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30-01-2009, 08:54 PM
Post: #1
BIOCOMPUTERS
Biocomputing is one of the upcoming field in the areas of mole-cularelectronics and nanotechnology. The idea behind blending biology with technology is due to the limitations faced by the semiconductor designers in decreasing the size of the silicon chips, which directly affects the processor speed. Biocomputers consists of biochips unlike the normal computers, which are silicon-based computers. This biochip consists of biomaterial such as nucleic acid, enzymes, etc. The power of a biocomputer is that it acts as a massively parallel computer and has immense data storage capability.Thus, it can be used to solve NP-complete problems with higher efficiency.The possibilities for bio-computers include developing a credit-card size computer that could design a super-efficient global air-traffic control system. The basic idea behind bio-computing is to use molecular reactions for computational purposes. Biocomputing is one of the upcoming field in the areas of mole-cularelectronics and nanotechnology. The idea behind blending biology with technology is due to the limitations faced by the semiconductor designers in decreasing the size of the silicon chips, which directly affects the processor speed. Biocomputers consists of biochips unlike the normal computers, which are silicon-based computers. This biochip consists of biomaterial such as nucleic acid, enzymes, etc. The power of a biocomputer is that it acts as a massively parallel computer and has immense data storage capability.Thus, it can be used to solve NP-complete problems with higher efficiency.The possibilities for bio-computers include developing a credit-card size computer that could design a super-efficient global air-traffic control system

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02-04-2010, 11:01 PM
Post: #2
RE: BIOCOMPUTERS
please send me the complete seminar report and ppts for BIOCOMPUTERS as early as possible........

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27-01-2011, 02:01 PM
Post: #3
RE: BIOCOMPUTERS
plz send dicument on "Bio Computers"

:angel::-/

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28-01-2011, 11:23 AM
Post: #4
RE: BIOCOMPUTERS


Peter P. Gariaev*, Boris I. Birshtein*, Alexander M. Iarochenko*, Peter J. Marcer**,

George G. Tertishny*, Katherine A. Leonova*, Uwe Kaempf ***.

* Institute Control of Sciences Russian Academy of Sciences,

Moscow, Russia gariaev[at]aha.ru, http://www.aha.ru/~gariaev, and

Wave Genetics Inc. 87 Scollard Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5R 1G4, gariaev[at]wavegenetics.com,

**53 Old Vicarage Green, Keynsham, Bristol, BS31 2DH, UK
Institut f. Klinische, Diagnostische und Differentielle Psychologie- Am Falkenbrunnen - D-01062 Dresden TU, Dresden, Germany


The DNA-wave Biocomputer

Abstract

This paper reports experimental work carried out in Moscow at the Institute of Control Sciences, Wave Genetics Inc. and theoretical work from several sources. This work changes the notion about the genetic code essentially. It asserts: -

1) That the evolution of biosystems has created genetic "texts", similar to natural context dependent texts in human languages, shaping the text of these speech-like patterns.

2) That the chromosome apparatus acts simultaneously both as a source and receiver of these genetic texts, respectively decoding and encoding them, and

3) That the chromosome continuum of multicellular organisms is analogous to a static-dynamical multiplex time-space holographic grating, which comprises the space-time of an organism in a convoluted form.

That is to say, the DNA action, theory predicts and which experiment confirms,

i) is that of a "gene-sign" laser and its solitonic electro-acoustic fields, such that the gene-biocomputer "reads and understands" these texts in a manner similar to human thinking, but at its own genomic level of "reasoning". It asserts that natural human texts (irrespectively of the language used), and genetic "texts" have similar mathematical-linguistic and entropic-statistic characteristics, where these concern the fractality of the distribution of the character frequency density in the natural and genetic texts, and where in case of genetic "texts", the characters are identified with the nucleotides, and ii) that DNA molecules, conceived as a gene-sign continuum of any biosystem, are able to form holographic pre-images of biostructures and of the organism as a whole as a registry of dynamical "wave copies" or "matrixes”, succeeding each other. This continuum is the measuring, calibrating field for constructing its biosystem.

Introduction.
How did this new theory take shape? The principle problem of the creation of the genetic code, as seen in all the approaches [Gariaev 1994; Fatmi et al. 1990; Perez 1991: Clement et al. 1993; Marcer, Schempp 1996; Patel, 2000] was to explain the mechanism by means of which a third nucleotide in an encoding triplet, is selected. To understand, what kind of mechanism resolves this typically linguistic problem of removing homonym indefiniteness, it is necessary firstly to postulate a mechanism for the context-wave orientations of ribosomes in order to resolve the problem of a precise selection of amino acid during protein synthesis [Maslow, Gariaev 1994]. This requires that some general informational intermediator function with a very small capacity, within the process of convolution versus development of sign regulative patterns of the genome-biocomputer endogenous physical fields. It lead to the conceptualization of the genome's associative-holographic memory and its quantum nonlocality. These assumptions produce a chromosome apparatus and fast wave genetic information channels connecting the chromosomes of the separate cells of an organism into a holistic continuum, working as the biocomputer, where one of the field types produced by the chromosomes, are their radiations. This postulated capability of such "laser radiations" from chromosomes and DNA, as will be shown, has already been demonstrated experimentally in Moscow, by the Gariaev Group. Thus it seems the accepted notions about the genetic code must change fundamentally, and in doing so it will be not only be possible to create and understand DNA as a wave biocomputer, but to gain from nature a more fundamental understanding of what information [Marcer in press] really is! For the Gariaev Group's experiments in Moscow and Toronto say that the current understanding of genomic information i.e. the genetic code, is only half the story [Marcer this volume].


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09-05-2011, 02:32 PM
Post: #5
RE: BIOCOMPUTERS

.ppt  biocompmyppt.ppt (Size: 1 MB / Downloads: 80)
INTRODUCTION
Growing needs of mankind-Rapid Development.
Rapid advancement in computer technology will
lose its momentum when silicon chip reaches its full capacity & miniaturization
Solving complex problems which today's supercomputers are unable to perform in stipulated period of time.
WHAT COULD BE A REMEDY TO THIS CONCERN?????
What is Biological Computer?

Biological Computers are computers which use synthesized biological components to store and manipulate data analogous to processes in the human body.
The result is small yet faster computer that operates with great accuracy.
Main biological component used in a Biological Computer is :
What is DNA?
DNA Stands for DeOxyRiboNucleic Acid.
A hereditary material found in almost all living organisms.
Located inside the nucleus of a cell.
Helps in long term storage of information.
Information in DNA is stored as a code made of four chemical bases (A,T,G & C).
Order & sequence of these bases determine the kind of information stored.
Graphical Representation of Inherent Bonding Properties of DNA
What is a DNA Computer?
DNA Computers are small, fast and highly efficient computers which includes the following properties:-
Dense data storage.
Massively parallel computation.
Extraordinary energy efficiency.
How Dense is the Data Storage?
with bases spaced at 0.35 nm along DNA, data density is over a million Gbits/inch compared to 7 Gbits/inch in typical high performance HDD.
Check this out………..
How Enormous is the Parallelism?
A test tube of DNA can contain trillions of strands. Each operation on a test tube of DNA is carried out on all strands in the tube in parallel !
Check this out……. We Typically use
How Extraordinary is the Energy Efficiency?
Modern supercomputers only operate at 109 operations per joule.
Adleman figured his computer was running
2 x 1019 operations per joule.
Adleman- Inventor of Biological Computers
His article released in 1994,described how to use DNA to solve a well-known mathematical problem, called the directed Hamilton Path problem.
Goal of the problem is to find the shortest route between a number of cities, going through each city only once. As you add more cities to the problem, the problem becomes more difficult.
Steps in Adleman’s Experiment
Strands of DNA represent the seven cities. Genetic coding is represented by the letters A, T, C and G. Some sequence of these four letters represented each city and possible flight path.
These molecules are then mixed in a test tube, with some of these DNA strands sticking together. A chain of these strands represents a possible answer.
Within a few seconds, all of the possible combinations of DNA strands, which represent answers, are created in the test tube.
Adleman eliminates the wrong molecules through chemical reactions, which leaves behind only the flight paths that connect all seven cities.
Hamilton Path Problem
(also known as the travelling salesperson problem)
Adleman’s Experiment (continued…)
Encode each city with complementary base - vertex molecules Sydney - TTAAGG Perth - AAAGGG Melbourne - GATACT Brisbane - CGGTGC Alice Spring - CGTCCA Darwin - CCGATG
Adleman’s Experiment (continued…)
Encode all possible paths using the complementary base – edge molecules Sydney  Melbourne – AGGGAT Melbourne  Sydney – ACTTTA Melbourne  Perth – ACTGGG etc…
Adleman’s Experiment (continued…)
Merge vertex molecules and edge molecules. All complementary base will adhere to each other to form a long chains of DNA molecules
Adleman’s Experiment (continued…)
Select a path that starts with proper city and ends with final city.
Select paths with correct number of cities.
Select path which contains each city only once.
Adleman’s Experiment (continued…)
The solution is a double helix molecule:
Hence Adleman proved DNA can be used to solve complex problems……….
Conventional vs. Biological Computers
Applications
Can be a general purpose tool for a variety of problems
Many possible applications:
Pattern recognition
Cryptography
Evaluating gene sequence
Medical Application: ‘developing disease’ treatments such as cancer
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