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14-03-2011, 05:05 PM
Post: #1
Automatic car parking system
Automatic Car Parking System
Miniproject report

SUBMITTED BY:
MUHAMMED FAISAL T
RAKESH KP
SARATH T S
SHAUN S SEKHAR

S6, Applied Electronics And Instumentation
College Of Engineering, Trivandrum


.doc  Automatic car parking System.doc (Size: 610.5 KB / Downloads: 1032)

INTRODUCTION

Automobiles are synonyms for mobility and freedom. An amazing increase in the growth of population in this world leads to the rapid increase in the number of vehicle being used. With the growing number of vehicles and the consequent shortage of parking space, there is haphazard and totally unregulated parking of vehicles all over. In densely populated areas they are real challenge for city planners, architects and developers. The need to offer sufficient parking spaces is a task for specialists. This situation calls for the need for an automated parking system that not only regulates parking in a given area but also keeps the manual control to a minimum. Automatic car parking systems is the sole solution to park as many cars as possible in as little space as possible. Automatic car parking systems are based on the most modern technology of storage systems.
Our demonstration facility presents a miniature model of an automated car parking system that regulates the number of cars that can be parked in a given space at any given time based on the parking space availability. Automated parking is a method of parking and exiting cars using sequence detecting and sensing devices. The entry and exit of vehicles are facilitated using a totally automated gate. Status signals indicate whether a car is currently in the process of entering or leaving the parking space. After the initial installation, the system requires no manual control. It requires no attendants, is more cost-effective than conventional garages, and allows more cars to be parked in less space. The automation technology is used to typically double to triple the capacity of conventional parking garages.



SYSTEM OVERVIEW

A gate has been provided at the entry of the parking space, which opens on the arrival or departure of a car. A display section has been provided, which consists of status signals and a display showing the number of cars present in the parking space at any point of time. After the maximum number or cars have entered the parking space, the gate is automatically disabled for vehicles seeking entry into the parking lot. A logic circuit distinguishes between the cars and persons or two wheelers, so that persons and two wheelers are not included in the count for cars.







BLOCK DIAGRAM

The block diagram presented earlier consists of transmitter, receiver, de-multiplexer, up-counter, down-counter and display sections.
The transmitter section comprises of two light emitting diodes which transmit high power light beams. These light beams are incident on the receivers, which produce an output of zero volt if the beam received is uninterrupted and +5V if the beam is interrupted by a car. These receivers are the Light Detecting Resistors which are arranged in such a manner so as to detect the light even after the obstacle between the sensor and receiver passes through. The working of the sensors is based on the voltages across collector, emitter, and base respectively.
Whenever a car enters the parking area, it interrupts the light beams in a definite sequence. This sequence is given to the up-count sequence detector, which generates a high output only if the correct sequence has been detected. Similarly, when the car leaves the parking area, it generates a fixed sequence, which is given to the down- count sequence detector. The down count sequence detector generates a high output only if the correct sequence is produced by the exiting car. The outputs of the up count and down count blocks are given to the display section. The display section has a counter and a 7-segment display along with its driver IC to display the count. Depending on the sequence detector that generates an actuating signal, the count is either incremented or decremented.




The outputs shown in the display section are based on the increment and decrement of the counters. Based on these outputs the actuating signals are used to enable the different status signal.

The display section also consists of certain status signals. The different status signals include:

1. A yellow signal to indicate that a car is currently in the process of entering or leaving the parking space.

2. A green signal to indicate that the parking lot has not reached its maximum capacity and that space is available for the parking of a car in the parking area.

3. A red signal to indicate that the parking space is full. The activation of this signal coincides with the disabling of the green signal and consequently closing of the gate for vehicles trying to enter the parking lot.

Thus the circuit functions regulating the number of cars that can be parked in a given parking lot at any given time based on the parking space availability. And also indicates the current status of the parking lot, be it full, half -filled or vacant .








DISPLAY INDICATION CHART



LED

INDICATION


YELLOW

RED

GREEN

Car in the process of parking

No vacancy

Parking Space Available


THE CIRCUIT

The automated car parking circuit primarily uses two LDR’s, two transmitters which are high power LED’s, 74LS74 D flip-flops, 74155 2:4 decoder, up/down counter 74193, seven segment display driver CD4511, miniature motor driver L293D, NAND gate IC 7400 and NOT gate IC 7404. In addition to these, it has got green, yellow and red LED’s and also a 6V, 500 mA dc motor.

For easy understanding of the circuit, it has been divided into the following four basic sections.

1.Sensor
2.Sequence detector
3.Counter and display
4.Gate control.


SENSOR SECTION

In this section, we use two transmitters(LED’s) which generates high power light beams . The signals of which are received by the receivers of the sensor section.
The receiver section consists of two identical light detecting resistors. When the signal from the transmitters are received ; a low dc level (logic low) is obtained at the output. But once the signal is cut ,the output obtained is at logic high.
The +5V dc level occasionally drops to zero, even when the signal strength is quite low, due to very high sensitivity of the receiver. This may lead to the false triggering of the circuit, which must be eliminated. For this we provide an electrolytic capacitor that is connected between the output of receiver and ground.
The output of the receiver is obtained due to the fact that when light falls on this circuit (Fig:-) the resistance value is reduced, which results in the passage of current through the base turning the transistor ON. Thus the collector voltage is low and the output obtained is low. But once the signal is cut the collector voltage level increases ,resulting a high output.


SEQUENCE DETECTOR SECTION

This section is the heart of the entire system. It consists of a 2:4 decoder and flip-flops, which are used for sequence detection. The 74155 dual 2:4 decoder receives its select signals at pins 13 (A) and 3 (B) from the receivers LDR1 and LDR2 respectively. The other decoder is not used. The output lines of the enabled decoder are active low.
For convenience, the receiver before the entrance to the gate is connected to pin 13 of 74155. In default state, each receiver is active and inputs zero to the decoder, making the Y0 output line low.
When the first sensor is blocked, the Y1 lines goes low. The low-going Y2 line indicates that only the second sensor is blocked. A low Y3 line indicates that both signals have been blocked. Refer truth table of the IC 74155. The four output lines act as control and decoding signals for the remaining circuits.
The sequence detection logic circuit consists of three flip-flops for detecting the incoming as well as the outgoing vehicles. The Y0 line is connected to the clear lines of all the flip-flops, which gives zero at their respective outputs. The vehicle entering the parking area must interrupt the first sensor (before entrance), then both the sensors and finally just the second sensor (after entrance). Thus the sequence generated states are 10, 11 and 01, necessarily in that sequence.
For identifying the states and the order in which they occur, we give the Y1, Y3 and Y2 lines after logical inversions to the clock inputs of the three successive flip-flops, respectively. A Vcc signal is the input to the first flip-flop, while each subsequent input is the output of the previous flip-flop. The logic states of the three coded output lines are inverted because these are active low, while the 74LS74 D flip-flops are triggered by the rising edge of the clock signals.
Only the proper sequence of logic states will cause logic high at the output of the third flip-flop. Any other sequence will not allow the transfer of high signal through the series of flip-flops.
The output of the third flip-flop is given to the counter and display section, which increments the court. Thus when the vehicle enters the parking area, the Y0 signal clears all the flip-flops, and at this very instant, the count is incremented. An identical circuit is used for detecting a vehicle leaving the parking area. In this case however states generated by the vehicle are 01, 11 and 10, necessarily in that order. Hence the clock signals for the three successive flip-flops are derived from Y2, Y3 and Y1 lines respectively.
The working of this circuit is identical to the one for detecting a vehicle entering the parking area. In this case, the final D flip-flop output is given to the counter and display section for decrementing the count. This occurs at the instant when the outputs of the flip-flops are cleared by the low going Y0 signal [The details of which has been explained in the counter and display section].

COUNTER AND DISPLAY SECTION

This section consists of up/down counter IC 74193, BCD to 7 segment decoder, display driver IC 4511 (to drive a common cathode 7 segment display) and three LEDs (red, yellow and green).
The counter IC 74193 is capable of handling up as well as down counts if configured for the same. The count is incremented by one when a rising edge is encountered on the up pin (pin 5) and decremented by one when a rising edge is encountered on the down pin (pin 4) of the circuit, the former occurs when the vehicle has entered the parking area and the line Y0 clears the output of the final flip-flop, causing a transition from the high to low logic state, which when passed through an inverter, provides a rising edge. The count decrements in the same fashion as the flip-flops in question are those used for detecting the vehicles leaving the parking area.
The preset data pins of the counter IC are connected to Vcc. The four BCD output lines of up/down-counter (74193) are fed to the corresponding pins of the decoder / driver 4511. The logic circuit inside the driver IC converts the four-bit BCD input to the output which are active high suitable to drive the common cathode indication. Thus the active high outputs of the decoder are connected to the corresponding pins of the 7 segment common cathode display.
The MSB and LSB lines of the outputs of the counter are NANDed using the NAND gate. The output of this NAND gate is then inverted by an inverter gate and then fed to the anode of the red LED, which indicates that nine vehicles are present in the parking area and there is no further space. This happens because the output of the binary 9 on the lines makes the extreme lines high, which gives a high at the otherwise low anode of the red LED, thus turning it ON. The output of the NAND gate is fed to the anode of the green LED. The green LED is activated when the count is less than nine, indicating the availability of space for at least one vehicle in the parking area. The yellow LED indicates that the vehicle is entering or leaving the parking area.
Hence, this LED must be ON when at least one of the sensors is being cut. For this reason, the Y0 line of the decoder is given at the anode of the LED. When no signal is being cut, the Y0 line is low, keeping the LED off. But as soon as any of the signals is cut, the Y0 line goes high, turning the yellow LED ON. The LED indication for various situations is depicted in table.


GATE CONTROL SECTION

The gate control section consists of the motor driver IC [L293D] the OR gate and the two D flip-flops which provide appropriate logic used for controlling the operation of the gate / barrier.
Assume that the lower position of the barrier is the default position. Now whenever the input to the motor driver IC is 10, it causes the motor to rotate, thereby causing the barrier to move such that it opens the entrance. Similarly, when the input to motor driver is 01, the motor rotates in the opposite direction to lower the barrier, thereby closing the gate. When the input to the motor driver is 00, the motor does not rotate.
When the car has completely entered the parking area, the input to the L293D is 01, causing the motor to rotate such that the gate begins to close. Thus, the movement of the gate is controlled on the arrival or departure of a car. The table gives us a crystal clear picture of the working of the gate control section.
In order to disable the gate from opening for a vehicle entering the parking area after the count of 9, we use a simple combinational logic circuit consisting of NAND and OR gates, whose output is given to enable pin 1 of the L293D motor driver. In normal condition, the output of this logic circuit is high. When the maximum count of 9 is reached, the output of the logic circuit becomes low, thereby disabling the motor, and keeping the gate closed for all vehicles seeking entry to the parking area.
However, when a vehicle wishes to leave the area, the IC gets enabled, thus opening the gate. The output current capability per channel of L293D is approximately 600 mA. The truth table of L293D is given in table.


COMPONENT LIST

SEMICONDUCTORS
IC1 - 74LS155 DUAL 2:4 DECODER
IC2 - 7404 HEX INVERTER
IC3 - 7400 NAND GATE
IC4 - 7432 OR GATE
IC5-IC8 - 74LS74 DUAL ‘D’ FLIP FLOP
IC9 - 4511 SEVEN SEGMENT DRIVER
IC10 - 74193 4-BIT UP/DOWN COUNTER
IC11 - L293D PUSH PULL FOUR CHANNEL

MOTOR DRIVER
IC12 - NE 555 TIMER
D1-D2 - IN4148 DIODE
DIS1 - LTS-543 COMMON CATHODE 7 SEGMENT DISPLAY
R3-R4 - 1.8 KILO OHM
R5,R6,R8 - 100 OHM

RESISTORS(1/4 WATT)
R1-R2 - 3.3 KILO OHM
R3-R4 - 1.8 KILO OHM
R5,R6,R8 - 100 OHM
R7,R9 - 1 MEGA OHM
R10-R19 - 330 OHM




MISCELLANEOUS

5V, 1A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
FLEXIBLE WIRE
- MOTOR UPTO 600mA OUTPUT CONVERT CAPABILITY

CONCLUSION

This project in which we have involved ourselves for the first time features a lot of facilities, which we are glad to bring out. This circuit is useful for underground parking, company parking etc. Modifications can be done to work on pay–and–park scheme. The counter part and display part of the circuit can be modified to count more than 9. Also it reduces the unregulated parking with this has encouraged us to try out new circuit ideas and implement them.
30-01-2012, 01:50 PM
Post: #2
RE: Automatic car parking system
Automatic car parking system


.doc  AUTOMATED_CAR_PARKING_SYSTEM.doc (Size: 518.5 KB / Downloads: 354)

INTRODUCTION

A storage system comprises of a building structure having an array of contiguous storage spaces on each of at least one level. An automated car parking system comprises of a parking rack and at least one car lifting feeder. The parking rack is divided into a plurality of parking spaces. The car lifting feeder has a pair of comb-like wings for carrying a car into a pair of comb-like platforms which are made on each parking space in the parking rack.


WORKING
An LED panel is provided at the ground floor that basically displays number of cars in each floor. It informs whether the floors are fully filled with the cars or is it having place in a particular floor or not. The lift facility carries the car up or down. Movement of Lift is controlled by stepper motor. An indicator with a green and red LED is kept to indicate whether the lift is busy or is it ready to take the car up or down. If the red LED glows that means the lift is already engaged and the person has to wait for the green LED to glow. Storage capacity can be changed according to the requirement.


7. POWER SUPPLY
The block consists of a linear voltage regulator 7805(positive voltage). It supplies power to the microcontroller, LCD and the stepper motor. The microcontroller here we are using is 8051. The LDR sensor senses the car in the lift, and sends this information to the microcontroller. The LCD module is used to view the entered the password. The stepper motor moves based on the commands by the microcontroller to the place where the driver has chosen. The LED panel displays the number of spaces that are free. The LED panel consists of LED’s equal to the number of parking spaces. When an LED of a particular space glows it means that space is free for the driver to park his car.



ADVANTAGES:

Convenient for the driver with no need to stay in the car.

Safe from crimes (ex: robbery, car accident) that often occurs in parking lot.
Can manage more cars than the ground parking system per unit.

Can reduce pollution by exhaust fumes, noise and littering.

Entrance/exit by driver does not require driver’s skill of parking.



DISADVANTAGES:

Higher investment cost

Higher maintenance cost

Construction is complicated

More care has to be taken while transferring the car from lift to the parking space
16-05-2012, 12:15 AM
Post: #3
RE: Automatic car parking system
i want to add in my automatic multi stories car parking system project that with the help of sms sending parkist can retrieve its car before reaching the parking area Huh please give me some idea
16-05-2012, 10:10 AM
Post: #4
RE: Automatic car parking system
to get information about the topic "Automatic car parking system" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bwellow

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http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...tem--19626

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...controller

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...9#pid52419
01-06-2012, 12:19 AM
Post: #5
RE: Automatic car parking system
ı need the diagram of circuit.could u help me ?
13-06-2012, 03:06 PM
Post: #6
RE: Automatic car parking system
Automatic car parking system




Literature Survey :

Basically it all started form a viewpoint that we wanted to make something unique and something which was never being seen or never being introduced before. We never had any backup or there was no such mechanism which already existed or was tested before. The idea which actually made us think of this project was an automatic pavement parking mechanism which is implemented in many high profile cars abroad. We thought of extending the same idea for car parking slots with an aim at saving human time and avoiding accidents in car parking slots. When we researched about this topic online as well as through books, we found many automatic car parking systems, but all were basically involving some kind of pulley mechanisms or lifting machineries and all these have already been implemented in various buildings all over the world. But when we actually saw a video of a car which was automatically parking itself without human intervention, we thought of clubbing this together with the existing car parking mechanism without involving heavy machinery or manual mechanism. Our aim was to prepare something really unique and hence we got ahead with this idea of parking a car completely without human intervention or any kind of huge or complicated structures but rather preferred use of microcontrollers and RF ids to make this project really unique and complete in itself.

Study and Analysis :
Car parking slot (refer figure 1.01)


In this section will introduce you with our basic concept of car parking slots. The overview of the car parking slots have been presented on the very next page which includes: reference fig 1.01
1. Each parking slot has been given the priority. The priority can be easily changed according to human choice by just making a slight modification in the program which is in existence.
2. Each parking slot has 2 optical sensor and 1 obstacle sensor. The optical sensors are used to detect the movement or location of car inside the parking slot. The obstacle sensor is used to avoid car collision inside the parking slot while parking the car.
3. There are 2 separate gates for entry and exit to avoid “bottle neck” condition.
4. The PC will check for the balance in the car before permitting it to park inside the parking slot. The PC will deduct adequate balance from the existing balance in the car as soon as the car moves out of the exit gate of the parking slot.
5. If the car has adequate balance then the user has to leave the car and press the button. As soon as he presses the button, the control over the car’s steering will be taken by the PC and the PC will ensure the safe parking of the car in the parking slot which is empty and has the highest priority.
6. If the user wants his car out of the parking lot he just has to present his card. As soon as the validity of card is confirmed, the PC will control the car’s steering in the same way as it did while parking the car and then it will ensure safe movement of the car towards the exit of the parking slot.
7. This mechanism ensures safe parking of the car and emphasises on saving a lot of time. It also aims at saving the costing factor which is required to implement huge machineries in the pulley mechanisms or lifting machinery which is used in the existing automatic car parking mechanism. It would avoid any kinds of machinery or labour but completely emphasises on use of microcontroller and RF ids for it complete and efficient working.



Pc side block diagram

It basically consists of a microcontroller which is connected to the serial port via RS-232. It is also connected to each car parking sensors and the transmitter module as well as the receiver module.
The microcontroller is connected to the transmitter module via an isolator and encoder. The isolator is used basically to avoid noise which provides amplification so that noise is avoided. The encoder will encode the signal to make it efficient for communication through transmitter by converting the parallel data into serial data.
The microcontroller is connected to the receiver module via a decoder. The decoder will decode the parallel data bits that it receives from the receiver and converts it to serial data. It will receive the identification of the car and its available balance through receiver module and this data will be checked with the data in the microcontroller. And if all the conditions are satisfied then the microcontroller will take the control over the car through PC.



LCD interface to microcontroller

With reference to the fig 1.04 .The 44780 standard requires 3 control lines as well as either 4 or 8 I/O lines for the data bus. The user may select whether the LCD is to operate with a 4-bit data bus or an 8-bit data bus. If a 4-bit data bus is used the LCD will require a total of 7 data lines (3 control lines plus the 4 lines for the data bus). If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require a total of 11 data lines (3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus).
15-09-2012, 03:19 PM
Post: #7
RE: Automatic car parking system
will you show the circuit diagram of the whole system? can laser point be used instead of high power led?
03-10-2012, 11:23 AM
Post: #8
RE: Automatic car parking system
to get information about the topic "automatic car parking system" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...tem--19626

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-rfid-b...ing-system
03-01-2013, 11:28 PM
Post: #9
RE: Automatic car parking system
can send the circuit diagram automatic car parking system
04-01-2013, 10:06 AM
Post: #10
RE: Automatic car parking system
to get information about the topic"automated car parking" full report ppt and related topic refer thelink bellow

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...tem--19626

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...controller

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-microc...ing-system

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-rfid-b...ing-system

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...controller
22-02-2013, 08:51 PM
Post: #11
RE: Automatic car parking system
Hello.
can you please send me the Circuit diagram of this project on my mail?
It is really a nice creativity!
my email: surajtalreja143[at]gmail.com

reply as soon as possible!
26-02-2013, 12:41 AM
Post: #12
RE: Automatic car parking system
please send me circuit diagrams if you can.

Regards
John
26-02-2013, 09:43 AM
Post: #13
RE: Automatic car parking system
to get information about the topic "Automatic Car Parking System" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...tem--19626

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-rfid-b...ing-system

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...controller

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-microc...ing-system
17-09-2013, 06:36 PM
Post: #14
RE: Automatic car parking system
i want components specification for automatic light for parking car
18-09-2013, 09:49 AM
Post: #15
RE: Automatic car parking system
To get full information or details of Automatic car parking system please have a look on the pages

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...tem--19626

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...system-pdf

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...controller

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...tem--17736

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-rfid-b...ing-system

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...ing-system

http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-automa...-need-help

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if you again feel trouble on Automatic car parking system please reply in that page and ask specific fields in Automatic car parking system
03-10-2013, 11:03 PM
Post: #16
RE: Automatic car parking system
i need some ppts................. plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz snd me immediatelyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
21-12-2014, 03:47 PM
Post: #17
RE: Automatic car parking system
Will you please send the circuit diagram??
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Marked Categories : project report on automatic car parking system, sensor car circuit, ldr nand gate, parking lot counter circuit, automatic car parking circuit, seminar on parking system, automatic car parking system circuit, automatic parking system miniatur, project ideas for automatic park sensor, automatic car parking project doc, automatic car parking system project abstract, automatic car parking system project report, automated car parking system project, cost of components for 7 segment display used in car parking, automatic systems doc, car parking management system using ic 7400, automatic car parking system seminar topic, automated car parking system project coding,

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