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22-02-2009, 12:30 AM
Post: #1
Tongue Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
Biometrics

What is Biometrics?

Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioural characteristic. The word biometrics means Biological Measurements. Therefore in this way we can use computers to recognize persons.

Physiological characteristics means Fingerprints, Retinal and Iris Patterns, Hand and Finger Geometry, Facial recognition etc.

Behavioural characteristics means Voice Patterns, Signature etc.

There are different biometric solutions. Some of them are Finger Print Recognition, Iris Pattern recognition, Facial Recognition, Voice Pattern Recognition, Hand and Finger Geometry etc. In all these biometric solutions the details about the physiological/behavioural characteristics are entered into a database. When the user uses the sytem the characteristics required for the system are scanned and a template is formed. It is checked whether there exists a match for this template with any of the records already stored in the database. If a match is found, the user is allowed access. Otherwise the user is denied access.

Each biometric solution can be used in two different modes.

In Identification mode, where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match.
In Verification mode, where the biometric system authenticates a person's claimed identity from his/her previously enrolled pattern.

Applications of Biometrics.
Improving airport security.
Strenghthening our national borders in travel documents, visas, passports etc.
In peventing ID theft.

e-banking, e-commerce and other financial transactions.
Law enforcement.
Health and Social Services.
In Network security infrastructures, etc.
In Enterprise and Government networks.
Biometrics based authentication applications include workstation, network and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and web security etc.
Advantages of using biometrics in various applications.
Only the biometric authentication is based on an intrinsic part of a human being. So unlike a password or PIN or Smart Card, it can't be forgotten, misplaced, lost or stolen. We are having our identification with ourselves and therefore there is no need to carry any card or remember passwords for our identification.
A biometric template is unique for an individual for whom it is created.
Biometrics ensures that the person trying to access your network and applications is actually a sanctioned user, and not in a posession of a stolen smartcard or someone who found, hacked or cracked password.
Disadvantages of using biometric solutions.
It is not only the intial cost that of the sensor or the matching hardware that is involved. Often the life cycle support cost can overtake the intial cost of the hardware.
Most of the biometric systems like firnger print recognition, iris recognition etc. are accurate. But someothers like facial recognition etc. are not that accurate.



Accuracy of a biometric system include
False Acceptance Rate “ Percentage of impostors accepted.
False Rejection Rate “ Percentage of authorised users rejected.
Equal-Error Rates “ When the decision threshhold is adjusted so that the false-acceptance rate equal the false-rejection rate.
Conclusion
An important point to be noted in constructing a biometric system is that it should be based upon a distiguishable triat. For eg: Law enforcement has used finger prints to identify people. There is a great deal of scientific data supporting the idea that no fingerprints are alike.
All biometric systems capture data from individuals. Once these date have been captured by the system, they can be forwarded to any location and put to many different uses which are capable of compromising on an individual's privacy.
A good biometric system is one that is of low cost, fast, accurate, and easy to use.


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Biometrics is an advanced technology for superb security and authentication .The very term "biometric it represent that "bio" means related to the biological study and "metric " means something, which is related to measurement. In network environment security is a crucial factor. Provide security to pages in the network is to difficulty. Password is not a good measurement for security. Good security mechanism is necessary on the Internet. Security in different levels applies to various documents. Security is depends how security assign to documents. Security depends on following categories.

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16-07-2009, 09:08 PM
Post: #2
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
thanks brother...
13-02-2010, 04:04 PM
Post: #3
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.doc  BIOMETRICS.doc (Size: 338.5 KB / Downloads: 926)

networks. It can be used during transactions conducted via telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking). In automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with key-less entry devices
Biometrics technology allows determination and verification of one's identity through physical characteristics. To put it simply, it turns your body into your password. These characteristics can include face recognition, voice recognition, finger/hand print scan, iris scans and even retina scans. Biometric systems have sensors that pick up a physical characteristic, convert it into a digital pattern and compare it to stored patterns for identification.
2.0 IDENTIFICATION AND VERIFICATION SYSTEMS
A person's identity can be resolved in two ways: identification and verification. The former involves identifying a person from all biometric measurements collected in a database and this involves a one-to-many match also referred to as a 'cold search". "Do I know who you are" Is the inherent question this process seeks to answer. Verification involves authenticating a person's claimed identity from his or her previously enrolled pattern and this involves a one-to-one match. The .question it seeks to answer is, "Are you claim to be"
2.1 VERIFICATION
Verification requires comparing a person's fingerprint to one that pass previously recorded in the system database. The person claiming an identity provided a fingerprint, typically by placing a finger on an optical scanner. The computer locates the previous fingerprint by looking up the person's identity. This process is relatively easy because the computer needs to compare two-fingerprint record (although most systems use two fingerprints from each person to provide a safety factor). The verification process is referred as a 'closed search' because the search field is limited. The second question is "who is this person" This is the identification function, which is used to prevent duplicate application or enrollment. In this Case a newly supplied fingerprint is supplied to all others in the database. A match indicates that the person has already enrolled/applied.
(Dept. of Computer Science atuf<Engg. 3
SNqCE, %adayiruppu
2.2 IDENTIFICATION
The identification process, also known as an 'open search', is much more technically demanding. It involves many more comparisons and may require differentiating among several database fingerprints that are similar to the objects.
(Dept. of Computer Science and Engg. 4 SNgCE, "Kadayiruppu
3.0 BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS AND DEVICES
A biometric system is a combined hardware/software system for biometric identification or verification. Therefore the system should be able to:
¢ Receive biometric samples from an enrollee or candidate.
¢ Extract biometric featured from the sample.
¢ Compare the sample of the candidate with stored templates from individuals.
¢ Indicate identification or verification upon the result of the previous comparison.
Biometric devices have three primary components:
¢ One is an automated mechanism that scans and captures a digital of analog image of a living personal characteristic.
¢ The second handles compression of the image with the stored data.
¢ The third interfaces with application systems
These pieces may be configured to suit different situations. A common issue is where the stored images reside: on a card presented by the person being verified or at host computer. Recognition occurs when an individual's is matched with one of a group of stored images.
3.1 BIOMETRIC ACCURACY
Biometric accuracy is the system's ability of separating legitimate matches from imposters. There are two important performance-characteristics for biometric systems
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False rejection is the situation when a biometric system is not able to verify the legitimate claimed identity of an enrolled person.
¢ False acceptance is a situation when a
4. biometric system wrongly verifies the identity by
comparing biometric features from .not identical individuals.
¢ False Rejection Rate (FRR) refers to the statistical probability that the biometric system is not able to verify the legitimate claimed identity of an enrolled person, or fails to identify an enrolled person.
* False Acceptance Rate (FAR) refers to the statistical probability of False Acceptance or incorrect verification.
In the most common context, both False Rejection and False
Acceptance represent a security hazard. I
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 6 S5VgC% Kadayiruppu
4.0 BIOMETRIC METHODS
Static Biometric methods
It ' is also called physiological method. It involves authentication based on a feature that is always present. Examples of Static methods are:
¢ Fingerprint Identification.
¢ Retinal scan.
¢ Iris scan.
¢ Hand geometry.
Dynamic Biometric Methods
It is also called behavioral method. It involves authentication based on a certain behavior pattern. Examples of Dynamic Methods are:
¢ Signature recognition. ® Speaker recognition.
¢ Keystroke dynamics
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 7 SNCjCE, %adayiruppu
5.0 BIOMETRIC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Major components of a biometric system are:
o Data collection,
o Signal processing,
o Matching,
o Decision,
o Storage,
o Transmission.
=> Data collection subsystem
It is also called data acquisition system. It comprises of input device or sensor that reads the biometric information from the user. It then converts biometric information into a suitable form for processing by the remainder of the biometric system. Examples of data collection subsystems are video camera, fingerprint scanner, microphone, etc. Various requirements for data collection involves the following
" Sampled biometric characteristic must be similar to the user's enrolled template.
¦ The users may require training.
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¦ Adaptation of the user's template or reenrollment may be necessary to accommodate changes in physiological characteristics.
« Sensors must be similar, so that biometric features are measured consistently at other sensors.
Various changes that can happen in the biometric system are the following:
¦ The biometric feature may change.
¦ The presentation of the biometric feature at the sensor may change.
¦ The performance of the sensor itself may change.
¦ The surrounding environmental conditions may change.
=> Signal processing subsystem
This subsystem is used mainly for feature extraction. It receives the biometric data from the data collection subsystem and transforms the data into the form required by the matching subsystem. It is in this subsystem the discriminating features are extracted from the raw biometric data and also filtering may be applied to remove noise.
=> Matchingsubsystem
The matching subsystem plays the key role in the biometrics system. It receives processed biometric data from signal processing subsystem and biometric template from the storage subsystem. It then measures the similarity of the claimant's sample with the reference template. The result is a number known as match score.
=> Decision subsystem
The decision subsystem interprets the match score from the matching subsystem. A threshold is defined. If the score is above the threshold,
(Dept. of Computer Science and <Engg. 9
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
the user is authenticated. If it is below, the user is rejected. Typically a binary decision yes or no may require more than one submitted samples to reach a decision. The subsystem may reject a legitimate claimant or accept an imposter.
*
=> Storage subsystem
The storage subsystem maintains the templates for enrolled users. There will be one or more templates for each user. The templates may be stored in physically protected storage within the biometric device or conventional database or portable tokens such as a smartcard.
=> Transmission subsystem
Subsystems are logically separate units. Some subsystems may be physically integrated. Usually, there are separate physical entities in a biometric system. The biometric data has to be transmitted between the different physical entities as the biometric data is vulnerable during transmission.
=> Enrolment
Enrolment involves data collection and feature extraction. It is the process through which the user's identity is bound with biometric template data. Biometric template is stored in a database or an appropriate portable token. There may be several iterations of this process to refine biometric template.
=> Security 6f enrolment
Requirements for enrolment:
¦ Secure enrolment procedure.
¦ Binding of the biometric template to the enrollee.
¦ Check of template quality and matchability.
(Dept. of Computer Science and%ngg. 10 SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
5.2 POSSIBLE DECISION OUTCOMES
¦ A genuine individual is accepted.
¢ A genuine individual is rejected (error).
¢ An impostor is rejected.
¢ An impostor is accepted (error).
5.3 ERRORS I
There are mainly two types of errors. They are:
¢ Type I: system fails to recognize valid user ('false non-match' or 'false rejection')
¢ Type II: system accepts impostor ('false match' or 'false acceptance')
'Dept. of Computer Science and <Engg. 11
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
6.0 FINGERPRINT TECHNOLOGY
There are several components to a system that uses fingerprints to identify or verify the identity of an Individual. Figure 1 illustrates the most common basic model for use of fingerprints In government-based identification applications, incorporating the five functions performed by information systems to manage and utilize fingerprint flies, An Individual submits fingerprint samples either through a live scan or card scan system. The fingerprint images are processed into digital data files, These files are transmitted to a centralized database, where they are compared to a stored database of Images also processed into digital data files. In order to explain the finger print identification system, the finger print identification system used for border security is explained below.
Figure 1: Fingerprint processing model.
6.1 CAPTURE
There are several methods to capture fingerprint images, and the choice has typically been determined by the specific requirements of the application and the constraints of a particular environment. In government applications, where collection of a fingerprint sample is sometimes a step in the legal process, the priority is collecting as much
(Dept. of Computer Science anfQZngg. 12 SNQCE, %pJdyiruppu
data from the fingers as possible, and processing time is rarely a factor. This is why the FBI takes full ten print, rolled fingerprints, despite the longer time it takes to collect these prints. Such a large sample also increases accuracy, as each individual fingerprint increases the amount of data collected.
Alternatively, where the INS is required to process large volumes of individuals quickly, they have traditionally placed a greater priority on speed of process. This is why in the past the INS has collected impressions of only two index fingers.
For either application, storage of biometric images in WSQ format is crucial to preserving the interoperability of the biometric system. This is important in ensuring the usability of the fingerprints by new systems and techniques as they are developed in the future. The extractions of features and patterns from a fingerprint image rely on proprietary methods, making true interoperability between different systems difficult. Capturing and storing a high quality image ensures that any system or technology can make use of all images in a database perpetually.
Two ways to capture fingerprints are live scan and card scan. A live scan approach involves the use of optical scanners designed specifically for capture of fingerprints. They are used by placing and/or rolling the fingers onto'a glass platen. Scanning technology below the platen creates an image of the finger(s), and the image is processed using software residing on an associated PC or local computer network.
A card scan approach involves the use of consumer-grade scanners designed for document and photograph scanning. These can be used by first impressing fingers onto a card, using ink or inkless paper, and then placing the card in the scanner. The scanner then takes the image of the
(Dept. of Computer Science and (Engg. 13 SWQCE, Kjidayiruppu
card, and software residing on an associated PC or local computer network processes the image. For state and federal system usage, the FBI maintains a rigorous image quality testing and certification program that every live scan and card scan system must pass before a particular make and model can be used.
6.2 PROCESS: Minutiae Extraction
(Dept. of Computet Science and'Eru^. 14 SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
Minutiae extraction is the process of converting an image of a fingerprint to a set of data points that can be subsequently compared numerically to other data sets. These data "points of interest" are called minutiae, and are comprised of two primary features of fingerprints: ridge endings and ridge bifurcations. (See Figure 2)
Minutiae files are smaller than image files and are ideal for storage at the point of application, but are not typically interoperable between equipment from different vendors. To ensure future usability of the biometric, the image must be stored. It remains to be seen whether a standardized minutiae template model will be widely adopted.
In a typical system, type, location, and angle are recorded for each point of interest. Proposed standards specify that a Cartesian coordinate system is used to represent the location of a minutia, in units of pixels. Image resolution is also required. Also specified by the proposal, the origin of the coordinate system is located in the upper left, with values increasing in value to the right and downward.
An important area of work for standards groups such as INCITS M1 and ISO JTC 1 SC37 is to standardize the definition of minutiae locations and angles. Only then will biometric data extracted by different equipment be effectively compared and matched.
6.3 MATCHING
Matching of fingerprints lies at the heart of a fingerprint system. It is the process by which mathematical algorithms are used to compare a data set of minutiae of a single fingerprint to another or several others. These matching algorithms typically generate a match "score", and then compare this score to a threshold that is associated with some level of confidence that the two prints belong to the same finger.
6.4 STORING (compressing)
WSQ (wavelet scalar quantization) is the fingerprint image compression algorithm that is the standard for the exchange of fingerprint images across government biometric systems, as defined in the ANSI/NIST Data Format For The Interchange Of Fingerprint, Facial, and Scar/Mark/Tattoo
(Dept. of Computer Science and (Engg. 15 SNgCE, %adayiruppu.
Information published in 1993 and updated in 2000. WSQ is specified as required by the FBI's EFTS (Electronic fingerprint Transmission Specification). WSQ is designed to allow the interchange of fingerprint and other identification information between law enforcement agencies in the USA and the FBI centralized integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS). The IAFIS started accepting ten print records that comply with this standard from law enforcement agencies in July of 1S9S and from civilian agencies shortly thereafter.
(Dept. of Computer Science andQZngg. 16
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
7.0 FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION: OVERVIEW
7.1 SENSORS
¢ Optical sensors.
¢ Ultrasound sensors.
¢ Chip-based sensors.
¢ Thermal sensors.
7.2 INTEGRATED PRODUCTS
¢ For identification - AFIS systems.
¢ For verification.
Optical fingerprint sensor [Fingerprint Identification UnitFIU-001/500 by Sony]
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg.
17
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
Capacitive Sensor
Thermal Sensor
Figure 4: Fingerprint recognition: Integrated system
Japanese Handset
Travel Mate 740 by Compaq and Acer
(Dept. of Computer Science and (Engg. 18
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
7.3 "VERIFINGER"-A software example
Neurotechnoiogija, Ltd. has developed fast, compact and reliable fingerprint identification engine VeriFinger, intended for system integrators who need powerful fingerprint identification algorithm for their biometric security systems, VeriFinger is available as a software development kit (SDK) for MS Windows 9x, 2000 and NT (current version 3.3) and Linux (current version 3.1). It can be easily integrated into a customer's security system. VeriFinger fingerprint recognition engine, integrated with the data management system, is used in our other product, person identification system Finger Point.
VeriFinger SDK includes the followings components:
s VeriFinger dynamic link library (DLL file) for Windows 9 x/2000/NT
or library files for Linux. # C source code of the example program using the library provided
functions.
j Visual Basic source code of the example program using the library provided functions (not available in Linux version).
s Delphi* source code of the exampre program using the library provided functions (not available in Linux version).
s Software description.
Access tools (DLLs) for Compaq and LLare.U fingerprint scanners and source code of the sample programs, where VeriFinger 3.3 engine is used with these scanners, are optionally available.
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 19
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
VeriFingertest results and technical specifications:
VeriFinger was tested with 2400 fingerprints, captured with four different scanners. Each fingerprint was compared with all other fingerprints (5,760,000 comparisons). The average test results as well as other specifications are presented below:
False rejection rate < 3 %
False acceptance rate < 0.001 %
Required fingerprint resolution > 250 dpi
Fingerprint processing time 0.35 second
Matching speed 5000* fingerprints/second
Size of one record in the database About 150 Bytes
Maximum database size Unlimited
Program occupied array size 250 kb
<Dept of Computer Science and<Engg. 20
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8.0 FUTURE APPLICATIONS
There are many concerning potential biometric applications, some popular examples being;
8.1 ATM MACHINE USE.
Most of the leading banks have been experimenting with biometrics of ATM machines use arid as general means of combining card fraud. Surprisingly, these experiments have rarely consisted of carefully integrated devices into a common process, as could be achieved with certain biometric devices. Previous comments in this paper concerning user psychology come to mind here one wonder why we have not seen a more professional and carefully considered implementation from this sector. The banks will of course have a view concerning the level of fraud and cost of combating it via technology solutions such as biometrics. They will also express concern about potentially alienating customers with such as approach. However, it still surprises many in the biometric industry that the banks and financial institutions have so far failed to embrace this technology with any enthusiasm,
8.2 WORKSTATION AND NETWORK ACCESS.
For a long time this was an area often discussed but rarely implemented until recent developments aw the unit price of biometric devices fall dramatically as well as several designs aimed squarely at this application. In addition, with household names such as Sony, Compaq, KeyTronics, Samsung and others entering the market, these devices appear almost as a standard computer peripheral. Many are viewing this as the application, which will provide critical mass for biometric industry and create the transition between sci-fi device to regular systems component, thus raising public awareness and lowering resistance to the use of biometrics in general.
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 21
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8.3 TRAVELS AND TOURISM
There are many in this industry that have the vision of a multi application * card for travelers which, incorporating a biometric, would enable them to participate in various frequent flyer and border controls systems as well as paying for their air ticket, hotel rooms, hire care etc, all with one
i convenient token. Technically this is eminently possible, but from a political and commercial point of view there are many issues to resolve, not the least being who would own the card, are responsible for administration and so on. These may not be insurmountable problems and perhaps we may see something along these lines emerge. A notable challenge in this respect would be packaging such an initiative in a way
\ that would be truly attractive for users.
8.4 INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
Many immediately think of on line transactions as being an obvious area for biometrics, although there are some significant issues to consider in this context, Assuming device oost could be brought down to level whereby a biometric (and perhaps chip card) reader could be easily incorporated into a standard build PC, we still have the problem of authenticated enrollment and template management, although there are several approaches one could take to that. Of course, if your credit ; already incorporated a biometric this would simplify things considerably. It is interesting to note that certain device manufactures have collaborated with key encryption providers to provide an enhancement to their existing services. Perhaps we shall see some interesting developments in this area in the near future.
8.5 TELEPHONE TRANSACTIONS.
No doubt many telesales and call center managers have pondered the use of biometrics. It is an attractive possibility to consider, especially for
(Dept. of Computer Science andQZnQQ. 22
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Seminar Report 2005-2006
automated processes. However, voice verification is a difficult area of biometrics, especially if one does not have direct control over the transducers, as indeed you wouldn't when dealing with the general public. The variability of telephone handsets coupled to the variability of line quality and the variability of user environments presents a significant challenge to voice verification technology, and that is before you even consider the variability in understanding among users.
The technology can work well in controlled closed loop conditions but is extraordinarily difficult to implement on anything approaching a large scale. Designing in the necessary error correction and fallback procedures to automated systems in a user-friendly manner is also not a job for the faint hearted.
Perhaps we shall see further developments, which will largely overcome these problems. Certainly there is a commercial incentive to do so and I have no doubt that much research is under way in this respect.
8.6 PUBLIC IDENTITY CARDS.
A biometric incorporated into a multi purpose public ID cards would be useful in a number of scenarios if one could win public support for such a scheme. Unfortunately, in this country as in others there are huge numbers of individuals who definitely do not want to be identified. This ensures that any such proposal would quickly become a political hot potato and a nightmare for the minister concerned. You may consider this a shame-or a good thing, depending on your point of view. From a dispassionate technology perspective it represents something of a lost opportunity, but this is of course nothing new. It's interesting that certain local authorities in the UK have issued 'citizen' cards with which named cardholders can receive various benefits including discounts
(Dept. of Computer Science and%ngg. 23
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at local stores and on certain services. These do not seem to have seriously challenged, even though they are in effect an ID card.
<Dept. ofComputer Science and^Engg. 24
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9.0 CONCLUSION
The ultimate form of electronic verification of a person's identity is biometrics, using a physical attribute of the person to make a positive identification. People have always used the brain's innate ability to recognize a familiar face and it has long been known that a person's fingerprints can be used for identification. The challenge has been to turn these Into electronic processes that are inexpensive and easy to use.
Banks and others who have tested biometric-based security on their clientele, however, say consumers overwhelmingly have a pragmatic response to the technology. Anything that saves the information-overloaded citizen from having to remember another password or personal identification number comes as a welcome respite.
Biometrics can address most of the security needs, but at what cost Surprisingly, the benefits quickly outweigh the costs. Like so many technological developments, innovative people have found new ways to implement biometric systems, so prices have come down dramatically ;n the last year or two. As prices have come down, the interest level and the knowledge about how to effectively utilize these systems have increased. So the investment is decreasing and the recognizable benefits are increasing. Biometrics, when properly implemented, not only increase security but also often are easier to use and fess costly to administer than the less secure alternatives. Biometrics can't be forgotten or left at home and they don't have to be changed periodically like passwords.
Devt. of Computer Science JTZSEIZJ.
SXgC% Kf&zyimppu
10.0 REFERENCES
1. http://vvww.biometricgroup.com
2. http://www.neurotechnofogija.com
3. http://biometricsxse.msu.edu
http://www.biometricpartners.com
INDEX
Chapter Contents Page No.
1. Introduction. 1-2
2. Identification and Verification Systems. 3-4
3. Biometric Systems and Devices. 5-6
4, Biometric Methods. 7
5. Biometric System Architecture. 8-11
6. Fingerprint Technology, 12-16
7. Fingerprint Recognition: Overview. 17-20
8. *
Future Applications. 21-24
9. Conclusion. 25
10. References. 26
(Dept. of Computer Science and<EngQ.
S!N~gCE, XacCayiruppu
22-04-2010, 05:44 PM
Post: #4
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

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.pdf  atm finger-print.pdf (Size: 78.85 KB / Downloads: 352) Abstract
Biometrics uses a persons biological characters to identify him such as fingerprint scanning, retinal scanning , DNA fingerprinting etc.Biometrics equipped Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) to provide a number of social services including identity verification and disbursement of social security, unemployment, welfare and pension benefits to a la rge segment of the population.
Biometric Access Control System
The goal of this project is to design and assemble a biometric access control system that uses fingerprint scanning and recognition to authenticate the user. Upon successful authentication, the user will be allowed to access the safe. On the
other hand, if the access is denied, it will be reported to the center administrative console for audit purposes. The fingerprint scanning device utilizes serial communication. This device will be connected to our microprocessor using the UART ports. The system will consist of an Atmel Atmega32 microprocessor, LCD display, fingerprint sensor, electronic door strike, and MCU to USB PC interfacing. Software will be written for the PC that allows the owner to register and delete fingerprints and monitor door entry. LCDâ„¢s and LEDâ„¢s will be used to display whether or not access was granted or denied.
The biggest challenge that will be faced is figuring out how to interface the Atmega32 with a PC via USB and writing software that allows the owner to manage fingerprint access. If time permits a cell module will be used to alert the owner of a possible break-in attempt.
The full project report with detailed drawings download(pdf):

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The source code is also available for download.

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23-04-2010, 09:10 PM
Post: #5
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

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BIOMETRICS

Presented By:
A. Sumithra
06M11A0246
4/4 BTECH
ABSTRACT
Biometrics is the development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences. It is a new method of verifying authenticity. Biometrics uses biological traits or behavioral characteristics to identify an individual. A Biometrics system is actually a pattern recognition system that utilizes various patterns like iris patterns, retina patterns and biological traits like fingerprints, facial geometry, voice recognition and hand recognition etc. What makes Biometrics really attractive is the fact that the various security codes like the passwords and the PIN can be interchanged between people but the physiological traits canâ„¢t be.
The current applications of Biometric authentication are Entry control, ATMs and Government programs. The most obvious use of biometrics for network security is for secure workstation logons for a workstation connected to a network. The main use of Biometric network security will be to replace the current password system. The most popular biometric authentication scheme employed for the last few years has been Iris Recognition. Many companies are adding biometric authentication features to their products for e.g. Key ware Technologies LBV (Layered biometrics verification) Internet toolkit provides high-level security to e-commerce applications. This toolkit finds use in the area of Internet Banking.
There are various pros and cons to Biometrics that ought to be considered .The advantages mainly are the high levels of security it provides when compared to conventional methods, the uniqueness of biometric attributes makes them an ideal candidate authenticating users, problems associated with passwords can be avoided and that a Biometric characteristic canâ„¢t be stolen as opposed to passwords etc. The various disadvantages are the low acceptance rate, high costs associated with Biometric authentication due to the integration into the current network and the acquisition of the hardware and the software, the danger of an individualâ„¢s biometric data can be exploited and there are instances especially in voice recognition where the individual is restricted access due to a change in Biometric characteristics due to a cold etc. So, all these disadvantages have to be worked upon to ensure that this brilliant technology be incorporated into all the security systems to ensure safer transactions and restricted access to them to prevent any kind of breach of security.
INTRODUCTION
Biometrics is derived from the conjunction of the Greek words bios and metrics that mean life and to measure respectively. Biometrics has been put to use in computer and network security settings. It is defined as the development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences. Biometrics is an accurate method of authentication that uses the physiological and biological traits of a person to verify and establish their identity. It has its roots in the ancient methods of authentication and finds use in many areas like Internet Banking, e-commerce and network security settings etc.
PAST:
There were various methods of authentication used earlier .The Chinese were the first to use Biometrics in the form of a fingerprinting method. This was later followed by a method called Bertillonage that sought to identify people on the basis of certain characteristics like the length of their fingers and the size of their skull. Later on Scotland Yard detectives then began using the method of Fingerprinting analysis, which was initially put into practice by the Chinese.
Pros and Cons of these methods:
These methods used in the past had various flaws in them like:
There could be two people with the same measurements and having the same kind of measurements would be convicted and this was gruesome. So, the development of sophisticated methods was necessary for identifying the real culprits.
So emerged the technology of Biometrics!!!!
Emergence of Biometrics:
Biometrics has found its application in many areas like Network authentication, Internet Banking, Entry Control and Government programs.
Biometrics works by taking into consideration certain parameters that are unique to each person like their facial geometry, iris recognition, hand geometry, voice recognition and fingerprinting analysis etc. The main advantage of using these physiological traits is that though other kinds of authentication like passwords and tokes can be presented by anybody, physiological traits canâ„¢t be replicated and thus form the main reason why these Biometrics systems are used.
Biometrics: How??
Biometrics is basically a pattern recognition system that utilizes the uniqueness of certain physiological patterns like iris patterns, voice recognition patterns, facial geometry, hand geometry and fingerprint patterns etc.
Each method has its own pros and cons and is used depending on the level of security desired and the various areas where they have to be implemented.
The Biometrics system works on the following principle:
First, it checks whether we are who we claim we are i.e. It sets off to verify our identity
Second, it tries to find out who we are, i.e. It sets off to establish an identity
Thus, Biometrics goes far from the traditional systems and thus helps in tightening Internet security to create safer workplaces and thus increasing the confidence of many like the bankers who are involved in e-commerce.
Avenues where Biometrics is used:
1. In Network security and authentication
2. Computer networks
3. Cellular phone industry
4. In Automatic Teller Machines
5. Internet Banking
Biometrics in Network authentication:
Network security relies on one of three approaches for identification - what you have, what you know or who you are.
The previous forms of authentication are:
1. Personal Identification Numbers (PINs),
2. Physical tokens e.g. Smart cards.
What lead to the use of Biometrics in Network authentication?
1. Passwords can be forgotten.
2. Tokens can be lost.
3. Passwords can be reused
4. These can be presented by anybody who is not genuine.
That is when the uniqueness of a physiological trait was established and Biometrics was put to use.
How Biometrics is implemented in Network security:
It is used to secure workstation logons for a workstation that is connected to the network.
This requires the setting up of the appropriate software required to enable authentication and the related hardware that would vary depending on the kind of Biometric trait being used. It helped in reducing the necessity to remember passwords etc that were frequently lost and thus overburdened the IT helpdesk with work.
Biometrics in computer networks:
Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on this unique biological trait.
This kind of security gives people immense confidence and relief in areas like e-commerce etc .The network can be exploited fully without a security breach.
Biometrics tighten the security in the areas of banking intelligence and secure Banking data and credit card numbers, medical information and other personal information.
Biometrics in the cellular phone industry:
The cellular phone industry faces the problem of cloning these days where new phones are created using a stolen number and a new subscription fraud takes place where a phone is obtained by claiming a false identity.
Biometrics exploits the unique biological trait like fingerprints or hand geometry and thus the people committing the fraud could be identified and convicted.
Biometrics in banking:
It is used to secure transactions in Automatic Teller Machines (ATMâ„¢s) thus no loner requiring the person to present the ATM card.
These Biometric traits can be used even during a sale to verify the authenticity of the individual.
Biometrics finds important application in the areas of internet banking and telephone banking and is widely used because the physiological traits can never be interchanged between two people even though other means of authentication like passwords etc can.
The latest in Biometric authentication:
There are many companies that are incorporating Biometric features into their products.
A few of them are Novell, Baltimore technologies and even Microsoft.
Key ware has come up with a unique system that integrates many Biometric features into one i.e. many biological traits are used for the authentication of the individual. This LBV software integrates many Biometric features and is compatible with the Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.01 and higher and with Microsoft's Information Server.
It has been said that layered security levels provide high security in areas where high “ value transactions etc take place especially when it comes to banking and these high levels of security are needed to protect highly precious data in order to prevent it from getting exploited.
How the LBV works:
The LBV software finds an important application in the field of Internet banking where a bank would require the authentication of an individual during high value transactions and that is when key ware LBV software comes into the picture. During these high value transactions, the bank would ask the person to speak a pass phrase and give his fingerprints that would be scanned by the Key ware LBV server that would help in establishing the authenticity of the individual. This way, the security during high value transactions is tightened using Biometric techniques.
Biometrics: The pros and cons:
Each system has its own advantages and disadvantages and Biometrics is not an exception to this rule. It has its own pros and cons. It is when these disadvantages are completely corrected then Biometrics can be exploited completely and be accepted by one and all.
ADVANTAGES:
1. Biometric attributes are unique and these canâ„¢t be faked or interchanged so, this uniqueness imparts a high level security to these systems. Using an inherent trait of the individual ensures that the person is who he claims to be he is.
2. There is no need for remembering passwords, PINâ„¢s etc and this convenience gives an edge to Biometrics. Thus, biometric logins ensure that the person who has logged on is not assuming a fake identity.
3. Though someone elseâ„¢s user ID and password can be stolen, his unique biological attributes canâ„¢t be and this gives an extra boost to this new technique.
4. This reduces the problems of the IT helpdesk at many workstations because passwords can be done without and these are the ones that overburden the helpdesk with work.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Biometric systems are very expensive because, not only the costs for the acqusition of the software and hardware costly but the integration of these in the networks are even more costly. These high costs are coupled with the fact that the returns arenâ„¢t highly encouraging. So, people are not ready to pool in so much money to utilize the latest technology that is available in the market.
2. It is an all or none technology, i.e. we set up biometric authentication features etc but if we permit the person for a remote login then there is no use incorporating this technology in the network.
3. Like every new technology, Biometrics has a low user acceptance rate.
4. People consider it to be an invasion of their privacy and thus, it hasnâ„¢t been exploited to its full potential. They donâ„¢t realize the fact that a Biometric system does not copy their fingerprints or any other attributes but goes for a mathematical representation of these attributes that are unique to each person.
5. Even though full secrecy is maintained regarding these attributes, even if they get leaked out once, they can be used in exploiting various other areas, like to get credit card and medical information, in banking security systems etc. Even though different biometric systems are highly incompatible with each other, their exploitation may ruin the life of the person who trusted this technology.
6. Sometimes, a genuine person maybe restricted access to the network and this is very commonly seen in voice recognition patterns where something as small as cold could have the personâ„¢s access rejected.
7. Like all systems, even a Biometric system is not foolproof and has its own flaws and can sometimes allow a person who has assumed a fake identity into the network.
8. Biometric template data consume more space than the conventional user ID/password combinations.
Different kinds of Biometric systems and their pros and cons:
There are a variety of Biometric systems available in the market and each one of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used Biometric systems are:
1. Fingerprint readers.
2. Hand scans.
3. Voice authentication system.
4. Retina Scans
5. Iris scans
6. Facial scans
FINGERPRINT READERS: These use a unique biological trait i.e. a fingerprint in this case to verify the authenticity of the individual. These have been used in novel methods like incorporating them in the mouse so that the person doesnâ„¢t feel uncomfortable with the idea of having to give his fingerprints.
Finger Scanner Certified Finger Print
Advantages and Disadvantages:
It has found low acceptability rate because people associate fingerprinting with criminal activity and the incorporation of a Biometric system inside each mouse is painstakingly expensive. People are uncomfortable with the fact that their fingerprints are with the company and if they come out, their lives may be put in jeopardy due to the exploitation of other Biometric systems that use their fingerprints etc.
An advantage of this method is that the storage space required for this biometric template is not much compared to other ones.
HAND SCANS: These use another biometric trait like hand geometry or other hand patterns that are unique to each individual.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
This method has the advantage that it has low data storage requirements for each template.
It also suffers from a major setback i.e., these are not unique to each individual and thus, there are times when an intrusion may take place, so, the safety factor is quite low in this case.
VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS: This system goes in for the voice analysis of the person to be authenticated. This method has many flaws compared to the other methods.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
The advantage of this method is that it has high acceptability rate compared to the other systems.
It is also cheap to install voice recognition software but, if one wants to go for highly sophisticated software, acquisition and installation costs are really high.
There are a number of disadvantages to this system.
1. Even a genuine person maybe prevented from entering because of simple issues like cold etc that change his voice
2. It also doesnâ„¢t work properly if there is any kind of background noise.
3. It also requires a lot of template space between 2000 and 10000 gigabytes.
4. For remote access phone lines may not be able to transmit the voice clearly and thus his/her entry may be restricted.
So, this method has more number of flaws compared to advantages.
RETINA SCANS: These scan the retina to authenticate the identity of a person. This method has many advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
The main advantage of this method is that it has high accuracy in identifying users and templates also require less storage space.
It also suffers from a major drawback and that is it has extremely low acceptance rate because the users find it really intrusive and this coupled with the fact that they are really costly has caused less number of people opting for this system.
IRIS SCANS: Eye recognition is the best method to identify a particular individual and these days, the iris is being scanned from up to twelve inches away and this has stopped the complaints of people that they were intrusive. This is by far, the best method of authentication. There are numerous advantages to this method.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
1. It has high accuracy in identifying users.
2. The iris can be scanned from up to twelve inches away.
3. It has low data storage requirements for template.
FACIAL SCANS: This kind of a biometric system utilizes the uniqueness of a personâ„¢s facial geometry.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
It has the advantage that it is extremely non-intrusive in nature.
It suffers from many drawbacks.
1. The data acquisition is very difficult because the user has to place his head in the same manner each time he has to verify his authenticity and this many not be possible.
2. The background lighting is very important for proper authentication of the person.
3. Users feel very uncomfortable using this system and consider it to be a violation of their privacy.
Thus, the various Biometric systems available in the market have been examined.
Biometrics can achieve its purpose only if the proper biometric is installed in the network depending on the amount of security needed. Depending on the type of network and how tight the security should be, the different type of Biometric to be used may be identified.
CONCLUSION
Just like every other technology, Biometrics will take some time to be incorporated into networks all over but first, the flaws that it has got ought to be corrected so as to make this technology useful and available to all. The massive disadvantages like pricing, lower acceptance rate etc should be corrected and this would lead to more use of this system to impart high-level security to the network. If all these things are worked upon, then Biometrics could be exploited completely. It will take some time for it to catch up with the customers but as they say. EVERY GOOD THING HAS A LONG GESTATION PERIOD. We only have to wait and watch!!!

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06-10-2010, 12:00 PM
Post: #6
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.doc  IRIS SCANNING FOR PRINT.doc (Size: 384.5 KB / Downloads: 159)
What is Biometrics?



Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioural characteristic. The word biometrics means Biological Measurements. Therefore in this way we can use computers to recognize persons.

Physiological characteristics means Fingerprints, Retinal and Iris Patterns, Hand and Finger Geometry, Facial recognition etc.

Behavioural characteristics means Voice Patterns, Signature etc.

There are different biometric solutions. Some of them are Finger Print Recognition, Iris Pattern recognition, Facial Recognition, Voice Pattern Recognition, Hand and Finger Geometry etc. In all these biometric solutions the details about the physiological/behavioural characteristics are entered into a database. When the user uses the sytem the characteristics required for the system are scanned and a template is formed. It is checked whether there exists a match for this template with any of the records already stored in the database. If a match is found, the user is allowed access. Otherwise the user is denied access.

Each biometric solution can be used in two different modes.

In Identification mode, where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match.
In Verification mode, where the biometric system authenticates a person's claimed identity from his/her previously enrolled pattern.

Applications of Biometrics.
Improving airport security.
Strenghthening our national borders in travel documents, visas, passports etc.
In peventing ID theft.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-bi...z11YbYNBLJ
08-10-2010, 05:17 PM
Post: #7
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.ppt  A SEMINAR ON BIOMETRICS.ppt (Size: 2.14 MB / Downloads: 372)


Introduction

Password based attacks
Advancement in technology
Powerful solution to illegal authentication-BIOMETRICS
Passwords are out , biometrics is in

Definition:

Biometrics is a means of using the physiological or behavioral characteristics of a person as a kind of permanent password.

“Biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. “
15-10-2010, 11:20 AM
Post: #8
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.doc  biometric technology.doc (Size: 238.5 KB / Downloads: 438)

Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

INTRODUCTION



BIOMETRICS refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his physiological / behavioral characteristics. This method of identification is preferred for various reasons;the person to be identified is required to be physically present at the point of identification; identification based on biometric techniques obviates the need to remember a password or carry a token. With the increased use of computers or vehicles of information technology, it is necessary to restrict access to sensitive or personal data. By replacing PINs, biometric techniques can potentially prevent unauthorized access to fraudulent use of ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks. PINs and passwords may be forgotten, and token based methods of identification like passports and driver’s licenses may be forged, stolen, or lost .Thus biometric systems of identification are enjoying a renewed interest. Various types of biometric systems are being used for real–time identification ; the most popular are based on face recognition and fingerprint matching. However there are other biometric systems that utilize iris and retinal scan, speech, facial thermo grams, and hand geometry.

A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system, which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristics possessed by the user. An important issue in designing a practical system is to determine how an individual is identified. Depending on the context, a biometric system can be either a verification (authentication) system or an identification system. There are two different ways to resolve a person’s identity : Verification and Identification. Verification ( Am I whom I claim I am ?) involves confirming or denying a person’s claimed identity. In Identification one has to establish a person’s identity (whom am I?). Each one of these approaches has its own complexities and could probably be solved best by a certain biometric system.
02-11-2010, 11:49 AM
Post: #9
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION METHODS

Abstract:


Biometric recognition refers to an automatic recognition of individuals based on a
feature vector(s) derived from their physiological and/or behavioral characteristic. Biometric
recognition systems should provide a reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm
or determine the identity of an individual. Applications of such a system include computer
systems security, secure electronic banking, mobile phones, credit cards, secure access to
buildings, health and social services. By using biometrics a person could be identified based
on "who she/he is" rather then "what she/he has" (card, token, key) or "what she/he knows"
(password, PIN). In this paper, a brief overview of biometric methods, both unimodal and
multimodal, and their advantages and disadvantages, will be presented.

for more ::->

http://gotbiometrics.com/BIOMETRICSURVEY...PORTS.aspx
10-11-2010, 04:37 PM
Post: #10
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
i need biometrics complete documentation...
10-11-2010, 04:45 PM
Post: #11
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
i need cmplete documentation of biometrics to present a seminar
10-11-2010, 04:54 PM
Post: #12
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
i need complete documentation
26-11-2010, 11:01 AM
Post: #13
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.doc  BIOMETRIC SECURITY.doc (Size: 759.5 KB / Downloads: 238)
BIOMETRIC SECURITY
Presented by:Mr. MANGESH SHARAD WAKADE

ABSTRACT

Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his/her physiological or behavioural characteristics. Physical characteristics such as fingerprints, retinas and irises, palm prints, facial structure, and voice recognition are just some of the many methods of biometric encryption. Depending on the context, a biometric system can be either a verification (authentication) system or an identification system. Biometrics is a rapidly evolving technology which has been widely used in forensics such as criminal identification and prison security. Recent advancements in biometric sensors and matching algorithms have led to the deployment of biometric authentication in a large number of civilian applications. With the increased use of computers as vehicles of information technology, it is necessary to restrict access to sensitive/personal data. Real-time biometric systems can be used to prevent unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, computer networks and electronic banking.
In this paper an attempt has been made to present to the reader an understanding of this rapidly evolving technology. It includes a brief overview followed by details of components and processes involved, leading Biometric Technologies, the encryption process, benefits, their applications, comparison and future scope.


INTRODUCTION
Reliable user authentication is becoming an increasingly important task in the Web-enabled world. The consequences of an insecure authentication system in a corporate or enterprise environment can be catastrophic, and may include loss of confidential information, denial of service, and compromised data integrity. The value of reliable user authentication is not limited to just computer enhanced security.
The prevailing techniques of user authentication, which involve the use of either passwords and user IDs (identifiers), or identification cards and PINs (personal identification numbers), suffer from several limitations. Passwords and PINs can be illicitly acquired by direct covert observation. Once an intruder acquires the user ID or network access. Many other applications in everyday life also require user authentication, such as banking, e- commerce, and physical access control to computer resources, and could benefit from and the password, the intruder has total access to the user’s resources. In addition, there is no way to positively link the usage of the system or service to the actual user, that is, there is no protection against repudiation by the user ID owner. For example, when a user ID and password is shared with a colleague there is no way for the system to know who the actual user is. A similar situation arises when a transaction involving a credit card number is conducted on the Web. Even though the data are sent over the Web using secure encryption methods, current systems are not capable of assuring that the rightful owner of the credit card initiated the transaction. In the modern distributed systems environment, the traditional authentication policy based on a simple combination of user ID and password has become inadequate. Fortunately, automated biometrics in general, and fingerprint technology in particular, can provide a much more accurate and reliable user authentication method. Biometrics is a rapidly advancing field that is concerned with identifying a person based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics. Examples of automated biometrics include fingerprint, face, iris, and speech recognition. User authentication methods can be broadly classified into three categories as shown in Table 1.1. Because a biometric property is an intrinsic property of an individual, it is difficult to surreptitiously duplicate and nearly impossible to share. Additionally, a biometric property of an individual can be lost only in case of serious accident
Biometric readings, which range from several hundred bytes to over a megabyte, have the advantage that their information content is usually higher than that of a password or a pass phrase. Simply extending the length of passwords to get equivalent bit strength presents significant usability problems. It is nearly impossible to remember a 2K phrase, and it would take an annoyingly long time to type such a phrase (especially without errors). Fortunately, automated biometrics can provide the security advantages of long passwords while retaining the speed and characteristic simplicity of short passwords.
Even though automated biometrics can help alleviate the problems associated with the existing methods of user authentication, hackers will still find there are weak points in the system, vulnerable to attack. Password systems are prone to brute force dictionary attacks. Biometric systems, on the other hand, require substantially more effort for mounting such an attack. Yet there are several new types of attacks possible in the biometrics domain. This may not apply if biometrics is used as a supervised authentication tool. But in remote, unattended applications, such as Web-based e-commerce applications, hackers may have the opportunity and enough time to make several attempts, or even physically violate the integrity of a remote client, before detection.
A problem with biometric authentication systems arises when the data associated with a biometric feature has been compromised. For authentication systems based on physical tokens such as keys and badges, a compromised token can be easily canceled and the user can be assigned a new token. Similarly, user IDs and passwords can be changed as often as required. Yet, the user only has a limited number of biometric features (one face, ten fingers, two eyes). If the biometric data are compromised, the user may quickly run out of biometric features to be used for authentication.
Only the biometric authentication is based on an intrinsic part of a human being. So unlike a password or PIN or Smart Card, it can't be forgotten, misplaced, lost or stolen. We are having our identification with ourselves and therefore there is no need to carry any card or remember passwords for our identification. A biometric template is unique for an individual for whom it is created. Biometrics ensures that the person trying to access your network and applications is actually a sanctioned user, and not in a possession of a stolen smartcard or someone who found, hacked or cracked password.
09-12-2010, 03:33 PM
Post: #14
Video RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
bro,
could u please send this abstract to my email..
itz very urgent
siddharthainkick[at]gmail.com


advance in thanq sooo much
13-12-2010, 10:52 AM
Post: #15
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
hi siddharthainkick,
please download the abstract and other details regarding the topic from above posts.
25-12-2010, 06:00 PM
Post: #16
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
plz send me information........
25-12-2010, 09:32 PM
Post: #17
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
Hi,
visit the previous pages of this thread for full report of this topic:
http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-bi...d-abstract

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17-02-2011, 03:14 PM
Post: #18
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.ppt  BIOMETRICS.ppt (Size: 505.5 KB / Downloads: 213)
BIOMETRICS
PAST METHODS FOR SECURITY
DISADVANTAGES
EMERGENCE OF BIOMETRICS
AVENUES WHERE BIOMETRICS FINDS ITS WAY
OMPUTER NETWORKS
AUTOMATIC TELLAR MACHINES
IN NETWORK SECURITY AND AUTENTICATION
INTERNET BANKING
CELL PHONE INDUSTRY
BIOMETRICS IN NETWORK AUTHENTICATION
PREVIOUS FORMS
WHY BIOMETRICS IN AUTHENTICATION
HOW IS IT IMPLEMENTED
BIOMETRICS:PROS AND CONS
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
DIFFERENT KINDS OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS
FINGER PRINT READERS
HAND SCANS
VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM
RETINA SCANS
IRIS SCANS

FACIAL SCANS
FINGER PRINT READERS
PROS
CONS
HAND SCANS
PROS
CONS
18-02-2011, 03:51 PM
Post: #19
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.docx  bio-metrics.docx (Size: 30.74 KB / Downloads: 127)
Biometrics
IN THE REALM OF computer security, biometrics refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physiological and individual characteristics that can be automatically verified. In other words, we all have unique personal attributes that can be used for distinctive identification purposes, including a fingerprint, the pattern of a retina, and voice characteristics. Although the field of biometrics is still in its infancy, it’s inevitable that biometric systems will play a critical role in the future of security. Strong or two-factor authentication—identifying
oneself by two of the three methods of something you know (for example, a password), have (for example, a swipe card), or is (for example, a fingerprint)—is becoming more of a de facto standard
in secure computing environments. Some personal computers today can include a fingerprint scanner where you place your index finger to provide authentication. The computer analyzes your fingerprint to determine who you are and, based on your identity followed by a passcode or
passphrase, allows you different levels of access. Access levels can include the ability to open sensitive files, to use credit card information to make electronic purchases, and so on. If you’ve ever watched hi-tech spy movies, you’ve most likely seen biometric technology.
Several movies have depicted biometric technologies based on one or more of the following unique identifiers:
✓ Face
✓ Fingerprint
✓ Handprint
✓ Iris
✓ Retina
✓ Signature
✓ Voice
✓ Watermarking
But how realistic are they in today’s computing world, and how can they help you? This text answers these questions and provides templates for biometric applications.
Introduction
Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics. This identification method is preferred over traditional methodsinvolving passwords and PINs (personal identification numbers) for several reasons, including the
person to be identified is required to be physically present at the point of identification and/oridentification based on biometric techniques obviates the need to remember a password or carry atoken. With the increased use of computers as vehicles of information technology, restrictingaccess to sensitive/personal data is necessary. By replacing PINs, biometric techniques can potentiallyprevent unauthorized access to or fraudulent use of the following:
✓ ATMs
✓ Cellular phones
✓ Smart cards
✓ Desktop PCs
✓ Workstations
✓ Computer networks
PINs and passwords may be forgotten, and token-based identification methods such as passportsand driver’s licenses may be forged, stolen, or lost. Thus, biometric systems of identificationare enjoying a new interest. Various types of biometric systems are being used for real-time identification.The most popular are based on face recognition and fingerprint matching; however,other biometric systems use iris and retinal scans, speech, facial feature comparisons and facialthermograms, and hand geometry.
In History
The term biometrics is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure).Among the first known examples of practiced biometrics was a form of memberprintingused in China in the fourteenth century, as reported by the Portuguesehistorian Joao de Barros. The Chinese merchants were stamping children’s palm andfootprints on paper with ink to distinguish the babies from one another.In the 1890s, an anthropologist and police desk clerk in Paris named AlphonseBertillon sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turnedbiometrics into a distinct field of study. He developed a method of multiple body
measurements that was named after him (the Bertillonage technique—measuringbody lengths). Police throughout the world used this system until it proved to beexceedingly prone to error as many people shared the same measurements. After thisfailure, the police started using fingerprinting—developed by Richard Edward Henryof Scotland Yard—after the methods used by the Chinese centuries before. biometric system is essentially a pattern-recognition system that makes a personal identification
by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic possessedby the user. An important issue in designing a practical system is to determine how anindividual is identified. Depending on the conext, a biometric system can be either a verification(authentication) or an identification system.
Verification versus IdentificationToday, wehave the technology and processing power to employ advanced, cost-effective, and much
more accurate biometric identification systems. There are two different ways to resolve a person’sidentity: verification and identification. Verification (am I whom I claim to be?) involves confirming
or denying a person’s claimed identity. In identification, one has to establish a person’s identity(who am I?). Each approach has its own complexities and could probably be solved best by aspecific biometric system, including the following:
✓ Physical biometrics:
■ Fingerprint—Analyzing fingertip patterns (see Figure 1-1)
■ Facial recognition/face location—Measuring facial characteristics
■ Hand geometry—Measuring the shape of the hand
■ Iris scan—Analyzing features of colored ring of the eye (see Figure 1-2)
■ Retinal scan—Analyzing blood vessels in the eye
■ Vascular patterns—Analyzing vein patterns
■ DNA—Analyzing genetic makeup
■ Biometric data watermarking (which is really a method rather than a physicalattribute) is used to store/hide biometric information.
✓ Behavioral biometrics:
■ Speaker/voice recognition—Analyzing vocal behavior
■ Signature/handwriting—Analyzing signature dynamics
■ Keystroke/patterning—Measuring the time spacing of typed word
Hand Geometry Medium High
Voice Medium High
Retina High Low
Iris Medium Medium
Signature Medium Medium
Face Low High
from the most accepted to the least accepted:
1. Iris scan
2. Keystroke/patterning
3. Signature/handwriting
4. Speaker/voice recognition
5. Facial recognition/face location
6. Fingerprint
7. Hand geometry
8. Retinal scan to the least effective:
1. Hand geometry
2. Iris scan
3. Retinal scan
4. Fingerprint
5. Speaker/voice recognition
6. Facial recognition/face location
7. Signature/handwriting
8. Keystroke/patterning
Applications
Biometrics is a rapidly evolving technology that is being widely used in forensics, such as criminal
identification and prison security, and that has the potential to be used in a large range of civilian
application areas. Biometrics can be used to prevent unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular
phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks. It can be used during
transactions conducted by telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking).
In automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with keyless entry devices.
APPLIED BIOMETRICS
This book covers the hottest topics in biometrics development for applications, including the following
in regards to applied methodology and program development:
✓ Fingerprint identification
✓ Hand geometry
✓ DNA analysis
✓ Speaker recognition
✓ Face location
✓ Retina scanning
✓ Iris scanning
✓ Keyboard recognition
✓ Multibiometrics
✓ Data hiding
✓ Sample solutions
It also provides a sample installation and usage of each biometric technology in the data arena
where it’s most practical. During the sample installation and usage specific features of the product
being used are noted. This becomes an important factor in determining which product is right for
you. For example, one product may provide good protection and make accessing Web sites easier,
while another product may allow access to specific applications to be controlled.
The text also shows how the biometric technology is used to control logon access and, where
possible, how it can be used for items such as e-mail and file encryption. For executive and information
technology (IT) managers, the following biometric concerns are also covered:
✓ What form of device is most appropriate for your use?
✓ Should the devices be shared or used individually?
✓ How large and how skilled a support staff is needed?
✓ Should users be coming in from multiple places? Over multiple channels, such as a local
area network (LAN), Web, wireless, or virtual private network (VPN)?
✓ What other forms of IT security should be in place (Public Key Infrastructure [PKI],
security portal, firewall, and so on)? How will they interact?
✓ Will users be switching access modes?
✓ Will different users and groups require different security policies for different applications
and transactions?
✓ How should all this be administered?
✓ Is this for inside the firewall, outside the firewall, or mixed use?
If you have decided to invest in biometrics, you’ll find some tips to help you leverage your
investment. Can the biometric product(s) be used for multiple purposes, such as the following?
✓ Site identification/access
✓ Building identification/access
✓ Secured location identification/access
✓ Equipment identification/access
✓ Mobile device protection
PRACTICAL USAGES
Throughout this book, you’ll find example scenarios in which biometrics is both a sound practice
and a solid investment that can ultimately help ensure security while reducing cost. Additionally,
you’ll find some futuristic examples of how biometrics may be used to provide new services while
maintaining high security.
According to Charles Lynch, Jr. (Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Datastrip, Inc.), vertical
markets using biometrics include the following:
✓ Government—Passports, national identification (ID) cards, voter cards, driver’s
licenses, social services, and so on
✓ Transportation—Airport security, boarding passes, and commercial driver’s licenses
✓ Healthcare—Medical insurance cards, patient/employee identity cards
✓ Financial—Bankcards, ATM cards, credit cards, and debit cards
✓ Retail and gaming—Retail programs, such as check cashing, loyalty rewards and promotional
cards, and gaming systems for access management and VIP programs
✓ Security—Access control and identity verifications, including time and attendance
✓ Public justice and safety—Prison IDs, county probation offices’ use for identification of
parolees, county courthouses’ use for ID systems
✓ Education—Student/teacher identity verification and access control. Biometrics are
now being implemented in large-scale ID systems around the globe. Many new passport
and national ID card systems use some type of biometric encoded in a bar code or smart
chip.
✓ Driver’s licenses—Technologies being recommended by American Association of Motor
Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA), the organization that oversees DMV standards, include
biometrics and two-dimensional bar codes. Georgia, North Carolina, Kentucky, and others
already utilize biometrics on their respective state driver’s licenses.
Outside of the government and military arena, corporate America is stepping up to biometrics
for applications ranging from employee IDs to time and attendance. The bulk of the biometrics
marketplace still consists of traditional systems used to compare fingerprints to vast, centralized
databases of criminals’ fingerprints.
Where possible, this text also depicts some potential future developments for the technologies
discussed.
Facts, Characteristics, and HowBiometrics Can Work for You
The most popular use of biometrics for network security is for secure workstation logons. Each
workstation requires software support for biometric identification of the user, as well as a hardware
device, depending on the biometric being used. The cost of hardware devices is one factor
note
that may lead to the widespread use of voice biometric security identification that can leverage
common sound cards and microphones, especially among companies and organizations on a low
budget. Hardware devices such as computer mice with built-in thumbprint readers will be the
next step. These devices will be more expensive to implement on several computers, because each
machine would require its own hardware device. A biometric mouse, with the software to support
it, is available in the United States for approximately $120. The advantage of voice recognition
software is that it can be centralized, reducing the cost of implementation per machine. At the top
of the price range, a centralized voice biometric package can cost up to $50,000 but may be able to
manage the secure logon of up to 5000 machines.
According to the International Biometric Industry Association (IBIA), the following are important
details about current biometrics and the industry
01-03-2011, 03:16 PM
Post: #20
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
presented by:
Hardik Aniyali
Vimal Javia


.ppt  03-15_BioMetrics.ppt (Size: 437 KB / Downloads: 148)
BIOMETRICS
WHAT SECURITY ? WHY SECURITY?

 SECURITY SYSTEM
 ALEXENDAR FISH & LINAS YEL - 1844
INTRODUCTION
BIO = PERTAINING TO BIOLOGY &
METRICS = SCIENCE OR ART OF MEASUREMENT
 FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS
1.CAPTURE
2.EXTRACTION
3.COMPARISON
4.MATCH/NONMATCH
A FEW DEFINATION
 BIOMETRICS AUTHENTICATION
 BIOMETRICS,BIOMETRIC OR BIOMETRY
 AUTHENTICATION Vs IDENTIFICATION
HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS
 FRANCIS GALTON – 1892.
 In 1968, Biometrics technique was implemented in New York bank.
 But after1990, IT comes in picture ,through Its advancement and simplicity Biometrics
Technique become very popular.
PHASE OF BIOMETRICS
1.INPUT
2.PROCESS
3.OUTPUT
BIOMETRICS IDENTIFICATION
1. VOICE PRINT
2. FINGER PRINT
3. IRIS PATTERN
4. FACE PRINT
5. HAND GEOMETRY
6. RETINAL SCAN
7. KEYSTROKE DYNAMICS
8. FACIAL RECOGNITION
9. SIGNATURE RECOGNITION
VOICE PRINT
 Voice print is recorded by microphones.
 Voice print is determined by many different factors: size of vocalcactivites (throat, oral, nasal) as well as the characteristic of the vocal chords themselves.
 Your voice is further modified by the way you speak the way your mouth, lips, teeth, jaw and tongue move. Therefore, the chance of two people have
FINGER PRINT
 Finger print is also called finger scanning.
 To scan the finger print, a special kind of scanner that can work with optical rays is used.
 it fetches the diagram of finger print & delivers it to the computer where a special programmer measures the distance between the special features & that print.
 Here, those special features are core, split, island, end &delta. Most fingerprint data takes up around 250kb
10-03-2011, 12:33 PM
Post: #21
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
Presented by:
G.PPANEETHA
A.SRUJANA
Y.KANTHI SRI


.doc  bio metrics (2).doc (Size: 1 MB / Downloads: 100)
ABSTRACT:
The information age is quickly revolutionizing the way transactions are completed which has led to the invention of many security items. Every day actions are increasingly being handled electronically, this growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Traditional means of security using personal identification numbers (PIN) through passwords or security-access cards (smart cards) has a major drawbacks as they recognize the PIN but not the person who has provided it.
Biometrics can use physical characteristics, like your face, fingerprints, irises or veins, or behavioral characteristics like your voice, handwriting or typing rhythm. Unlike keys and passwords, your personal traits are extremely difficult to lose or forget. They can also be very difficult to copy. For this reason, many people consider them to be safer and more secure than keys or passwords.
Biometric devices consist of a reader or
scanning device software that converts the scanned information into digital form, and, wherever the data is to be analyzed, a database that stores the biometric data for comparison with entered biometric data.
Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometrics is seen by many as a solution to a lot of the user identification and security problems in today’s networks. There are number of applications of biometrics. widely used in forensics such as criminal identification, prison security and in a large number of civilian applications. Biometrics can also help in the prevention of unauthorized access to ATMs ,cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks and it can be used during transactions conducted via telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking) to minimize risks Biometric authentication offers a highly secure , reliable and efficient solution.
So where security is highly required implementation of biometrics security is a very good solution as there is a fear of stealing /forgetting password.
1..Introduction:
Biometrics is the science and technology of authentication (i.e. establishing the identity of an individual) by measuring the person's physiological / behavioral features. The term is derived from the Greek words "bios" for life and "metron" for degree. Biometrics ensures that the individual trying to
log on is actually the authorized person and not just someone who maliciously found a card or cracked a password.
This technology gathers unique physiological and behavioral attributes of a person for storing in a database or comparing it with one already present. In the development of biometric identification systems, physical and behavioral features for recognition are required which must possess:
 •Uniqueness: that is, an identical trait shouldn't appear in two people:
 •Universality: occur in as many people as possible
 •Permanence: don't change over time
 •Measurability: measurable with simple technical instruments
 •User-friendliness: easy and comfortable to measure:
Thus, 2 categories of biometrics are present:
1) Physiological, called static biometrics: Biometrics based on data derived from the measurement of a part of person's anatomy. E.g.: fingerprints, iris patterns, facial features, hand geometry, retinal blood vessels.
2) Behavioral: Biometrics based on data derived from measurement of an action performed by a person and distinctly, incorporating time as a metric, i.e. the measured action. Eg:voice(speaker verification).
Biometric systems seems to be complicated, but they all use the same three steps:
• Enrollment: The first time you use a biometric system, it records basic information about you, like your name or an identification number. It then captures an image or recording of your specific trait.
• Storage: Contrary to what you may see in movies, most systems don't store the complete image or recording.
• Comparison: The next time you use the system, it compares the trait you present to the information on file. Then, it either accepts or rejects that you are who you claim to be.
Systems also use the same three components:
1) A sensor that detects the characteristics being used for identification
2) A computer that reads and stores the information
3) A Software that analyzes the characteristics, translates it into a graph or code and performs the actual comparisons
2.History:
Initially British scientist Sir Francis Galton proposed the use of fingerprints for identification purposes in the late 19th century. Later, British police official Sir Richard Edward Henry introduced fingerprinting in the 1890s as a means of identifying criminals. Automatic finger print based identification systems have been commercially available since the early 1960s. Until the 1990s these systems were used primarily by the police and in certain security applications Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) were one of the first methods used for identification.
3.THE POPULAR BIOMETRICS TECHNOLOGIES
1. Finger print recognition.
2. Face recognition.
3. Hand geometry.
4. Voice recognition.
5. Iris recognition.
6. Signature recognition.
3.1.FINGER-PRINT RECOGNITION:
Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method which has been successfully used in numerous applications. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints. A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the minute points. Minute points are local ridge characteristics that occur at either a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending
11-03-2011, 02:04 PM
Post: #22
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
presented by:
T.Sreedhar
M.Suresh


.doc  BioMetrics.doc (Size: 73.5 KB / Downloads: 78)
ABSTRACT:
In recent years there has been a wealth of information amassed in the area of biological sciences and this necessitated the development of altogether new area called “BIO METRICS”. Biometrics requires an unambiguous understanding of modern bio chemistry, micro biology, bio and electrical technology by use of state of art techniques and tools developed by and employed in computer science, information technology and mathematics
Biometrics are best defined as measurable physiological and / or behavioral characteristics that can be utilized to verify the identity of an individual. They are of interest in any area where it is important to verify the
INTRODUCTION
Biometrics is the technique of using unique, non-transferable, physical characteristics, such as fingerprints, to gain entry for personal identification. This replaces pin codes and passwords, which can be forgotten, lost or stolen. Biometric IDs cannot be transferred
true identity of an individual. Initially, these techniques were employed primarily in specialist high security applications, however we are now seeing their use and proposed use in a much broader range of public facing situations
WHAT IS BIOMETRICS
The security field uses three different types of authentication:
 something you know—a password, PIN, or piece of personal information (such as your mother's maiden name);
 something you have—a card key, smart card, or token (like a Secured card); and/or
 Something you are—a biometric.

Biometrics involve directly the human being for the identification or verification. Traditionally many security system employ the verification technique rather than the identification which is the main aim of biometrics. Although it doesn’t totally remove the pin/password but with that tool it provide a very tight security system.
17-03-2011, 04:59 PM
Post: #23
RE: Biometrics VERIFICATION Vs IDENTIFICATION
PRESENTED BY:
PRASANNA PASAM


.ppt  BIOMETRICS_ppt.ppt (Size: 711 KB / Downloads: 120)
BIOMETRICS VERIFICATION Vs IDENTIFICATION
INTRODUCTION :

 WHAT IS BIOMETRICS?
 NEED OF BIOMETRICS.
 RECOGNITION BASED ON THE AUTHENICITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF USER.
 VERIFICATION & IDENTIFICATION.
APPLICATIONS :
FINGERPRINT MATCHING :
• MINUTIAE-BASED.
• CORRELATION-BASED.
FIGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION :
• CLASSIED INTO FIVE TYPES :

WHORL,RIGHT LOOP,LEFT LOOP,ARCH,AND TENTED ARCH
 FINGERPRINT IMAGE ENHANCEMENT :
• THIS ALGORITH IMPROVES THE QUALITY OF THE FINGERPRINT.
• EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ARE GIVEN BELOW :
CAPTURING HAND IMAGES AND EXTRACTING FEATURES :
• THE IMAGE ACQUISTION SYSTEM IS HOOKED TO A P.C WITH A GUI APPLICATION,PROVIDES TOP & SIDE VIEWS.
18-03-2011, 09:10 AM
Post: #24
RE: Biometrics (IRIS RECOGNITION AN EMERGING BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY)

.doc  Biometrics in Network Security.doc (Size: 305 KB / Downloads: 67)
Abstract:
In today’s information technology world, security for systems is becoming more and more important. One area where security can be improved is in authentication. Biometric, provides one of the most secure methods of authentication and identification Biometric identification utilizes physiological and behavioural characteristics to authenticate a person’s identity, which are both unique and measurable.
Some common physical characteristics that may be used for identification include fingerprints, palm prints, hand geometry, retinal patterns and iris patterns. Behavioural characteristics include signature, voice pattern and keystroke dynamics. Among all these techniques we have chosen iris recognition because, that no two irises are alike, even in twins, thus making them a good biometric.
In this paper, we deduced the most important, efficient and accurate method of authentification and verification using Iris Recognition Technology. In addition to these we have also discussed the advantages of Iris Recognition Technology including its applications.
INTRODUCTION
Iris recognition, a biometric, provides one of the most secure methods of authentication and identification thanks to the unique characteristics of the iris. An Iris Recognition system works by capturing and storing the biometric information and then comparing the scanned biometric with what is stored in the repository. Once the image of the iris has been captured using a standard camera, the authentication process, involving comparing the current subject’s iris with the stored version, is one of the most accurate with very low false acceptance and rejection rates. This makes the technology very useful in areas such as information security, physical access security, ATMs and airport security.
The technology is accurate, easy to use, non-intrusive, and difficult to forge. Iris recognition technology does provide a good method of authentication to replace the current methods of passwords, token cards or Pin’s and if used in conjunction with something the user knows in a two-factor authentication system then the authentication becomes even stronger.
KNOWLEDGE OF IRIS:
The iris is the plainly visible, colored ring that surrounds the pupil. It is a muscular structure that controls the amount of light entering the eye, with intricate details that can be measured, such as striations, pits and furrows. The iris is not to be confused with the retina, which lines the inside of the back of the eye. The amount of information that can be measured in a single iris is much greater than fingerprints, and accuracy is greater than DNA
IRIS RECOGNITION PROCESS:
The process of Iris Recognition is made up of three steps:
 Capturing the image
 Defining the location of the iris and optimizing the image
 Storing and comparing the image.
1. CAPTURING THE IMAGE
The image of the iris can be captured using a standard camera using both visible and infrared light and may be either a manual or automated procedure. The camera can be positioned between three and a half inches and one meter to capture the image. In the manual procedure, the user needs to adjust the camera to get the iris in focus and needs to be within six to twelve inches of the camera.
This process is much more manually intensive and requires proper user training to be successful. The automatic procedure uses a set of cameras that locate the face and iris automatically thus making this process much more user friendly.
2. DEFINING THE LOCATION OF THE IRIS AND OPTIMIZING THE IMAGE
2.1 LOCATION OF IRIS

Once the camera has located the eye, the iris recognition system then identifies the image that has the best focus and clarity of the iris. The image is then analyzed to identify the outer boundary of the iris where it meets the white sclera of the eye, the pupillary boundary and the centre of the pupil. This results in the precise location of the circular iris.
18-03-2011, 10:02 AM
Post: #25
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
sir plz send me the link to download :

Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

to alien.earth26[at]gmail.com
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