) or the included, highly optimized 3D software rasterizer
• Free Type - bitmap and vector font rendering
SQLite - a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications.


Android Runtime
Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language. Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included "dx" tool. The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.
At the same level there is Android Runtime, where the main component Dalvik Virtual Machine is located. It was designed specifically for Android running in limited environment, where the limited battery, CPU, memory and data storage are the main issues. Android gives an integrated tool “dx”, which converts generated byte code from .jar to .dex file, after this byte code becomes much more efficient to run on the small processors. As the result, it is possible to have multiple instances of Dalvik virtual machine running on the single device at the same time. The Core libraries are written in Java language and contains of the collection classes, the utilities, IO and other tools.


Linux Kernal
Android Architecture is based on Linux 2.6 kernel. It helps to manage security, memory management, process management, network stack and other important issues. Therefore, the user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers required in order to run it. Android provides the support for the Qualcomm MSM7K chipset family. For instance, the current kernel tree supports Qualcomm MSM 7200A chipsets, but in the second half of 2008 we should see mobile devices with stable version Qualcomm MSM 7200, which includes major features:

1. WCDMA/HSUPA and EGPRS network support
2. Bluetooth 1.2 and Wi-Fi support
3. Digital audio support for mp3 and other formats
4. Support for Linux and other third-party operating systems
5. Java hardware acceleration and support for Java applications
6. Qcamera up to 6.0 megapixels
7. gpsOne – solution for GPS


The Dalvik Virtual Machine
The Dalvik virtual machine is an interpreter only machine optimized for use on low powered, low memory devices like phones. Notably, Dalvik does not make use of just in time (JIT) Compilation to improve the performance of an application at runtime. Furthermore, Dalvik is not a Java virtual machine. This is because Dalvik is unable to read Java bytecode34, instead it uses its own bytecode format called “dex”. Google claims this format allows battery power to be better-conserved at all different stages of execution of an application. This means that standard Java SE applications and libraries cannot be used directly on the Android Dalvik virtual machine.
Dalvik however stands at the center of the Android value proposition. Its low electrical power consumption, rich libraries, and unified, non-fragmented application programming interfaces make it stand out, or so Google hopes, over the fragmented ecosystem that is Java ME35 today.
Furthermore, since Dalvik uses the Java programming language but not the Java execution environment (JVM), Google is free to develop Android without the need to license or obtain certification from Sun Microsystems Inc, the legal owner of the Java trademark and brands.


Lifecycle of an Android Application
In most cases, every Android application runs in its own Linux process. This process is created for the application when some of its code needs to be run, and will remain running until it is no longer needed and the system needs to reclaim its memory for use by other applications.
An important and unusual feature of Android is that an application process's lifetime is not directly controlled by the application itself. Instead, it is determined by the system through a combination of the parts of the application that the system knows are running, how important these things are to the user, and how much overall memory is available in the system.
It is important that application developers understand how different application components (in particular Activity, Service, and IntentReceiver) impact the lifetime of the application's process. Not using these components correctly can result in the system killing the application's process while it is doing important work.
A common example of a process life-cycle bug is an IntentReceiver that starts a thread when it receives an Intent in its onReceiveIntent() method, and then returns from the function. Once it returns, the system considers that IntentReceiver to be no longer active, and thus its hosting process no longer needed (unless other application components are active in it). Thus, it may kill the process at any time to reclaim memory, terminating the spawned thread that is running in it. The solution to this problem is to start a Service from the IntentReceiver, so the system knows that there is still active work being done in the process.
To determine which processes should be killed when low on memory, Android places them into an "importance hierarchy" based on the components running in them and the state of those components. These are, in order of importance:
1. A foreground process is one holding an Activity at the top of the screen that the user is interacting with (its onResume () method has been called) or an IntentReceiver that is currently running (its onReceiveIntent () method is executing). There will only ever be a few such processes in the system, and these will only be killed as a last resort if memory is so low that not even these processes can continue to run. Generally at this point the device has reached a memory paging state, so this action is required in order to keep the user interface responsive.
2. A visible process is one holding an Activity that is visible to the user on-screen but not in the foreground (its onPause() method has been called). This may occur, for example, if the foreground activity has been displayed with a dialog appearance that allows the previous activity to be seen behind it. Such a process is considered extremely important and will not be killed unless doing so is required to keep all foreground processes running.
3. A service process is one holding a Service that has been started with the startService() method. Though these processes are not directly visible to the user, they are generally doing things that the user cares about (such as background mp3 playback or background network data upload or download), so the system will always keep such processes running unless there is not enough memory to retain all foreground and visible process.
4. A background process is one holding an Activity that is not currently visible to the user (its onStop() method has been called). These processes have no direct impact on the user experience. Provided they implement their activity life cycle correctly (see Activity for more details), the system can kill such processes at any time to reclaim memory for one of the three previous processes types. Usually there are many of these processes running, so they are kept in an LRU list to ensure the process that was most recently seen by the user is the last to be killed when running low on memory.
5. An empty process is one that doesn't hold any active application components. The only reason to keep such a process around is as a cache to improve startup time the next time a component of its application needs to run. As such, the system will often kill these processes in order to balance overall system resources between these empty cached processes and the underlying kernel caches.
When deciding how to classify a process, the system picks the most important level of all the components currently active in the process.


Security and Permissions in Android

Android is a multi-process system, where each application (and parts of the system) runs in its own process. Most security between applications and the system is enforced at the process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user and group IDs that are assigned to applications. Additional finer-grained security features are provided through a "permission" mechanism that enforces restrictions on the specific operations that a particular process can perform.
Android mobile phone platform is going to be more secure than Apple’s iPhone or any other device in the long run. There are several solutions nowadays to protect Google phone from various attacks. One of them is security vendor McAfee, a member of Linux Mobile (LiMo) Foundation. This foundation joins particular companies to develop an open mobile-device software platform. Many of the companies listed in the LiMo Foundation have also become members of the Open Handset Alliance (OHA).
As a result, Linux secure coding practice should successfully be built into the Android development process. However, open platform has its own disadvantages, such as source code vulnerability for black-hat hackers. In parallel with great opportunities for mobile application developers, there is an expectation for exploitation and harm. Stealthy Trojans hidden in animated images, particular viruses passed from friend to friend, used for spying and identity theft, all these threats will be active for a long run.
Another solution for such attacks is SMobile Systems mobile package. Security Shield –an integrated application that includes anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall and other mobile protection is up and ready to run on the Android operating system. Currently, the main problem is availability for viruses to pose as an application and do things like dial phone numbers, send text messages or multi-media messages or make connections to the Internet during normal device use. It is possible for somebody to use the GPS feature to track a person’s location without their knowledge. Hence SMobile Systems is ready to notify and block these secure alerts. But the truth is that it is not possible to secure r mobile device or personal computer completely, as it connects to the internet. And neither the Android phone nor other devices will prove to be the exception.


Development Tools
The Android SDK includes a variety of custom tools that help develop mobile applications on the Android platform. The most important of these are the Android Emulator and the Android Development Tools plugin for Eclipse, but the SDK also includes a variety of other tools for debugging, packaging, and installing r applications on the emulator.


Conclusion

Android is a truly open, free development platform based on Linux and open source. Handset makers can use and customize the platform without paying a royalty.
A component-based architecture inspired by Internet mash-ups. Parts of one application can be used in another in ways not originally envisioned by the developer. can even replace built-in components with own improved versions. This will unleash a new round of creativity in the mobile space.
• Android is open to all: industry, developers and users
• Participating in many of the successful open source projects
• Aims to be as easy to build for as the web.
• Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet




03-02-2011, 10:43 PM
Post: #10
RE: android full report
full documentation of android operating sysytem
19-02-2011, 09:46 AM
Post: #11
RE: android full report

.doc  Android-Seminar-Report-Body.doc (Size: 533 KB / Downloads: 346)
1. INTRODUCTION
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.
1.1. THE BIRTH OF ANDROID
1.1.1. Google Acquires Android Inc.
In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc., a small startup company based in Palo Alto, CA. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (one of the first engineers at WebTV). At the time, little was known about the functions of Android Inc. other than they made software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team, led by Rubin, developed a Linux-based mobile device OS which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.
1.1.2. Open Handset Alliance Founded
On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile, Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, an open source mobile device platform based on the Linux operating system.
1.1.3. Hardware
Google has unveiled at least three prototypes for Android, at the Mobile World Congress on February 12, 2008. One prototype at the ARM booth displayed several basic Google applications. A 'd-pad' control zooming of items in the dock with a relatively quick response.
A prototype at the Google IO conference on May 28, 2008 had a 528 MHz Qualcomm processor and a Synaptics capacitive touch screen, and used the UMTS cellular standard. It had 128 MB of RAM and 256 MB of flash, showing that Android's memory requirements are reasonable. The demo was carried out using a 3.6 Mbit/s HSDPA connection.
1.2. FEATURES
1.2.1. Application Framework
It is used to write applications for Android. Unlike other embedded mobile environments, Android applications are all equal, for instance, an applications which come with the phone are no different than those that any developer writes.The framework is supported by numerous open source libraries such as openssl, SQLite and libc. It is also supported by the Android core libraries. From the point of security, the framework is based on UNIX file system permissions that assure applications have only those abilities that mobile phone owner gave them at install time.
1.2.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine
It is extremely low-memory based virtual machine, which was designed especially for Android to run on embedded systems and work well in low power situations. It is also tuned to the CPU attributes. The Dalvik VM creates a special file format (.DEX) that is created through build time post processing. Conversion between Java classes and .DEX format is done by included “dx” tool.
1.2.3. Integrated Browser
Google made a right choice on choosing WebKit as open source web browser. They added a two pass layout and frame flattening. Two pass layout loads a page without waiting for blocking elements, such as external CSS or external JavaScript and after a while renders again with all resources downloaded to the device. Frame flattening converts founded frames into single one and loads into the browser. These features increase speed and usability browsing the internet via mobile phone.
1.2.4. Optimized Graphics
As Android has 2D graphics library and 3D graphics based on OpenGL ES 1.0, possibly we will see great applications like Google Earth and spectacular games like Second Life, which come on Linux version. At this moment, the shooting legendary 3D game Doom was presented using Android on the mobile phone.
1.2.5. SQLite
Extremely small (~500kb) relational database management system, which is integrated in Android. It is based on function calls and single file, where all definitions, tables and data are stored. This simple design is more than suitable for a platform such as Android.
1.2.6. Handset Layouts
The platform is adaptable to both larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 1.0 specifications, traditional smart phone layouts. An underlying 2D graphics engine is also included. Surface Manager manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications
1.2.7. Data Storage
SQLite is used for structured data storage .SQLite is a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications.
1.2.8. Connectivity
Android supports a wide variety of connectivity technologies including GSM, CDMA, Bluetooth, EDGE, EVDO, 3G and Wi-Fi.
1.2.9. Messaging
SMS, MMS, and XMPP are available forms of messaging including threaded text messaging.
1.2.10. Web Browser
The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit application framework. It includes LibWebCore which is a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view.
1.2.11. Java Virtual Machine
Software written in Java can be compiled into Dalvik bytecodes and executed in the Dalvik virtual machine, which is a specialized VM implementation designed for mobile device use, although not technically a standard Java Virtual Machine.
1.2.12. Media Support
Android will support advanced audio/video/still media formats such as MPEG-4, H.264, MP3, and AAC, AMR, JPEG, PNG, GIF.
1.2.13. Additional Hardware Support
Android is fully capable of utilizing video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS, compasses, accelerometers, and accelerated 3D graphics.
1.2.14. Development Environment
Includes a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling, a plugin for the Eclipse IDE. There are a number of hardware dependent features, for instance, a huge media and connections support, GPS, improved support for Camera and simply GSM telephony. A great work was done for the developers to start work with Android using device emulator, tools for debugging and plugin for Eclipse IDE.
2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TOPIC
2.1. OPERATION
2.1.1. Android Runtime

Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently.
The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included "dx" tool.The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.
2.1.2. Linux Kernel
Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.
It helps to manage security, memory management, process management, network stack and other important issues. Therefore, the user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers required in order to run it.
Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user.Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems.
21-02-2011, 03:50 PM
Post: #12
RE: android full report
presented by:
Ravi Soni


.ppt  Android OS Seminar Presentation.ppt (Size: 800.5 KB / Downloads: 506)
ANDROID OS
What is Android?

 Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications.
 The Android SDK provides the tools and devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. APIs necessary to begin developing applications on the Android platform using the Java programming language.
 Developers can create applications for the platform using the Android SDK.
 Applications are written using the Java programming language and run on Dalvik, a custom virtual machine designed for embedded use, which runs on top of a Linux kernel.
Open Handset Alliance
 On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile, Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices.
 Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, an open source mobile device platform based on the Linux operating system.
Features of Android OS
 Application framework
 Dalvik virtual machine
 Integrated browser
 Optimized graphics
 SQLite
 Media support
 GSM Telephony
 Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi
 Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer
 Rich development environment
Application Framework
 Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications.
 The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities.
 Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems, including Content Providers, Resource Manager, Notification Manager and An Activity Manager
Libraries
 Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Android system.
 These capabilities are exposed to developers through the Android application framework.
Android Runtime
 Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.
 The Dalvik VM is located in the Android Runtime.
 Android gives an integrated tool “dx”, which converts generated byte code from .jar to .dex file, after this byte code becomes much more efficient to run on the small processors.
Linux Kernal
 Android Architecture is based on Linux 2.6 kernel. It helps to manage security, memory management, process management, network stack and other important issues.
 The user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers required in order to run it.
Execution Environment
 Android compilers do not operate on Java language code. Instead, the Android translators work on the resulting Java byte code emitted from a traditional Java compiler.
 It’s possible to integrate existing Java source code, packages and libraries piecemeal.
The Dalvik Virtual Machine
 The Dalvik virtual machine is an interpreter only machine optimized for use on low powered, low memory devices like phones.
 Dalvik is not a Java virtual machine.
 It uses its own bytecode format called “dex”.
 Google claims this format allows battery power to be better-conserved at all different stages of execution of an application.
Lifecycle of an Android Application
 In most cases, every Android application runs in its own Linux process.
 This process is created for the application when some of its code needs to be run, and will remain running until it is no longer needed and the system needs to reclaim its memory for use by other applications.
 Various process types are present like the foreground, visible, service, background and empty processes.
Security and Permissions in Android
 Android is a multi-process system, where each application runs in its own process.
 Most security between applications and the system is enforced at the process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user and group IDs that are assigned to applications.
 Android mobile phone platform is going to be more secure than Apple’s iPhone or any other device in the long run
Development Tools
The Android SDK includes a variety of custom tools that help develop mobile applications on the Android platform. The most important of these are the Android Emulator and the Android Development Tools plugin for Eclipse, but the SDK also includes a variety of other tools for debugging, packaging, and installing are applications on the emulator
02-03-2011, 02:44 PM
Post: #13
RE: android full report

.ppt  Android_Slides.ppt (Size: 605.5 KB / Downloads: 422)
Android An Open Handset Alliance Project
A software platform and operating system for mobile devices
Based on the Linux kernel
Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)
Allows writing managed code in the Java language
Possibility to write applications in other languages and compiling it to ARM native code
Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA
What is the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)? → It's a consortium of several companies
Android Features
Application Framework
Dalvik virtual machine
Integrated (webkit) browser
2D and 3D graphics APIs with HW
SQLite
Video and audio codecs
Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi
Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer
Android Architecture
Software development (1)
Development requirements 
Java
Android SDK
Eclipse IDE (optional)
Software development (2)
IDE and Tools
Android SDK
Class Library
Developer Tools
dx – Dalvik Cross-Assembler
aapt – Android Asset Packaging Tool
adb – Android Debug Bridge
ddms – Dalvik Debug Monitor Service
Emulator and System Images
Documentation and Sample Code
Eclipse IDE + ADT (Android Development Tools)
Reduces Development and Testing Time
Makes User Interface-Creation easier
Makes Application Description Easier
Software development (3)
Programming Language(s)
Java – officially supported
C/C++ – also possible but not supported
Conclusion And Future scope
Android has been criticized for not being all open-source software despite what was announced by Google. Parts of the SDK are proprietary and closed source, and some believe this is so that Google can control the platform
Software installed by end-users must be written in Java, and will not have access to lower level device APIs
05-03-2011, 09:41 AM
Post: #14
Android OS vs. Symbian OS

.doc  Android.doc (Size: 29.5 KB / Downloads: 163)
Android OS vs. Symbian OS: Is it really a battle?
We take a look at what's soon to become an "open-source" Symbian, but does it really have any chance against Google Android OS?
In the almost ten years we've covered mobile technology here at infoSync, we've seen operating systems, platforms and device manufacturers rise and decline (and sometimes die) on a regular basis. In the fall of 2000, Symbian released version 6.0 of its OS as an "open to everyone" platform, followed by the announcement of Nokia's 9210 communicator.
At that time, the entire mobile industry came running to Symbian OS and the Nokia 9210 specifically. The amount of applications that was specifically developed for the Nokia 9210 before it had even hit store shelves was tremendous.
Here's how Symbian looked at the Nokia 9210 Communicator: "Nokia has today announced the first Symbian-based communicator - the Nokia 9210. The Nokia 9210 is the world's first next generation mobile phone to be based on the Symbian platform v6.0 - an open software platform that has been designed to enable third party developers to write powerful additional applications, services and content for users."
However, Symbian wanted more; they simply wanted touchscreen phones as great as any. Ironically, the whole idea of Symbian OS was to come up with a system that could easier follow the future mobile trends than what the old EPOC OS could.
Yet the software errors kept appearing when introducing new form factors to Symbian OS, ultimately leading to slowed down design innovation, and for the last couple of years, almost no design innovation whatsoever (except for the extreme slimming process, which is not thanks to Symbian OS anyway).
And that's where Google's Android OS is so different. Android OS simply offers no limitations whatsoever, so whatever the members of the Open Handset Alliance want to build, they can build it with Android OS at the core. That's the true kind of open-source OS; an operating system even a royalty-free Symbian OS will have difficulties competing with
10-03-2011, 03:33 PM
Post: #15
RE: android full report
ANDRIOD OPERATING SYSTEM
ABSTRACT

Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.
Open - Android allows to access core mobile device functionality through standard API calls. All applications are equal - Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and third-party applications -- even the dialer or home screen can be replaced. Breaking down boundaries - Combine information from the web with data on the phone -- such as contacts or geographic location -- to create new user experiences. Fast and easy development - The SDK contains what need to build and run Android applications, including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools.
14-03-2011, 08:40 PM
Post: #16
RE: android full report
The Android platform is an Open Handset Alliance, a group of organizations working to build a better mobile phone. A team led by Google, including mobile operators, device manufacturers, component manufacturers, solution and platform software vendors and marketing companies. In terms of software Android sits directly from the world of open source.
15-03-2011, 11:34 AM
Post: #17
RE: android full report
SUBMITTED BY
AJAYAN JOY


.doc  mainreport - Copy.doc (Size: 2.05 MB / Downloads: 292)
introduction
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating
system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and
operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008,most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license
1.1. THE BIRTH OF ANDROID
1.1.1.Google Acquires Android Inc.

In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc., a small startup company based in Palo
Alto, CA. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin
(co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc),
Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (one of the first engineers at
WebTV). At the time, little was known about the functions of Android Inc. other
than they made software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team, led by Rubin, developed a Linux-based mobile device OS
which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a
flexible, upgradeable system. It was reported that Google had already lined up a
series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it
was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.
1.1.2.Open Handset Alliance Founded
On 5 November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several
companies which include Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile,
Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA, was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards
for mobile devices. Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, the
OHA also unveiled their first product, Android, an open source mobile device
platform based on the Linux operating system.
1.1.3.Hardware
Google has unveiled at least three prototypes for Android, at the Mobile World
Congress on February 12, 2008. One prototype at the ARM booth displayed several
basic Google applications. A 'd-pad' control zooming of items in the dock with a
relatively quick response.
A prototype at the Google IO conference on May 28, 2008 had a 528 MHz
Qualcomm processor and a Synaptics capacitive touch screen, and used the UMTS
cellular standard. It had 128 MB of RAM and 256 MB of flash, showing that
Android's memory requirements are reasonable. The demo was carried out using a
3.6 Mbit/s HSDPA connection.
1.2. FEATURES
1.2.1.Application Framework

It is used to write applications for Android. Unlike other embedded mobile
environments, Android applications are all equal, for instance, an applications
which come with the phone are no different than those that any developer
writes.The framework is supported by numerous open source libraries such as openssl, SQLite and libc. It is also supported by the Android core libraries.
From the point of security, the framework is based on UNIX file system
permissions that assure applications have only those abilities that mobile phone owner gave them at install time.
1.2.2.Dalvik Virtual Machine
It is extremely low-memory based virtual machine, which was designed especially
for Android to run on embedded systems and work well in low power situations. It
is also tuned to the CPU attributes. The Dalvik VM creates a special file format
(.DEX) that is created through build time post processing. Conversion between
Java classes and .DEX format is done by included “dx” tool.
1.2.3.Integrated Browser
Google made a right choice on choosing WebKit as open source web browser. They
added a two pass layout and frame flattening. Two pass layout loads a page without waiting for blocking elements, such as external CSS or external
JavaScript and after a while renders again with all resources downloaded to the device. Frame flattening converts founded frames into single one and loads into the browser. These features increase speed and usability browsing the internet via mobile phone.
1.2.4.Optimized Graphics
As Android has 2D graphics library and 3D graphics based on OpenGL ES
1.0, possibly we will see great applications like Google Earth and spectacular
games like Second Life, which come on Linux version. At this moment, the
shooting legendary 3D game Doom was presented using Android on the mobile
phone.
1.2.5.SQLite
Extremely small (~500kb) relational database management system, which is integrated in Android. It is based on function calls and single file, where all
definitions, tables and data are stored. This simple design is more than suitable for a
platform such as Android.
1.2.6.Handset Layouts
The platform is adaptable to both larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics
library based on OpenGL ES 1.0 specifications, traditional smart phone layouts. An
underlying 2D graphics engine is also included. Surface Manager manages access to
the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from
multiple applications
1.2.7.Data Storage
SQLite is used for structured data storage .SQLite is a powerful and lightweight
relational database engine available to all applications.
1.2.8.Connectivity
Android supports a wide variety of connectivity technologies including GSM,
CDMA, Bluetooth, EDGE, EVDO, 3G and Wi-Fi.
1.2.9.Messaging
SMS, MMS, and XMPP are available forms of messaging including threaded text
messaging.
1.2.10.Web Browser
The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit
application framework. It includes LibWebCore which is a modern web browser
engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view
1.2.11.Java Virtual Machine
Software written in Java can be compiled into Dalvik bytecodes and executed in the
Dalvik virtual machine, which is a specialized VM implementation designed for
mobile device use, although not technically a standard Java Virtual Machine.
1.2.12.Media Support
Android will support advanced audio/video/still media formats such as MPEG-4,
H.264, MP3, and AAC, AMR, JPEG, PNG, GIF.
1.2.13.Additional Hardware Support
Android is fully capable of utilizing video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS,
compasses, accelerometers, and accelerated 3D graphics.
1.2.14.Development Environment
Includes a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling,a plugin for the Eclipse IDE. There are a number of hardware dependent
features, for instance, a huge media and connections support, GPS, improved support for Camera and simply GSM telephony. A great work was done for the developers to start work with Android using device emulator, tools for debugging and plugin for Eclipse IDE.
21-03-2011, 11:50 PM
Post: #18
RE: android full report
seminar report on andriod operating system
24-03-2011, 03:23 PM
Post: #19
RE: android full report
presented by:
Chakravarthi Mannava


.ppt  Google_Android_OS.ppt (Size: 2.48 MB / Downloads: 386)
Android OS
Yummy Desserts!

• Cupcake
• Donuts
• Éclair
• Frozen Yoghurt (Froyo)
• Gingerbread
• Honeycomb
What do these have in common?
Smartphone OS

• Symbian
• Windows Mobile
• RIM Blackberry OS
• Apple iOS
• Google Android
• Palm WebOS
• Windows Phone 7
Android OS
• Fastest growing mobile OS
• Over 300,000 Android activations a day
• Android overtook iOS as the dominant OS in US during 2H 2010
• First phone launched HTC G1 in 2008
• Currently an OS of choice for Motorola, HTC, Samsung, Sony Ericsson, among others
• Software updates every few months
Android – what is it?
• software stack for mobile devices
– incl. OS, middleware and key applications
• Open source – source code is open and contributions are welcome
• application framework enabling reuse/replacement of apps
• Dalvik virtual machine optimized for mobile
• integrated browser based on webkit
• Optimized graphics – 2D graphics library, 3D based on OPEN GL ES
• SQLite for data storage
• Media support (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, JPG, PNG,…)
• Support for radio interfaces, Bluetooth, WiFi, Camera, GPS, accelerometer
• Software Development Kit (SDK)
• Preinstalled applications from Google (GMS)
– Gmail, Maps, Search, Voice Search, Youtube
Software Stack
• Linux kernel
• Libraries
• Android run time
– core libraries
– Dalvik virtual machine
• application layer
• application protocol
Android Architecture
Android

• Google Maps and other GMS applications
• Background services and applications
– allows multi tasking of applications
• Shared Data and interprocess communication
• All applications are equal
– does not discriminate between native and non-native applications
– allows any applications to be enhanced/reused
• p2p interdevice application messaging
Dalvik VM
• All applications written in Java and converted to the dalvik executable .dex
• Every android app runs its own process, with its own instance of the dalvik virtual machine
• Not a traditional JVM, but a custom VM designed to run multiple instances efficiently on a single device
• VM uses linux kernel to handle low-level functionality incl. security, threading, process and memory management
Application Framework
• Rich, extensible set of Views
– apps can inclused lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, web browser
• Content Providers
– allows data access from other applications or share own data
• Resource Manager
– access to localized strings, graphics, layout files
• Notification Manager
– enables custom alerts to be displayed in status bar
• Activity Manager
– Manages lifecycle of applications and provides navigation backstack
Application Fundamentals
• Activities
– application presentation layer
• Services
– invisible components, update data sources, visible activities, trigger notifications
– perform regular processing even when app is not active or invisible
• Content Providers
– shareable data store
• Intents
– message passing framework
– broadcase messages system wide, for an action to be performed
• Broadcast receivers
– consume intent broadcasts
– lets app listen for intents matching a specific criteria like location
• Notifications
– Toast notification
– Status Bar Notification
– Dialog notification
Applications
• All apps (native and 3rd party) are written using the same APIs and run on the same run time executable
• All apps have APIs for hardware access, location-based services, support for background services, map-based activities, 2D and 3D graphics.
• App Widgets are miniature app views that can be embedded in other apps like Home Screen
App Priority and Processes
 Android apps do not have control over their own life cycles
 Aggressively manages resources to ensure device responsiveness and kills process/apps when needed
• Active Process – critical priority
• Visible Process – high priority
• Started Service Process
• Background Process – low priority
• Empty process
Client apps
• Developed using the Android SDK and installed on user devices
• Compiled Java code, with data and resource – bundled by Android Asset Packaging tool (AAPT) into Android package or .apk
• All applications have Android Manifest file in its root directory
– provides essential information about app
• Could be installed directly on phone, but necessary to be distributed thru Market
Web Apps
• An alternative to standalone apps
• Developed using web standards and accessed through browser – nothing to install on devices
• Mixing client and web apps is also possible – Client apps can embed web pages using “Webview” in Android app
SDK
• Android APIs, Full Documentation and Sample code
• Development tools
– Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (DDMS)
– Android Debug Bridge (ADB)
– Android Emulator
• Online support and blog
• Native Development Kit also available
– allows developers to implement parts of apps in native-code languages like C/C++
– Plug in available to use Eclipse integrated development environment
• Developer forums and developer phones from Google, MOTO Dev studio from Motorola
30-03-2011, 09:38 AM
Post: #20
RE: android full report
Presented by:
Vidya Reddy Thota


.pptx  android..pptx (Size: 881.57 KB / Downloads: 175)
Mobile Application Development with Android
Introduction to Android
Open Software platform for Mobile development.
– A complete stack – OS, Middle ware, Applications.
– Open Source Libraries.
– Software Development Kit.
– An Open Handset Alliance (OHA) project.
– Initially developed by Android Inc., Later purchased by Google.
– Open Source under the Apache2 license.
– About Android
• Android is a software platform and operating system mainly for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system.
• It allows developers to write managed application code in Java language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries.
• Google has made most of the Android platform available under the Apache free-software and Open Source license, in Oct 2008.
Android Features
• Application Framework
• Dalvik virtual machine
• Integrated (webkit) browser
• 2D and 3D graphics APIs with HW
• SQLite
• Video and audio codecs
• Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi
• Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer
• Rich Development environment
Architecture
• Android Platform
• Base platform
• Linux 2.6.25 Kernel
• Native Libraries
• Libc, Webkit, etc.
• Dalvik VM
• Register-based VM
• Runs dex byte code
Applications
• Developed in Java
• Runs on Dalvik VM
• The Linux Kernel
• The Linux kernel is the base of the Software Stack.
• Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model.
• The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.
Android and Linux
• Android differs from the typical GNU/Linux in that it adopts only the Linux kernel, not everything.
• The first process ‘init’ transfers to Android’s own application environment.
• There is no shell by default, except using adb.
• BSD libc is used instead of glibc or uClobc.
• As a result, it is called Android/Linux, not GNU/Linux.
Android Runtime
• Provide most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.
• Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik Virtual Machine.
• Dalvik has been written so that a device can run Multiple VMs.
Android Runtime
• The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format ( binary code ) which is optimized for minimal memory footprint.
• The VM is registry based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into .dex format by the included ‘dx’ tool.
• It relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low level memory management.
The First Complete Android Phone
• T- mobile G1
• Qualcomm MSM7201A,528 MHz
• ROM : 256 MB, RAM : 192 MB
• Touch Screen ( 320 x 480 )
• Real Web browsing capabilities
• 3.2 MP camera , QWERTY key board
• 3G WCDMA, Quad band GSM , WiFi, Bluetooth 2.0
Development Tools for Android Applications
• Currently supported development platforms include x86 based computers running Linux, Mac 0S X 10.4.8 or later, Windows XP, Vista, 7
• The Android SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, including a debugger, libraries, a handset emulator (QEMU), documentations, Sample code and tutorials.
http://developer.android.com/sdk/
• Requirements also include Java Development Kit.
• The officially supported integrated development environment is Eclipse (3.3 or 3.4) with the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin.
http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/
• Eclipse Android Plugin
https://dl-ssl.google.com/android/eclipse/
• Android Developer’s Website
http://developer.android.com/index/html
Android SDK
• ADT : Android Development Tool, an Eclipse Plugin.
• Two Debuggers.
• Adb : Android Debug Bridge
• Ddms : Dalvik Debug Monitor Server.
• Aapk : Android Application Package Tool
• All resources are bundled into an archive, called apk file.
• Dx : Java byte code to Dalvik executable translator.
• Android Emulator : QEMU
Android Application Fundamentals
• Compiled Java code, data and resources are bundled into an android package(*.apk)
• Each Android application lives in its own world
• Own Linux process
• Each process has own Java VM
• Each application has own unique Linux user ID
Application Components
• Activities
• Visual User Interface
• Intent and Intent Filter
• Simple message objects
• Services
• Runs in the background
• Broadcast Receivers
• Receive and react to broadcast announcements
• Content Providers
• Make application data available
Activity
• Displays a user interface component and responds to system/user.
• When an applications has a user interface, it contains one or more ‘Activities’.
• An existing ‘Activity’ can be replaced with a new one that fulfill the same intent.
• Each ‘Activity’ can be invoked from other applications.
• Adding a new ‘Activity’ in an Android project.
• The new Java class must extend the framework ‘Activity’ class.
• Created ‘Activity’ must be defined into the application’s Manifest.xml.
• Life Cycle of an Activity
• Life Cycle not directly controlled by application.
• System can kill an application to free up memory.
• Control through ‘onCreate (), onPause (), onStop () methods.
Intents/Intent Filters
• Provide a late runtime binding between the code in different applications.
• Intents: Simple message objects that represent an intention to do something.
• Intent Filters: A declaration of capacity and interest in offering assistance to those in need.
• An ‘intent’ is made up of a number of pieces of information describing the action or the service.
• Action : The general Action to be performed, such as ACTION_VIEW, ACTION_EDIT,ACTION_MAIN, etc.
• Data : The data to operate on , such as a person record in the contacts database , expressed as a URI.
• Intent newActivity =new Intent(MyActivity.this, Other Activity.class);
startActivity(newActivity) ;
Services
• Similar to activities , but without UI
• For long running background tasks
• Framework ‘Service’ class must be extended
• Core Services
– Activity Manager
– Package Manager
– Window Manager
– Resource Manager
– Content Providers
– View System
Example :
StartService(new Intent( this_activity.this, some_service.class));
04-04-2011, 10:06 AM
Post: #21
RE: android full report
PRESENTED BY:
Vijetha Prabhu B & Sushmitha Shenoy


.ppt  Android final.ppt (Size: 2.52 MB / Downloads: 350)
Introduction
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications.
The Android SDK provides the tools and APIs necessary to begin developing applications on the Android platform using the Java programming language.
What is Android?
• A software platform and operating system for mobile devices
• Based on the Linux kernel
• Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)
• Allows writing managed code in the Java language
• Possibility to write applications in other languages and compiling it to ARM native code
• Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA
• What is the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)?
• → It's a consortium of several companies
• Devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices
• Develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile devices and services
• Architecture
• Applications
Android ships with a set of core applications including an email client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts etc. , all of which are written in Java.
Underlying all applications , is a set of services and systems, including:
• A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
• Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts), or to share their own data
• A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files
• A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar
• An Activity Manager that manages the lifecycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack
Libraries
• System C library
• Media Libraries
• Surface Manager
• LibWebCore
• SGL
• 3D libraries
• SQLite
• FreeType
Android Runtime
• Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.
• Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.
Linux Kernel
• Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.
07-04-2011, 04:28 PM
Post: #22
RE: android full report

.ppt  ramakri-100413123829-phpapp01.ppt (Size: 3.05 MB / Downloads: 289)
ANDROID OS
Next Generation Mobile Computing
What is ANDROID?

 Mobile Operating System
 based on Linux 2.6 kernel
 July 2005; Google acquired Android Inc.
 5 Nov 2007; Open HandSet Alliance form
 Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile
 12 Nov 2007; OHA released a preview of the Android os
 21 oct 2008:Google relese all code under apache license
Android is a software stack
Operating System
Middleware
Applications Framework
Android Features
 Application Framework
Enabling reuse & replacement of component
 Dalvik Virtual Machine
Optimized for mobile devices
 Integrated Browser
Based on open source WebKit engine
Android Features

 Optimized graphics
powered by custom 2D graphics library 3D based on openGL
ES 1.0 specification
 SQlite
Structured data storage
 Media Support
common audio,video and image format
Android Features
 GSM telephony (hardware dependant)
 Bluetooth,EDGE,3G,Wi-Fi(hardware dependant)
 Camera ,GPS (hardware dependant)
 Rich Development Environment
SDK include device emulator, debugger, memory &
performance profiling , plugin for Eclipse IDE
ANDROID ARCHITECTURE
 Linux Kernel
 Linux Version 2.6 as - h/w abstraction layer
 Proven driver model
 Security, Memory & Process Management
 Efficient computing resource management
 Stable and proven for mobile platform
 Libraries
 Written in C/C++ - System C Library(libc)
 Surface manager - composing different drawing screens
 Display/Graphics(SGL)-for 2D graphics
 OpenGLES – 3D Graphics Library
 Media Libraries
 SQLite –RDB engine-light weight
 LibWebCore–web browser engine–embeddable web view
Android Runtime
 Includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality-JAVA
 Every Android application runs in its own process
 Dalvik VM executes files in the (.dex) format
 Device can run multiple VMs efficiently
Application Framework
Techniques for saving data

 SQLite Databases: relational database library for storing and managing complex data
 Files: you can create, write, and read files from the local storage or external media (SD Cards)
 FileOutputStream, FileInputStream, and Resources classes.
The Dalvik Virtual Machine
 Interpreter only machine optimized for use on low powered, low memory devices like phones
 Dalvik uses the Java programming language but not the JVM
 Dalvik is not a Java virtual machine.
 It uses bytecode format called “dex”.
ANATOMY OF APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
 SDK
Google provide 3 version Windows, Mac OSX and Linux.
developer can use Android plugin for Eclipse IDE
step1:Decompose prospective application into following
component
Activity-visual user interface
Intent Receiver-e-mail inbox
Sevice –task done in background
Content Provider-share some data
step2:Predefine all component in AndroidManifest.xml file.
ANATOMY OF APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
 There is the activity Creator script, which generates the following files and folders in your Eclipse workplace:
- AndroidManifest.xml file
- Build.xml – an ant file which is used to package an
application;
- src/ - source directory
- bin/ - the output directory
R.Java file created it index to all above file DDMS (Dalvik Debug Monitor Server) For debugging & testing
DEVELOPMENT TOOL
 Android Emulator -A virtual mobile device that runs on our computer -use to design, debug, and test our applications in an actual Android run-time environment
 Android Development Tools Plugin -for the Eclipse IDE – adds powerful extensions to the Eclipse integrated environment
 Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (DDMS) -Integrated with Dalvik-this tool let us manage processes on an emulator and assists in debugging
Life cycle of application
 A foreground process
 A visible process
 A service process
 A background process
 An empty process
APPLICATION
CONCLUSION

Android is a disruptive technology, which was introduced initially on mobile handsets, but has much wider potential.
12-04-2011, 04:33 PM
Post: #23
RE: android full report
Presented By :
Abhishek Verma


.pptx  Android.pptx (Size: 434.09 KB / Downloads: 128)
Introduction 1 :
What is Android ?

 1. A Software platform and operating system for mobile devices.
 2. Based on Linux kernel.
 3. Developed by Google.
 4. Allows writing managed code in java language.
Introduction 2 :
 Unveiling of Android platform was announced
On 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA.
àOHA (open handset alliance) is a consortium of several companies.
Introduction 3 :
What is OHA ?
à 1. Devoted the advancing standards for mobile devices.
2. Develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile devices and services.
Introduction 3 :
Versions :
Android 3.0 (Honeycomb)
Android 2.3.3 (Gingerbread)
Android 2.3 (Gingerbread)
Android 2.2 (Froyo)
Android 2.1 (Eclair)
Android 1.6 (Donut)
Android 1.5 (Cupcake)
 Market of Android Platforms on 15 March 2011
Platform 1:
Hardware :

àAndroid is not a single piece of hardware; it's a complete, end-to-end software platform that can be adapted to work on any number of hardware configurations. Everything is there, from the boot loader all the way up to the applications.
Platform 2 :
Operating System :

• Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management, process management, and networking.
• The next level up contains the Android native libraries. They are all written in C/C++ internally, but you’ll be calling them through Java interfaces. In this layer you can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics, Media codecs, the SQL database (SQLite), and a native web browser engine (WebKit).
• Dalvik Virtual Machine. Dalvik runs dex files, which are coverted at compile time from standard class and jar files.
 Platform 3 :
• Network Connectivity :
It supports wireless communications using:
 GSM mobile-phone technology
 3G
 Edge
 802.11 Wi-Fi networks
 Platform 4 :
Security :
 Android is a multi-process system, in which each application (and parts of the system) runs in its own process. Most security between applications and the system is enforced at the process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user and group IDs that are assigned to applications.
 Additional finer-grained security features are provided through a "permission" mechanism that enforces restrictions on the specific operations that a particular process can perform, and per-URI permissions for granting ad-hoc access to specific pieces of data.
 Platform 5 : Performence
 Platform 6 :
Future possibilities :
• Google Android Sales to Overtake iPhone in 2012
• The OHA is committed to make their vision a reality: to deploy the Android platform for every mobile operator, handset manufacturers and developers to build innovative devices
• Intel doesn’t want to lose ownership of the netbook market, so they need to prepare for anything, including Android
• Fujitsu launched an initiative to offer consulting and engineering expertise to help run Android on embedded hardware, which aside from cell phones, mobile internet devices, and portable media players, could include GPS devices, thin-client computers and set-top boxes.
Software Development 1 :
• Development Requirements :
• Java
• Android SDK
Software Development 2 :
• Programming Languages :
• Java – officially supported
• C/C++ – also possible but not supported
Overall Evaluation 1 :
Advantages :

• The ability for anyone to customize the Google Android platform
• The consumer will benefit from having a wide range of mobile applications to choose from since the monopoly will be broken by Google Android
• Men will be able to customize a mobile phones using Google Android platform like never before
• Features like weather details, opening screen, live RSS feeds and even the icons on the opening screen will be able to be customized
Advantages :
• As a result of many mobile phones carrying Google Android, companies will come up with such innovative products like the location
• In addition the entertainment functionalities will be taken a notch higher by Google Android being able to offer online real time multiplayer games
 Overall Evaluation 2 :
Limitations :
Bluetooth limitations
o Android doesn't support:
 Bluetooth stereo
 Contacts exchange
 Modem pairing
 Wireless keyboards
22-04-2011, 03:04 PM
Post: #24
RE: android full report

.doc  android.doc (Size: 78 KB / Downloads: 126)
ABSTRACT:
The unveiling of the Android platform on was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 48 hardware, software, and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google has made most of the Android platform available under the Apache free-software and open source license.
Android is a freely downloadable open source software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications based on Linux and Java.
Google developed Android collaboratively as part of the Open Handset Alliance, a group of more than 30 mobile and technology companies working to open up the mobile handset environment. Android's development kit supports many of the standard packages used by Jetty, and so, due to that fact and Jetty's modularity and lightweight footprint, it was possible to port Jetty to it so that it will be able to run on the Android platform.
This paper on Android deals with the history of the Android, the early prototypes, basic building blocks of an android application and the features of the android.
Introduction :
Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices, based on the Linux kernel, and developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language, controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries. Applications written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code and run, but this development path isn't officially supported by Google.
Android is available as open source. Google threw open the entire source code (including network and telephony stacks) that were not available previously, under an Apache license. Certain parts that relate to a specific hardware can't be made open and are not considered part of the Android platform. With Apache License, vendors are free to add proprietary extensions without submitting those back to the open source community. While Google's contributions to this platform are expected to remain open-sourced, the branches could explode using varieties of licenses.
Features of Android:
• Handset layouts Android can adapt to traditional smart phone layouts, as well other VGA, 2D, and 3D graphics libraries.
• Storage Android uses SQLite to store all its junk-- I mean, information.
• Connectivity Android supports a wide variety of technologies, including Bluetooth, WiFi, GSM/EDGE, and EV-DO.
• Messaging MMS and SMS are available for Android, as well as threaded text messaging. So you can send as many texties as you like.
• Web Browser Android comes pre-loaded with the Web Kit application. Remember, if you don't like it, you can always switch it out for something else later on thanks to the open source nature of the Google Android backend.
• Java Virtual Machine Software you write in Java can be compiled in Dalvik Byte codes (say that five times fast. I keep ending up with "Danish light bulb".) These can then be put into a Dalvik Virtual Machine. Basically more robust applications are supported than on some other Mobile Operating Systems.
• Media Support Android supports a wide range of audio, video, media, and still formats. MPEG-4, OGG, and AAC are just a few of these. Unfortunately the Media Player as its known right now is pretty basic, although more robust offerings on are the horizon from 3rd Party developers.
• Additional Hardware Support Got a touch screen you want to put to its full use? No problem. Android is capable of utilizing outside hardware like GPS, accelerometers, and all that other fun stuff.
Building blocks to an Android application:
There are four building blocks to an Android application:
• Activity
• Broadcast Intent Receiver
• Service
• Content Provider
Activity
Activities are the most common of the four Android building blocks. An activity is usually a single screen in your application. Each activity is implemented as a single class that extends the Activity base class. Your class will display a user interface composed of Views and respond to events. Most applications consist of multiple screens. For example, a text messaging application might have one screen that shows a list of contacts to send messages to, a second screen to write the message to the chosen contact, and other screens to review old messages or change settings. Each of these screens would be implemented as an activity. Moving to another screen is accomplished by a starting a new activity. In some cases and activity may return a value to the previous activity -- for example an activity that lets the user pick a photo would return the chosen photo to the caller.
Intent and Intent Filters
Android uses a special class called Intent to move from screen to screen. Intent describes what an application wants done. The two most important parts of the intent data structure are the action and the data to act upon. Typical values for action are MAIN (the front door of the application), VIEW, PICK, EDIT, etc. The data is expressed as a URI. For example, to view contact information for a person, you would create intent with the VIEW action and the data set to a URI representing that person.
There is a related class called an Intent Filter. While an intent is effectively a request to do something, an intent filter is a description of what intents an activity (or Broadcast Receiver, see below) is capable of handling. An activity that is able to display contact information for a person would publish an Intent Filter that said that it knows how to handle the action VIEW when applied to data representing a person. Activities publish their Intent Filters in the AndroidManifest.xml file.
. The new activity is informed of the intent, which causes it to be launched. The process of resolving intents happens at run time when start Activity is called, which offers two key benefits:
• Activities can reuse functionality from other components simply by making a request in the form of an Intent
• Activities can be replaced at any time by a new Activity with an equivalent Intent Filter
Broadcast Receiver:
You can use a Broadcast Receiver when you want code in your application to execute in reaction to an external event, for example, when the phone rings, or when the data network is available, or when it's midnight. Broadcast Receivers do not display a UI, although they may use the Notification Manager to alert the user if something interesting has happened. Broadcast Receivers are registered in AndroidManifest.xml, but you can also register them from code using Context.registerReceiver (). Your application does not have to be running for its BroadcastReceivers to be called; the system will start your application, if necessary, when a BroadcastReceiver is triggered. Applications can also send their own intent broadcasts to others with Context.sendBroadcast ().
SERVICE:
A Service is code that is long-lived and runs without a UI. A good example of this is a media player playing songs from a play list. In a media player application, there would probably be one or more activities that allow the user to choose songs and start playing them. However, the music playback itself should not be handled by an activity because the user will expect the music to keep playing even after navigating to a new screen. In this case, the media player activity could start a service using Context.startService () to run in the background to keep the music going. The system will then keep the music playback service running until it has finished. Note that you can connect to a service (and start it if it's not already running) with the Context.bindService () method. When connected to a service, you can communicate with it through an interface exposed by the service. For the music service, this might allow you to pause, rewind, etc.
CONTENT PROVIDER:
Applications can store their data in files, an SQLite database, or any other mechanism that makes sense. A content provider, however, is useful if you want your application's data to be shared with other applications. A content provider is a class that implements a standard set of methods to let other applications store and retrieve the type of data that is handled by that content provider.
Not every application needs to have all four, but your application will be written with some combination of these.
All the components needed for android application should listed in an xml file called AndroidManifest.xml. This is an XML file where you declare the components of your application and what their capabilities and requirements are.
Storing, Retrieving and Exposing Data:
A typical desktop operating system provides a common file system that any application can use to store and read files that can be read by other applications. Android uses a different system on Android, all application data are private to that application. However, Android also provides a standard way for an application to expose its private data to other applications. This section describes the many ways that an application can store and retrieve data, expose its data to other applications, and also how you can request data from other applications that expose their data.
Android provides the following mechanisms for storing and retrieving data:
Preferences :
A lightweight mechanism to store and retrieve key/value pairs of primitive data types. This is typically used to store application preferences.
Files :
You can store your files on the device or on a removable storage medium. By default, other applications cannot access these files.
Databases :
The Android APIs contain support for SQLite. Your application can create and use a private SQLite database. Each database is private to the package that creates it.
Content Providers :
A content provider is a optional component of an application that exposes read/write access to an application's private data, subject to whatever restrictions it wants to impose. Content providers implement a standard request syntax for data, and a standard access mechanism for the returned data. Android supplies a number of content providers for standard data types, such as personal contacts.
Network :
Don't forget that you can also use the network to store and retrieve data.
27-04-2011, 11:47 AM
Post: #25
RE: android full report
Presented by:
Vallari Niranjan


.ppt  seminar_android.ppt (Size: 2.22 MB / Downloads: 221)
Android 3.0 HONEY COMB
ANDROID

Google’s mobile operating system, developed by Android Inc. acquired by Google in 2005.
It is world’s best-selling smartphone platform
More than 20,000 apps available for Android.
It was unveiled with opening of Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 79 h/w, s/w and telecom companies.
Birth of Android
In July 2005, Google acquired android Inc in California, USA.
On 5th Nov 2007, a group of companies including HTC, Intel, LG, Samsung, Motorola, Nvidia etc. headed up to develop open standards for mobile devices.
Along with OHA, their first product Android, a mobile device platform built on linux kernel version 2.6.
Android has been available under a free software open source license since 21st oct 2008.
Google published the source code under an apache license.
Android Platform Discription
Application framework
To write applications
Supports open source libraries
Dalvik Virtual Machine
Low memory based machine, tuned to CPU attributes
Creates a special format (.DEX) that is created through build time post processing.
Integrated Browser
WebKit was chosen as open source web browser.
Adding a pass layout and frame flattening.
SQLite
An extremely small RDBMS, integrated in Android.
Android Architecture
Software Development Kit
It requires development and debugging tools, a set of
libraries, a device emulator, documentation.
Requirements include:
Java Development Kit
Apache
Python 2.2 or later
Integrated Development Kit- Eclipse 3.2
The system on which development takes place should be able to run Linux/Mac OS/Windows XP or later.
Android Prior Versions
Android 1.0
Released on 23 September 2008
Android 1.1
Released on 9 February 2009
Multiple resolved issues
API changes
Maps adds details and reviews
Screen timeout longer when using speakerphone
Support for saving attachments from MMS
Android 1.5 (Cupcakes)
Released on 30 April 2009
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.27
Ability to record and watch videos through camcorder mode
Uploading videos to YouTube and pictures to Picasa directly from the phone
A new soft-keyboard with text-prediction
New widgets and folders that can populate the Home screens
Android 1.6 (Donut)
Released on 15 September 2009
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.29
An integrated camera, camcorder, and gallery interface
Updated Voice Search, with faster response and deeper integration with native applications, including the ability to dial contacts
Updated search experience to allow searching bookmarks, history, contacts, and the web from the home screen
Android 2.0/2.1 (Eclair)
Released on 26 October 2009
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.29
Improved virtual keyboard
Optimized hardware speed
Improved Google Maps 3.1.2
Android 2.2 (FROYO)
Released on 20 May 2010
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.32
General Android OS speed, memory, and performance optimization.
Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth
Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords
Support for file upload fields in the Browser application
 Android 2.3 (GINGER BREAD)
Released on 6 December 2010
Based on Linux Kernel 2.6.35
Enhanced support for native code development
Redesigned multi-touch software keyboard
System-wide copy–paste functionalities
Updated user interface design
A download manager for long-running downloads
Improved power management and application control
Android 3.0 (HONEYCOMB)
On 26 January 2011, a preview of the Honeycomb SDK was released
Optimized tablet support with a new user interface
Three dimensional desktop with redesigned widgets
Refined multi-tasking
Support for video chat using Google Talk
Android 3.x (ICE CREAM SANDVICH)
Possible mid-2011 release.
Android 3.0 Honeycomb
Google’s latest release 3.0 aka Honeycomb is specifically optimized for devices with larger screen sizes.
Applications written for Android 3.0 use a set of UI objects, powerful graphics and media capabilities.
Home screen customization, widgets are transformed into a vibrant 3D experience and deeper interactivity.
E-mail On The Go
The gmail application in android is closely hooked to the android OS.
Apart from regular functions like reading, sending, replying, archiving we can also put labels automatically on incoming mails.
By customizing Gmail settings, we can configure two types of option:
General settings
Notification settings
For connecting to other mail providers, we have a POP3/IMAP access options.
Multiple accounts can be created with different/same provider
Phone Settings
Settings application are used to configure phone looks,
sounds, networks, protects privacy and operates in
many other ways. Some of them include:
Wireless and networks
Advanced Wi-Fi settings screen
Bluetooth settings
Tethering & portable hotspot
Virtual private networks settings
Mobile network settings
Call
Sounds & display
Animations
Auto-rotate
Screen Timeout
Storage settings
Language & keyboard
Location & security
GPS satellites
Screen lock/unlock patterns
Select device administrators
Applications
Development screen
Accounts and sync
Account screen
Privacy
Back up my data
Automatic restore
Factory data set
Accessibility
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