RE: automatic irrigation system
||Automatic Irrigation System
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Feeding water to plants can be done automatically by using the circuit. When the soil moisture level falls to a predetermined value, determined by VR-1, the motor pump will start automatically and after few time. When water reaches at moisture level, the pump stops automatically. The above circuit can be used when someone is going out of station for few days.
The circuit comprises an IC-555 timer. When water reaches at moisture level bringing X & Y in water connection, the resistance between them falls lower than R-1. This bring Pin No. 4 to a positive potential. As a result the circuit starts working and output from Pin-3 gives sufficient current for T-1 biasing (NPN Transistor). Thus it starts conducting and energize the relay. As, the motor is connected with upper strip of relay, connection for the same disconnects and motor gets stops. Thus when the circuit is working, motor is disconnected with mains supply and Vice-versa. One can use same device with water tanks to maintain the upper level.
The probes can be two thick wires or rods of approx. 6 inch in length and should be straight and parallel. Which may fixed at non-conducting board. The distance between two rods observes the sensitivity of the circuit.
In alternating current the electron flow is alternate, i.e. the electron flow increases to maximum in one direction, decreases back to zero. It then increases in the other direction and then decreases to zero again. Direct current flows in one direction only. Rectifier converts alternating current to flow in one direction only. When the anode of the diode is positive with respect to its cathode, it is forward biased, allowing current to flow. But when its anode is negative with respect to the cathode, it is reverse biased and does not allow current to flow. This unidirectional property of the diode is useful for rectification. A single diode arranged back-to-back might allow the electrons to flow during positive half cycles only and suppress the negative half cycles. Double diodes arranged back-to-back might act as full wave rectifiers as they may allow the electron flow during both positive and negative half cycles. Four diodes can be arranged to make a full wave bridge rectifier. Different types of filter circuits are used to smooth out the pulsations in amplitude of the output voltage from a rectifier. The property of capacitor to oppose any change in the voltage applied across them by storing energy in the electric field of the capacitor and of inductors to oppose any change in the current flowing through them by storing energy in the magnetic field of coil may be utilized. To remove pulsation of the direct current obtained from the rectifier, different types of combination of capacitor, inductors and resistors may be also be used to increase to action of filtering.
USE OF DIODES IN RECTIFIERS:
Electric energy is available in homes and industries in India, in the form of alternating voltage. The supply has a voltage of 220V (rms) at a frequency of 50 Hz. In the USA, it is 110V at 60 Hz. For the operation of most of the devices in electronic equipment, a dc voltage is needed. For instance, a transistor radio requires a dc supply for its operation. Usually, this supply is provided by dry cells. But sometime we use a battery eliminator in place of dry cells. The battery eliminator converts the ac voltage into dc voltage and thus eliminates the need for dry cells. Nowadays, almost all-electronic equipment includes a circuit that converts ac voltage of mains supply into dc voltage. This part of the equipment is called Power Supply. In general, at the input of the power supply, there is a power transformer. It is followed by a diode circuit called Rectifier. The output of the rectifier goes to a smoothing filter, and then to a voltage regulator circuit. The rectifier circuit is the heart of a power supply.
Rectification is a process of rendering an alternating current or voltage into a unidirectional one. The component used for rectification is called ‘Rectifier’. A rectifier permits current to flow only during the positive half cycles of the applied AC voltage by eliminating the negative half cycles or alternations of the applied AC voltage. Thus pulsating DC is obtained. To obtain smooth DC power, additional filter circuits are required.
A diode can be used as rectifier. There are various types of diodes. But, semiconductor diodes are very popularly used as rectifiers. A semiconductor diode is a solid-state device consisting of two elements is being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron collector or anode. Since electrons in a semiconductor diode can flow in one direction only-from emitter to collector- the diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for rectification. Out of the semiconductor diodes, copper oxide and selenium rectifier are also commonly used.
FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
It is possible to rectify both alternations of the input voltage by using two diodes in the circuit arrangement. Assume 6.3 V rms (18 V p-p) is applied to the circuit. Assume further that two equal-valued series-connected resistors R are placed in parallel with the ac source. The 18 V p-p appears across the two resistors connected between points AC and CB, and point C is the electrical midpoint between A and B. Hence 9 V p-p appears across each resistor. At any moment during a cycle of vin, if point A is positive relative to C, point B is negative relative to C. When A is negative to C, point B is positive relative to C. The effective voltage in proper time phase which each diode "sees" is in Fig. The voltage applied to the anode of each diode is equal but opposite in polarity at any given instant.
A more widely used full-wave rectifier circuit is the bridge rectifier. It requires four diodes instead of two, but avoids the need for a centre-tapped transformer. During the positive half-cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D2 and D4 are conducting and diodes D1 and D3 are non-conducting. Therefore, current flows through the secondary winding, diode D2, load resistor RL and diode D4. During negative half-cycles of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, and the diodes D2 and D4 do not conduct. The current therefore flows through the secondary winding, diode D1, load resistor RL and diode D3. In both cases, the current passes through the load resistor in the same direction. Therefore, a fluctuating, unidirectional voltage is developed across the load.
The rectifier circuits we have discussed above deliver an output voltage that always has the same polarity: but however, this output is not suitable as DC power supply for solid-state circuits. This is due to the pulsation or ripples of the output voltage. This should be removed out before the output voltage can be supplied to any circuit. This smoothing is done by incorporating filter networks. The filter network consists of inductors and capacitors. The inductors or choke coils are generally connected in series with the rectifier output and the load. The inductors oppose any change in the magnitude of a current flowing through them by storing up energy in a magnetic field. An inductor offers very low resistance for DC whereas; it offers very high resistance to AC. Thus, a series connected choke coil in a rectifier circuit helps to reduce the pulsations or ripples to a great extent in the output voltage. The fitter capacitors are usually connected in parallel with the rectifier output and the load. As, AC can pass through a capacitor but DC cannot, the ripples are thus limited and the output becomes smoothed. When the voltage across its plates tends to rise, it stores up energy back into voltage and current. Thus, the fluctuations in the output voltage are reduced considerable. Filter network circuits may be of two types in general: