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29-01-2010, 07:50 AM
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automatic vehicle locator seminar report

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AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATOR
Abstract
Is your car or a vehicle stolen or is it not visible in the thickest
snow or is one among the several cars present? Do you wa nt to know
the
arrival of the bus for which you are waiting? Are your children going
alone in a vehicle and you want to track their moments? Does your
cargo
consists of costly load and want to protect them? Do you want to keep
track of your little playing kids about where they are?
ANS: Automatic Vehicle Locator. This Paper gives us a novel approach
of
using certain GPS technology in tracking not only vehicles, but even
children and to protect precious goods. So this technology has gained
a
lot of importance in the recent years. This paper tells us how this
technology works, its applications. It is still under research and
development stage.
1. AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATOR Automatic vehicle location (AVL) is a
computer -based vehicle tracking system. For transit, the actual real
-time position of each vehicle is determined and relayed to a control
center. Actual position determination and relay techniques vary,
depending on the needs of the transit system and the technologies
employed. Transit agencies often incorporate other advanced system
features in conjunction with AVL system implementation. Simple AVL
systems include: computer -aided dispatch software, mobile data
terminals, emergency alarms, and digital communications. More sophist
icated AVL Systems may integrate: real-time passenger information,
automatic passenger counters, and automated fare payment systems.
Other
components that may be integrated with AVL systems include automatic
stop annunciation, automated destination signs, Vehicle component
monitoring, and Traffic signal priority. AVL technology allows
improved
schedule adherence and timed transfers, more accessible passenger
information, increased availability of data for transit management
and
planning, efficiency/productivity improvements in transit services .
2. What is AVL technology? Automated Vehicle Locator (AVL) systems
use
satellite and land communications to display each vehicle's location,
status, heading, and speed on the computer's screen. AVL systems use
one of four types of navigation technology, or may combine two of
these
technologies to compensate for inevitable shortcomings of any one
technology. The four principal technologies employed for AVL systems
are: 1. Global Positioning System
2. Dead-Reckoning System
3. Signpost/Odometer Systems 4. Radio Navigation/Location
3. TRACKING SYSTEMS There are two types of tracking systems. 3.1.
PASSIVE TRACKING: The Passive Tracking System modality refers to
stand
-alone GPS Receivers, which store data for further process. Passive
systems are typically limited to vehicle tracking only. When a
Passive
Tracking Device is installed in a vehicle, the location, time,
velocity
and heading data is usually stored in the unit or transferred to a
handheld device and downloaded from the vehicle when the vehicle
returns to their base station. 3.2. REAL TIME TRACKING Real Time
Tracking Systems are based on mobile stand-alone terminals which
combine GPS and GSM technology to determinate and transmit their
position. A two-way wireless communication link connects the unit
with
the control center at all times. A portable GPS tracking device can
be
used as an emergency cellular phone with speed dialing for two -way
voice communication. It can silently call any emergency number in the
world for immediate assistance. The emergency silent call feature
also
provides a digitized voice message which can report the time, date,
speed, heading, and location of a person in distress. Figure1. GPS
Receiver The AVL tracking system consists of a GPS receiver inside
the
vehicle and a communications link betwee n the vehicle and the
control
Center as well as pc -based tracking software for dispatch. The
communication system is usually a cellular network similar to the one
used by cellular phone. Currently all kind of communications networks
permit Real-Time Tracking for mobile assets.
4. WORKING OF A GPS BASED AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATOR 4.1. GPS
SATELLITES
The GPS satellites locate the transit vehicles by sending out GPS
signals to be picked up by vehicles GPS UNITS. The GPS unit in the
vehicle absorbs the signals and gives radio signals to the RADIO
system. Figure2. A GPS Based AVL System 4.2. RADIO SYSTEM The RADIO
systems receive the vehicle GEO - LOCATION coordinates and transmits
th
is radio signals to communication center.
4.3. COMMUNICATION CENTER The communication center receives this
information and uses it to determine the location of transit vehicle
and sends this to dispatch stations and other stations for further
analysis of the information either through wire line or wireless
networks.
4.4. DISPATCH SECTION The dispatch section uses the vehicle
information
to help maintain transit schedules and provide operational support to
the drivers.
4.5. CUSTOMER ASSISTANCE UNIT The customer assistance
planning/scheduling operations analysis unit also receives the
vehicle
location information through wire line or wireless network. This
section use vehicle location map to help maintain transit schedules
to
analyze and provide traffic information for other road way driver.
Figure3. Working of a GPS based AVL
5. INTEGRATING AVL WITH OTHER SYSTEMS Buses equipped with AVL offer
many possibilities for transit interface with highway and traffic
organizations or transportation management centers. Opportunities
include: providing transit buses with traffic signal priority;
obtaining traffic congestion data at the dispatch center to allow
rerouting of buses or informing customers of delay; incorporating
transit information in traveler information systems; developing multi
-application electronic payment systems; using buses to automatically
communicat e traffic speed; and reporting of roadway incidents by
transit vehicle operators. 6. MORE ABOUT GPS
6.1. Use of Differential GPS For AVL systems which do require more
accurate positions, differential GPS can be employed. These systems
normally employ the transmission of correction information to the GPS
receiver; this correction information has corrections for each
satellite in view. This is done because each satellite has its own
error; the error in GPS is not simply an X-Y error which will be the
same for all receivers. The error on any two given receivers will
only
be the same if those receivers are using the SAME satellites. This
canâ„¢t normally be guaranteed as satellites may be obscured at one
location, making the error slightly different for two receivers. 6.2.
GPS Antennas The best position for any antenna is generally as high
as
possible with the best unrestricted view. 6.3. GPS Satellites The
global positioning system (GPS) was specifically engineered so that
at
least four of the 24 sat ellites would be positioned on the horizon
at
all times. There are six different orbiting patterns that the GPS
satellites follow, making a complete trip around the earth every 12
hours. The information regarding the location of the transit vehicle
is
calculated by TRILATERATION method. With this information, the
receivers can, by a process similar to triangulation, tell the user
the
exact location in latitude, longitude, and sometimes altitude too .
Figure4. GPS Satellites
6.4. MAPPING At any control station, data is normally required to be
viewed on a map. Maps allow a tangible, understandable view of a
vehicles location, and will also allow operators to apply local
knowledge.
7. DATA TRANSFER The two most common methods of transmitting vehicle
location data to dispatch are through polling and exception reporting
via wireless communications. Many agencies use a combination.
8. BENEFITS The most extensive and rigorous research into the
benefits
of AVL has found that this technology has lead t o significant
transit
firm productivity gains (whether output is measured by Passenger
Miles
or Vehicle Revenue Miles). Benefits have been documented to varying
degrees for all of the following categories.
8.1. Operations: Increases transit rider ship. Reduced need for
additional road supervisors and manual data entry. 8.2.
Communications:
Improved communications between supervisors, dispatchers, and
operators
and reduced voice radio traffic. 8.3. Passenger Information: Provides
capability to inform passengers of predicted bus arrival times thus
enhancing the quality of transit service and allowing travelers to
make
better travel decisions. 8.4. Scheduling and Planning: Provides more
complete and accurate data for scheduling and planning. Aids in
effective bus stop placement (when combined with a G.I.S. database
and
automatic passenger counters). 8.5. Safety and Security: Enhances the
security of the driver and traveler (particularly when coupled with
silent alarm technology). 9. USES 1. Vehicle location display in
real-
time. 2. Recording of arrival and departure times (proof of delivery
etc). 3. Monitoring of driving practices (speed). 4. Alerts if
vehicle
leaves or enters a defined area . 10. APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS
10.1. In Military It is clear how useful this technology would be for
the Armed Forces. Before small GPS receivers were available, troops
in
the field depended on the same technology for generations: the
compass,
sextant, maps and hand calculations. Radios and reconnaissance
aircraft
wer e great leaps, but a GPS calculates position in real time, down
to
three foot accuracy! 10.2. Geo-Caching This is for people who have
liking towards searching hidden things or participating in scavenger
hunts. With GPS, comes the new twist: geo-caching. Geo-catchers hide
a
little treasure in a box public place, for example, a shoe box with a
used book inside, taped under the seat of a bus stop. They then go to
geo-caching websites and post simple latitude and longitude, to as
much
accuracy as they like. Then other geo-catchers search for these boxes
with their GPS data. The fun is looking for a strange box in what
could
be an area with a 25 -foot radius. When the successful geo-catcher
finds the box, he or she keeps the little treasure and replaces it
with
another, for the next searcher. 10.3. Track Anything Parents always
worry about their teenage kids, especially after they start driving.
Auto shops have started offering installation of small, hidden GPS
receivers in kidsâ„¢ cars. Parents can then use simple computer
software
and have their kidsâ„¢ movements plotted on a map. Many parents donâ„¢t
even tell the kids about this Ëœlittle extraâ„¢. Figure5. Track anything
10.4. In Cargo Some containers of cargo are more valuable than
others.
A small GPS receiver inside the cargo can know exactly where it is,
how
far it is from the destination, and where to find even it if it is
stolen. Figure6. GPS in Cargo 10.5. Child Tracking Of topical
interest
at this time is Ëœchild trackingâ„¢, giving the possibility for children
to wear or carry some sort of GPS/GSM tracker. Such a device could
provide valuable information if a child is abducted or lost. Signals
could be sent from the tracker every few minutes to a central site so
that a record is kept of the childâ„¢s loca tion, or just sent when a
Ëœpanic buttonâ„¢ was pressed by the child. 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.www.calccit.org.itsdecision/serv_and_te ch/Automatic_v
ehicle_location/automatic_vehicle_location_summary.html
2.http://www.gpsworld.com/gpsworld/article/articleDetail.j sp?
id=102387

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16-03-2010, 07:41 AM
Post: #2
RE: automatic vehicle locator seminar report

.ppt  AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATOR1.ppt (Size: 811.28 KB / Downloads: 380)

AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATOR

Introduction :


Automatic vehicle location (AVL) is a computer -based vehicle tracking system by using the satellite and land communication.
This system use GPS technology in tracking vehicles and protect the precious goods
This system send the information regarding actual location, heading and status of vehicle is determined and relayed to control center
Technologies employed for AVL
GPS (global positioning system)
dead reckoning
Odometer system
Radio navigation

Presented by
Y. MANIKANTESWR REDDY
4th b.tech (it)
06C71A1240


AVL system architecture
Working of a GPS based AV L:
1.GPS satellites:

GPS satellites calculate The information regarding the location of the transit vehicle is by TRILATERATION method.
The GPS unit in the vehicle absorbs the signals from GPS satellites And send those signals to the RADIO system.

2.Radio system:

The RADIO systems receive the vehicle GEO -LOCATION coordinates and transmits this radio signals to Communication center

3.Communication center:

The communication center receives the information from radio system. uses it to determine the location of transit vehicle and sends this to customer assistance unit through wire line or wireless networks.

4. Customer assistance unit:
This section use vehicle location map to help and provide traffic information for other road way driver.


working of AVL technology using GPS:
Working of a GPS based AVL
TRACKING SYSTEMS

The AVL tracking system consists of a GPS receiver inside the vehicle
.
There are two types of tracking systems are there
1.Passive tracking system
2.Real time tracking system

1.Passive systems are refers to stand alone GPS receivers
Passive systems are typically limited to vehicle tracking only.
When a passive systems are installed in the vehicle the location, time status and heading of the vehicle data are usually transferred to their base station
Real time tracking systems:
Real time tracking systems are based on mobile
terminals which combine GPS and GSM technology to determinate and transmit their vehicles position.
In this two-way wireless communication link connects the GPS unit with the control center at all times.
APPLICATIONS IN OTHER FIELDS:

In cargo
Child Tracking

1.IN CARGO :
A small GPS receiver inside the cargo can know exactly
where it is, how far it is from the destination, and where to
find even it if it is stolen.





Child Tracking:

Ëœchild tracking', giving the possibility for children to wear or carry some sort of GPS/GSM tracker. Such a device could provide valuable information if a child is abducted or lost.
Signals could be sent from the tracker to a central site when a Ëœpanic buttonâ„¢ was pressed by the child.
BENEFITS:

1. Vehicle location display in real-time.
2. Recording of arrival and departure times vehicles
3. to the know position of cargo where it is
4. Alerts if vehicle leaves or enters a defined area
5.Child Tracking
conclusion
If we are using this AVL technology we can protect our vehicles ,cargo sand child's.
we know about the vehicle actual location ,status and speed.

THANK YOU

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18-12-2010, 03:30 PM
Post: #3
RE: automatic vehicle locator seminar report

.docx  Automatic Vehicle Locator.docx (Size: 1.6 MB / Downloads: 189) This article is presented by:
SAJEEV R
S7 IT
SOE CUSAT
2007-2011
Automatic Vehicle Locator



1. INTRODUCTION

Is your car or vehicle stolen or not visible in the thickest snow or is one among several cars present? Do you want to know the arrival of bus for which you are waiting.are your children going alone in a vehicle and you want to track their moments? Does your cargo consist of costly load and you want to protect them?do you want to keep track of your little playing kids about where they are? The answer is Automatic Vehicle Locator

Automatic vehicle location (AVL) is a computer –based vehicle tracking system. For transit, the actual real –time position of each vehicle is determined and relayed to a control center. Actual position determination and relay techniques vary, depending on the needs of the transit system and the technologies employed. Transit agencies often incorporate other advanced system fea-tures in conjunction with AVL system implementation. Simple AVL systems include: computer -aided dispatch software, mobile data terminals, emergency alarms, and digital communications. More sophisticated AVL Systems may integrate: real-time passenger information, automatic pas-senger counters, and automated fare payment systems. Other components that may be integrated with AVL systems include automatic stop annunciation, automated destination signs, Vehicle component monitoring, and Traffic signal priority.AVL technology allows improved schedule adherence and timed transfers, more accessible passenger information, increased availability of data for transit management and planning, efficiency/productivity improvements in transit ser-vices.

2. WHAT IS AVL TECHNOLOGY?

Automated Vehicle Locaton (AVL) systems use satellite and land communications to display each vehicle's location, status, heading, and speed on the computer's screen. AVL systems use one of four types of navigation technology, or may combine two of these technologies to com-pensate for inevitable shortcomings of any one technology. The four principal technologies em-ployed for AVL systems are:

1.Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS sa-tellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver.
GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. It was established in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems.
GPS consists of three parts: the space segment, the control segment, and the user segment. The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space, which each GPS receiver uses to calculate its three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus the current time.

The 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbiting the earth about 12,000 miles above us. They are constantly moving, making two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. These satellites are travelling at speeds of roughly 7,000 miles an hour.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a net-work of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. There are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS.

2. Dead-Reckoning System
Dead reckoning (DR) is the process of estimating one's current position based upon a previous-ly determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time, and course. While traditional methods of dead reckoning are no longer considered primary means of navigation, modern inertial navigation systems, which also depend upon dead reckoning, are very widely used.
A disadvantage of dead reckoning is that since new positions are calculated solely from previous positions, the errors of the process are cumulative, so the error in the position fix grows with time.
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes) to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references. It is used on vehicles such as ships, aircraft, submarines, guided missiles, and spacecraft. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or closely related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial reference platform, inertial instrument, and many other variations.An inertial navigation system includes at least a computer and a platform or module containing accelerometers, gyroscopes, or other motion-sensing devices. The INS is initially provided with its position and velocity from another source (a human operator, a GPS satellite receiver, etc.), and thereafter computes its own updated position and velocity by integrating information received from the motion sensors. The advantage of an INS is that it re-quires no external references in order to determine its position, orientation, or velocity once it has been initialized.

Signpost/Odometer Systems

An odometer (mileometer, milometer) indicates distance travelled by a car or other vehicle. The device may be electronic, mechanical, or a combination of the two.
Recently, exercise enthusiasts have observed that an advanced Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver (GPS) with an odometer mode serves as a very accurate pedometer for outdoor activi-ties. While not truly counting steps (no pendulum is involved) an advanced GPS odometer can reveal the accurate distance traveled to within 1/100th of a mile (depending on the model, per-haps 1/1000th of a mile). 1/1000th of a mile is approximately the distance of a single pace or 2 steps (1.609 m). Precise metric odometers have a precision of 1/100 or 1/1000 km, 10 or 1 me-tre(s) respectively.
A GPS with odometer mode is also an excellent and inexpensive means to verify proper opera-tion of both the speedometer and odometer mounted in a vehicle.
To track and locate vehicles along fixed routes, a technology called Signpost transmitters is employed. This is used on transit routes and rail lines where the vehicles to be tracked continually operated on the same linear route. A transponder or RFID chip along the vehicle route would be polled as the train or bus traverses its route. As each transponder was passed, the moving vehicle would query and receive an ack, or handshake, from the signpost transmitter. A transmitter on the mobile would report passing the signpost to a system controller. This allows supervision, a call center, or a dispatch center to monitor the progress of the vehicle and assess whether or not the vehicle was on schedule. These systems are an alternative inside tunnels or other conveyances where GPS signals are blocked by terrain.

4. Radio Navigation/Location
Radio navigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position on the Earth. It uses signals broadcast from special radio stations. Electronic equipment on the plane uses these signals to indicate the location and direction of the plane with respect to the transmitting station. Radio navigation is used by almost all pilots Radiolocating is the process of finding the location of something through the use of radio waves. It generally refers to passive uses, particularly radar as well as detecting buried cables, water mains, and other public utilities. It is similar to ra-dionavigation, but radiolocation usually refers to passively finding a distant object rather than actively one's own position. Both are types of radiodetermination. Radiolocation is also used in Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS) for tracking valuable assets.

3. TRACKING SYSTEMS


There are two types of tracking systems.
Several types of Vehicle Tracking devices exist. Typically they are classified as "Passive" and "Active".
"Passive" devices store GPS location, speed, heading and sometimes a trigger event such as key on/off, door open/closed. Once the vehicle returns to a predetermined point, the device is re-moved and the data downloaded to a computer for evaluation. Passive systems include auto download type that transfer data via wireless download.
"Active" devices also collect the same information but usually transmit the data in real-time via cellular or satellite networks to a computer or data center for evaluation.
Many modern vehicle tracking devices combine both active and passive tracking abilities: when cellular network is available and a tracking device is connected it transmits data to a server; when network is not available the device stores data in internal memory and will transmit stored data to the server later when the network becomes available again.
There is a popular misperception that GPS is a "tracking" technology and therefore that it can be easily misused by public agencies and private companies to monitor people's whereabouts.


3.1. PASSIVE TRACKING:

The Passive Tracking System modality refers to stand-alone GPS Receivers, which store data for further process. Passive systems are typically limited to vehicle tracking only. When a Passive Tracking Device is installed in a vehicle, the location, time, velocity and heading data is usually stored in the unit or transferred to a handheld device and downloaded from the vehicle when the vehicle returns to their base station.

3.2. REAL TIME TRACKING

Real Time Tracking Systems are based on mobile stand-alone terminals which combine GPS and GSM technology to determinate and transmit their position. A two-way wireless communication link connects the unit with the control center at all times. A portable GPS tracking device can be used as an emergency cellular phone with speed dialing for two -way voice communication. It can silently call any emergency number in the world for immediate assistance. The emergency silent call feature also provides a digitized voice message which can report the time, date, speed, heading, and location of a person in distress.

The AVL tracking system consists of a GPS receiver inside the vehicle and a communications link betwee n the vehicle and the control Center as well as pc -based tracking software for dis-patch. The communication system is usually a cellular network similar to the one used by cellular phone. Currently all kind of communications networks permit Real-Time Tracking for mobile assets.



4. SOFTWARE



Automatic vehicle location (AVL) is a system that enables companies to trace and coordinate the movements of their fleet of vehicles. Much of the AVL software has been created for fleet man-agement and vehicle location purposes. The AVL communications software system was built based on the geographic information system (GIS) environment, but these types of systems use short message service (SMS) technology

This system is based on a known technique in computer algorithms called greedy technique (GT). The main task of the proposed software is to compute the optimal path between two real GIS coordinates. The shortest path algorithm ‘Dijkstra’s algorithm (GA)’ and made it compute the optimal path but not the shortest.

This depends on the proposed cost function (CF); it considers many parameters such as travel time, street condition, topography, average speed, distance and number of traffic lights. The second task is to find the minimum spanning tree (MST) based on Kruskal’s algorithm (KA) on GIS digital maps with the proposed CF as graph weight. The third task is to apply the Geofenc-ing technique based on global positioning system (GPS) readings. A buffer zone area as a rec-tangle was made to compute the borders of this fencing as real coordinates, and if the fleet steps out of the border the system will raise an alarm.

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10-07-2012, 10:08 AM
Post: #4
RE: automatic vehicle locator seminar report
to get information about the topic"automatic vehicle location technology " full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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