RE: AUTOMATIC VEHICLE ACCIDENT DETECTION AND MESSAGING SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS MODEM
||AUTOMATIC VEHICLE ACCIDENT DETECTION SYSTEM USING GSM & GPS MODEMS
AUTOMATIC VEHICLE ACCIDENT.doc (Size: 1.22 MB / Downloads: 236)
Security in travel is primary concern for every one. This Project describes a design of effective alarm system that can monitor an automotive / vehicle / car condition in traveling. This project is designed to inform about an accident that is occurred to a vehicle to the family members of the traveling persons. This project uses a piezo-electric sensor which can detect the abrupt vibration when an accident is occurred. This sends a signal to microcontroller.
This Project presents an automatic vehicle accident detection system using GPS and GSM modems. The system can be interconnected with the car alarm system and alert the owner on his mobile phone. This detection and messaging system is composed of a GPS receiver, Microcontroller and a GSM Modem. GPS Receiver gets the location information from satellites in the form of latitude and longitude.
The Microcontroller processes this information and this processed information is sent to the user/owner using GSM modem A GSM modem is interfaced to the MCU. The GSM modem sends an SMS to the predefined mobile number and informs about this accident. This enable it to monitor the accident situations and it can immediately alerts the police/ambulance service with the location of accident.
INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job. Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD player, printer, fax machine, mobile phone etc. are examples of embedded systems. Each of these appliances will have a processor and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The embedded software is also called “firm ware”. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word processing, accounting, software development and so on. In contrast, the software in the embedded systems is always fixed listed below:
Embedded systems do a very specific task; they cannot be programmed to do different things. . Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the memory. Generally, they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded systems have to work against some deadlines. A specific job has to be completed within a specific time. In some embedded systems, called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent. Missing a deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded systems are constrained for power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the power consumption has to be very low. Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very high temperatures and humidity.
Nearly 99 per cent of the processors manufactured end up in embedded systems. The embedded system market is one of the highest growth areas as these systems are used in very market segment consumer electronics, office automation, industrial automation, biomedical engineering, wireless communication, data communication, telecommunications, transportation, military and so on.
At home we use a number of embedded systems which include digital camera, digital diary, DVD player, electronic toys, microwave oven, remote controls for TV and air-conditioner, VCO player, video game consoles, video recorders etc. Today’s high-tech car has about 20 embedded systems for transmission control, engine spark control, air-conditioning, navigation etc. Even wristwatches are now becoming embedded systems. The palmtops are powerful embedded systems using which we can carry out many general-purpose tasks such as playing games and word processing.
The office automation products using em embedded systems are copying machine, fax machine, key telephone, modem, printer, scanner etc.
Today a lot of industries use embedded systems for process control. These include pharmaceutical, cement, sugar, oil exploration, nuclear energy, electricity generation and transmission. The embedded systems for industrial use are designed to carry out specific tasks such as monitoring the temperature, pressure, humidity, voltage, current etc., and then take appropriate action based on the monitored levels to control other devices or to send information to a centralized monitoring station. In hazardous industrial environment, where human presence has to be avoided, robots are used, which are programmed to do specific jobs. The robots are now becoming very powerful and carry out many interesting and complicated tasks such as hardware assembly.
Overview of Embedded System Architecture
Every embedded system consists of custom-built hardware built around a Central Processing Unit (CPU). This hardware also contains memory chips onto which the software is loaded. The software residing on the memory chip is also called the ‘firmware’. The embedded system architecture can be represented as a layered architecture as shown in Fig.
The operating system runs above the hardware, and the application software runs above the operating system. The same architecture is applicable to any computer including a desktop computer. However, there are significant differences. It is not compulsory to have an operating system in every embedded system. For small appliances such as remote control units, air conditioners, toys etc., there is no need for an operating system and you can write only the software specific to that application. For applications involving complex processing, it is advisable to have an operating system. In such a case, you need to integrate the application software with the operating system and then transfer the entire software on to the memory chip. Once the software is transferred to the memory chip, the software will continue to run for a long time you don’t need to reload new software.
Now, let us see the details of the various building blocks of the hardware of an embedded system. As shown in Fig.
Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based global navigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth which has an unobstructed view of four or more GPS satellites.
GPS is made up of three segments: Space, Control and User. The Space Segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in Medium Earth Orbit and also includes the boosters required to launch them into orbit. The Control Segment is composed of a Master Control Station, an Alternate Master Control Station, and a host of dedicated and shared Ground Antennas and Monitor Stations. The User Segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service (see GPS navigation devices). GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that GPS receivers use to provide three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus precise time.