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02-04-2010, 12:03 PM
Post: #1
The technical Brilliance and Developments in different fields has led to a drastic change especially in the communication field. Devices with intelligence rule the world. Imbibing intelligence to these devices is through a system called EMBEDDED SYSTEMS. It is the evolution or further development of the computing system. Its applications provide marvelous opportunities for ingenious use of computer technology. Almost every new system introduced is an example of Embedded System. These systems are more intelligent and autonomous.
Embedded Systems are combinations of hardware and software that are mounted on compact electronic circuit boards integrated into devices. They are engineered or intended to perform one specific function in a specific environment. An important decision in the design of an embedded system is the selection of the processor(s) around which the rest of the system is to be built. It is a chip that contains a microprocessor, some memory & I/O interface circuitry useful in

embedded applications and is often called an ËœEMBEDDED PROCESSORâ„¢ or ËœMICRO CONTROLLERâ„¢ chips as they perform important control functions, and are based on micro controller.
The current topic Automation of car that we are going to present is one of the fine examples of Embedded System

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09-06-2010, 10:03 PM
Post: #2

.docx  automation of car using embeded systems.docx (Size: 341.37 KB / Downloads: 585)
KONERU LAKSHMAIAH College Of Engineering.



As you go about the affair of living, you put your life safe and luxurious with all the
available resources .Now days we all are entrenched with computers and almost all depended on
them. Devices with intelligence rule the world. Imbibing intelligence to these devices is through
a system called EMBEDDED SYSTEM.
Its applications provide marvelous opportunities
for ingenious use of computer technology. Almost all every system introduced into the market is
an example of Embedded System. An embedded device finds applications in all segments of
industrial and commercial marketplace. Home appliances, mobile phones, Personal Digital
Assistants (PDA), cars, tiny microchips and avionics are all using embedded technology.
The current topic Automation of car that we are going to present is one of the
fine examples of Embedded System.
Is autonomous car a myth or reality?
There are many paradigm shifts taking place due to information explosion and the
concept of autonomous vehicle is one shift. The car, which is embedded, can simulate the human
driver completely and direct the vehicle on the road. Autonomous vehicle has been the dream of
scientists for long. Now their dream has come true as with drastic changes in technical brilliance
and developments in different fields with EMBEDDED SYSTEM as pioneer.


The term embedded system is quite a complex one. Simply it is a combination of
hardware and software that forms the component of a larger system, this in turn is programmed
to perform a range of dedicated functions usually with a minimal operator intervention. In
embedded systems the hardware is normally unique to a given application, computer chips are
embedded into the control electronics to manage the products functionality.
Embedded systems are rapidly becoming a catalyst for change in computing data
communications, telecommunications, industrial control and entertainment sectors. New
innovative applications in these as well as other areas such as home networking and car
infotainment will roll out in the near feature.
The fine art of automation:
Just imagine. We load the code of our destination in the dashboard computer and turn
the car on, while we remain seated carefree on the rear seats. Then its all the job of the
Ëœunknownâ„¢ to drive it on the roads, bridges, thought the bazaars, past the crossings to the
destination, without getting challenged even once for traffic rule violations.
A fully computerized car capable of doing almost every thing a car lover would want
to. Seems like fantasy but a day is not far when almost all automobiles will interact with
computer on dashboards. From ordering pizza to booking tickets at the nearest theatre, things
would be as easy as giving orders to your servant. As a matter of fact, vehicles all over the world
are now fitted with intelligent devices that make the vehicles to respond to various factors “be it
climate control, sudden accelerations or braking or even self-repair of modules.
There are trends where the finger print technologies are also have been introduced
which gives the following reliabilities You could one day be able to enter and start your car with
the touch of a finger. And that same touch, with your fingerprint acting as a key, would trigger a
check of the mirrors, steering wheel, radio and temperature to ensure that they're the way you
like them. The convenience of fingerprint recognition technology comes with heightened
security. Unlike personal identification numbers, passwords and keys, each person's unique
fingerprints can't be duplicated, lost or forgotten.


As stated above that a vehicle can run by itself with out the intervention of human
beings by the embedded intelligence in it. For this purpose Global Positioning System (G.P.S)
using satellites can provide positioning information and proves to be a versatile all-time. For still
higher accuracy wide area differential GPS is used, which offers a robust system that readily
deals with selective availability errors and satellite clock errors.
An error level of decimeter/centimeter is guaranteed by WADGPS. Which satisfies
the ground vehicle control algorithm. Human intervention is completely eliminated by using of
reliable sensors and actuators. Making the overall performance of transporting system both
congestion- free and collision incorporate the concept of WADGPS they™re “free, besides making
it cost effective.
The models for GPS also include aiding sensors, e.g. dead reckoning, radar and
camera. A computer is simply required to feed destination into a dashboard computer. Highly
sensitive actuators simulate a human driver completely and direct the vehicle on the road. The
vehicle transmitter broadcasts its position and velocity to other immediate participants for
collision-avoidance and lane changing manoeuvres. Forward and reverse motions and u-turns are
precisely achieved as per route guidance requirements. Furthermore, an accurate steering control
is obtained using Pulse Code Modulation technique and acceleration/braking control is
successfully implemented using learning adaptive system.
The simplest form of vehicle navigation employs a heading sensor, velocity sensor
and a processor. Typically a navigation system requires an input of initial position and it self-
initializes the heading sensor with respect to north. The processor then integrates the velocity
sensor output to determine distance traveled and resolves the heading sensor data to calculate a
new position. This reckoning navigation requires additional vision sensors, route guidance and
map-matching algorithms for making the driving tasks fully automatic.
The remarkable advances in microelectronics and data processing technology have made
possible the miniaturization of sensors the integration and combination of data from a number of
sensors. Television cameras, charge coupled device (CCD) type sensors, laser radar and infrared
sensors ma be used.
The reliability, efficiency and cost effectiveness of an autonomous vehicle depend
mainly on how judiciously its navigation sensors, perception unit and computer control is
incorporated and how well their performance meets todayâ„¢s transportation needs. Quite of ten a
human driver is forced to maintain attention for long periods of time and commit to
unpredictable contingencies on the
free ways together with traffic
jams. All this leads to fatigue and
hypovigiliance at the wheel and
consequently to more frequent
collisions and congestion.
The drivers activity is
influenced by several factors that
depend on
driver itself and is
density, traffic status, time of travel and weather. Thus the driving activity deals with a combined
driver vehicle-environment system shown in figure
The vehicle is required to blend its environmental perception capabilities with its
intelligent controls in order to affect optimal path-planning strategies that not only avoid
obstacles but also minimize criteria such as time of travel, fuel consumption, exposure to
pollution/danger, etc. however basic driving functions consists of lane-keeping, safe distance
maintenance, timely lane changing and overtaking. The key to all these driving tasks is collision
The Master Control Station (MCS) receives the positioning information from the
satellite by employing WADGPS concept. The MCS is linked to GPS instrumented position
location systems (PLS) installed on the autonomous vehicles through a data link sub system
(DLS). The DLS can either use VHF or UHF or L-band, incorporating time division multiple
access protocol to handle on the roads. A block forward error correction code is employed to
protect and maintain the message integrity.
The vehicle route guidance systems gave maturity to the point of practical
usefulness as well as cost effectiveness. Such a system is responsible for selecting optimal routes
in a given road network and for providing digitized directions to a human driver and or an
autonomous system, emphasizing the path of least resistance with consumption of minimum fuel
or minimum exposure to pollution /danger criteria
Figure below shows a series of interconnected functional subsystems of hardware by software
The desired destination and starting position of the vehicle together with the time of
travel, manifest an optimal route on the road network. Once the vehicle commences he journey
the sensors continuously keep track of the direction and displacement of the vehicle initial
calibration is a little crucial for dead reckoning performance; how ever a feed back calibration
indicated in fig 2 suggested to obtain distance accuracy better than 99.9 percent.
The new generation microprocessors promises further increase in system capabilities
while simultaneously shrinking both volume and power consumption of the autonomous vehicle
embedded system. The digital road maps, available on CD-ROMâ„¢s have substantially increased
safety of automobiles. These maps along with GPS navigation provide a feasible solution to
autonomous vehicle system. The expert system technologies are integrated with digital maps
along with the CCD camera images, magnetic compass, and the GPS system, for obtaining a real
time intelligent decision support navigation package. The integration of GPS and communication
suggests an efficient transportation system for increasing the road traffic safety smooth driving
without traffic jams and a comfortable driving environment. Further more the autonomous
vehicle relies on such intelligent system integration that leads to complete collision free in time
of real time situation.
The vehicle transmitting system continuously provides information about its
position and velocity to its participants. A safe distance with respect to its immediate
surroundings is maintained by acceleration/brakes and steering controls. The internal platform
and rate gyro and accelerometer package keeps the vehicles central processing unit (CPU) well
informed about the incremental changes in the vehicles parameters. The wheel odometers
provide the vehicle traveling distances by multiplying the number of electronically generated
pulses by a constant, depending upon wheels perimeter
As the actual tyre size is influenced by vehicles speed, tyre pressure play load and atmospheric
conditions, appropriate corrections are maid by the CPU. The atmospheric data system keeps
continuous record of outside atmospheric temperature, pressure and differential pressure.
The information concerning deviation from the road center is obtained by magnetic
as well as optical sensors, and fed to the CPU. The GPS receiver updates the vehicles position
and velocity to centimeter/decimeter levels as required for the lateral or longitudinal control
actions. The autonomous vehicle embedded software mission finally yields the estimates for
throttle and heading angle increments for a safe and accident free Manoeuvre. The following
figure gives an indication of all the technologies used in a car
automobile is envisaged at the juncture, which has heat engine propulsion (options for
switching over to electric devices with intelligent brakes and acceleration) And computer for
optimal route selection, map matching and collision-avoidance. The reduced cost of GPS
augmented vehicles using the off-the-shelf equipment would lead to an intelligent transportation
system with substantial share of electronically controlled next generation vehicles. It is hoped
that hybrid electric vehicles shall be readily accepted by our information-based society.

Advantages and comforts:

1. The adoptive cruise control ACC technology used in the cars from automobile
makers keeps advancing to new levels of safety. In microwave radar unit there is a laser
transceiver, fixed on the front of the car to determine the distance and relative speed of any
vehicle in its path, which keeps safe distances from other vehicles on the busy roads. The driver
can set the speed of his car and the distance between his and other cars. When traffic slows down
vehicle speed is altered using moderate braking to maintain a constant distance between his and
other cars.
2. In advanced systems just in the case the driver over speeds or suddenly falls over
and guides the car to a safe halt. And if you have programmed it right, the GPS in the car would
take you to your destination .so, right from brakes to automatic traction control to air bags and
fuel-air mixture control, the intelligence takes over
3. A few advanced car prototypes with embedded systems have been tried and tested
where even if a smart thief has managed to break in through the car, the car doesnâ„¢t start up even
if it does the computer I the car would lock the steering wheel and cutoff the fuel injection
supply ¦ in the mean time a signal is set to the nearest police station and the owner informing
them about the thief.
4. Some designs now include so-called "pre-safe" systems, which sense possible
collisions in advance based on emergency braking, skidding, and sudden evasive maneuvers.
They will prepare a car by automatically moving the front seat either backward or forward for
the safest distance from the instrument panel, adjusting the seat belt for the correct tension, and
even closing the sunroof in case of a potential rollover. The idea is to "cradle" the car's occupants
for maximum safety.

Indian efforts in embedded system development:

Our India too entered into the field of embedded systems and had great
developments in this field. it got marvelous results in the field of Telematics which is a part of
technology used in cars. The description about it was discussed
Total telematics experience is what they are looking for simply put telematics is the
vehicles capability to communicate with the outside world and or the vehicle operator. It is a
combination of telecommunication and computing
Imagine when you are busy negotiating through rush hour traffic, you get a call on
your mobile. You know the call is from your office but canâ„¢t attend to it.
How nice it would have been if somebody would answer your phone call and at the same time
guide you systematically through the traffic?
Mistral software, which was developed in India, has text-to-speech and speech
recognition technologies to give the car occupants the ultimate comfort. So whenever there is a
call on your mobile. You need not get jump at the very onset of the call. Relax the computer in
the cars dashboard would do the job for you.
GPS navigation guides you through the traffic. The GPS interface in the car pinpoints your exact
location on a map. In case the GPS signal cant be received due to high density of tall buildings or
other magnetic interface, the ˜dead reckoning ˜ technique, which works for short durations
guides you effectively. The system is also loaded with GSM/CDMA protocol standards further
modified on the CANBUS standard t give uninterrupted information.
Another device called the array microphone cuts off the surrounding noise and allows
the speaker to communicate effectively. The person at the other end hears the voice of the
speaker without any out side interference.


With the heights of the technology autonomous car is no more a myth. Itâ„¢s a reality!
We would like to present that there must be further developments in this technology to make
autonomous car more common all over the world. This can be happened by making the
autonomous easy to operate for the user and the designers should concentrate more in producing
autonomous cars, which should not cost a lot, they should in the vicinity of customers budget.
With this type of vehicles there will be great advantages in the coming feature. Due to speed
control technique, accident free driving is possible and fuel savage is also made possible by the
technique, which will make the car to travel through shortest path. In the near future,
autonomous car become more common all over the world. Indian efforts in the embedded
technology can assure that these autonomous cars will become cheaper and may evolve with
many more advantages. So that we could find ourselves using these autonomous cars in the near

Real Time Systems-Alan Burns
Real Time Systems-Krishna murthy

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30-12-2010, 12:18 PM
Post: #3
i need it urgently plz
31-12-2010, 11:41 AM
Post: #4
go through the following thread too
12-02-2011, 12:30 PM
Post: #5
hai........automation of cars in embedded system
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