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09-10-2010, 12:34 PM
Post: #1
Automatic Street Light Control System

.doc  102Automatic Street Light Control.doc (Size: 175.5 KB / Downloads: 782)

Abstract

Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple yet powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch. By using this system manual works are 100% removed. It automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) which senses the light actually like our eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights whenever the sunlight comes, visible to our eyes.

By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because nowadays the manually operated street lights are not switched off even the sunlight comes and also switched on earlier before sunset. In this project, no need of manual operation like ON time and OFF time setting.

This project clearly demonstrates the working of transistor in saturation region and cut-off region. The working of relay is also known.
09-10-2010, 04:47 PM
Post: #2
RE: Automatic Street Light Control System

.doc  102Automatic Street Light Control.doc (Size: 175.5 KB / Downloads: 320)
Automatic Street Light Control

INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job. Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD player, printer, fax machine, mobile phone etc. are examples of embedded systems. Each of these appliances will have a processor and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The embedded software is also called “firm ware”. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word processing, accounting, software development and so on. In contrast, the software in the embedded systems is always fixed listed below:
• Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do different things. . Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the memory. Generally, they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded systems have to work against some deadlines. A specific job has to be completed within a specific time. In some embedded systems, called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent. Missing a deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded systems are constrained for power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the power consumption has to be very low.
• Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very high temperatures and humidity.
12-10-2010, 05:08 PM
Post: #3
RE: Automatic Street Light Control System

.doc  Street Light Controller.doc (Size: 71 KB / Downloads: 363)
Automatic Streetlight

Introduction

Automatic Streetlight needs no manual operation for switching ON and OFF when there is need of light. It detects itself weather there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically streetlight is switched ON and when there is other source of light i.e. day time, the street light gets OFF. The sensitiveness of the street light canal so be adjusted. In our project we have used four L.E.D for indication of bulb but for high power switching one can connect Relay (electromagnetic switch) at the output of pin 1 of I.C LM358 Then it will be possible to turn ON/OFF any electrical appliances connected all the way through relay.
PRINCIPLE:
1) This circuit uses a popular timer I.C LM 358. I.C LM358 is connected as comparator with pin-6 connected with positive rail, the output goes high(1) when the trigger pin 3 is at lower then voltage level at pin no 2. Conversely the output goes low (0) when it is above pin no 2 level. So small change in the voltage of pin-2 is enough to change the level of output (pin-1) from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. The output has only two states high and low and can not remain in any intermediate stage. It is powered by a 12V power supply. The circuit is economic in power consumption. Pin 4 is ground and pin 8 is connected to the positive supply and pin 1 is grounded. To detect the present of an object we have used LDR and a source of light. LDR is a special type of resistance whose value depends on the brightness of the light, which is falling on it. It has resistance of about 1 mega ohm when in total darkness, but a resistance of only about 5k ohms when brightness illuminated. It responds to a large part of light spectrum. We have made a potential divider circuit with LDR and 10K variable resistance connected in series. We know that voltage is directly proportional to conductance so low voltage we will get from this divider when LDR is getting light and high voltage in darkness. This divided voltage is given to pin 2 of IC LM358. Variable resistance is so adjusted that it crosses potential of 1/2 in darkness and fall below 1/2 in light. Sensitiveness can be adjusted by this variable resistance. As soon as LDR gets light the voltage of pin 2 drops of the supply voltage and pin 3 gets high and LED or buzzer which is connected to the output gets activated.




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30-04-2011, 09:28 AM
Post: #4
RE: Automatic Street Light Control System

.docx  Automatic Street Light Controller.docx (Size: 1.45 MB / Downloads: 344)
Introduction:
Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple and powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch to switch ON and OFF the street light automatically. By using this system manual works are removed. It automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights under illumination by sunlight. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) which senses the light actually like our eyes.
By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because now-a-days the manually operated street lights are not switched off properly even the sunlight comes and also not switched on earlier before sunset. In sunny and rainy days, ON time and OFF time differ significantly which is one of the major disadvantage of using timer circuits or manual operation.
This project exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to switch ON and switch OFF the lights at appropriate time with the help of an electromagnetically operated switch.
Automatic Streetlight needs no manual operation of switching ON and OFF. The system itself detects whether there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically streetlight is switched ON and when there is other source of light, the street light gets OFF. The extent of darkness at which the street light to be switched on can also be tailored using the potentiometer provided in the circuit.
Moreover, the circuit is carefully designed to avoid common problems like overload, relay chattering and inductive kick back in relay.
2. Principle
The automatic streetlight control system operates on 12 V DC supply. The automatic streetlight controller has a photoconductive device whose resistance changes proportional to the extent of illumination, which switches ON or OFF the LED with the use of transistor as a switch.
Light dependent resistor, a photoconductive device has been used as the transducer to convert light energy into electrical energy. The central dogma of the circuit is that the change in voltage drop across the light dependent resistor on illumination or darkness switches the transistor between cut-off region or saturation region and switches OFF or ON the LED.
3. Block Diagram & Circuit Diagram
3.1 Block Diagram
3.1.1 Individual Block Explanation

Power supply: AC power supply is stepped down, rectified and filtered to get almost ripple-free DC output for the operation of the circuit.
Light dependent resistor: LDR senses the illumination level and gives the input signal as voltage drop.
Amplifier: Darlington circuit amplifies the input current to get maximum current gain.
Switch: Relay switch closes or opens electrically and automatically, which is energized or de energized by the Darlington pair.
Street light: Street light is the output of the circuit. In this circuit, it has been replaced by LED
3.1.2 Amplification Unit
Darlington pair

In the Darlington configuration, the emitter current of one transistor becomes the base current of the second, so that the amplified current from the first is amplified further by the second transistor. This gives the Darlington pair a very high current gain such as 10000, since the Darlington configuration acts like one transistor with a beta which is the product of the betas of the two transistors. Darlington configuration can be used where high output currents are needed. The Darlington configuration has quite high input impedance.
A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
DC Current gain hFE = hFE1 X hFE2
3.1.3 ON OFF control
The circuit is switched ON or OFF by the transistor in saturation region or cut off region respectively, which is controlled by the signal from LDR. The collector current from the transistor toggle between ON or OFF modes.
3.2 Circuit Diagram
The circuit diagram of automatic street light controller is given below:
The description of all the components used in this circuit is given in chapter 5.
4. Component Description
4.1 Diode

A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. A semiconductor diode is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode is a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a plate and a cathode.
The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction while blocking current in the opposite direction. Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers.
When p-type and n-type materials are placed in contact with each other, the junction is depleted of charge carriers and behaves very differently than either type of material. The electrons in n-type material diffuse across the junction and combines with holes in p-type material. The region of the p-type material near the junction takes on a net negative charge because of the electrons attracted. Since electrons departed the N-type region, it takes on a localized positive charge. The thin layer of the crystal lattice between these charges has been depleted of majority carriers, thus, is known as the depletion region. It becomes nonconductive intrinsic semiconductor material. This separation of charges at the p-n junction constitutes a potential barrier, which must be overcome by an external voltage source to make the junction conduct.
The electric field created by the space charge region opposes the diffusion process for both electrons and holes. There are two concurrent phenomena: the diffusion process that tends to generate more space charge and the electric field generated by the space charge that tends to counteract the diffusion
10-11-2011, 11:05 AM
Post: #5
RE: Automatic Street Light Control System
i need the circuit to make a clear understanding.

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Marked Categories : abstracts on automatic street light control system, automated street light control system, automatic street light system, strret light controlling depends upon sunlight system, automatic street light control system circuit diagram abstact, project on automatic switch control of street light, simple automatic street light only with ldr, automatic street light controller circuit using transistor, source code for embedded automatic street light control with ldr, automatic street light controller, street lighting switching system, automatic street light control system for project, automatic street light control system, automatic control of street ligths,

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