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22-02-2009, 12:30 AM
Post: #1
Tongue Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

What is Biometrics?

Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioural characteristic. The word biometrics means Biological Measurements. Therefore in this way we can use computers to recognize persons.

Physiological characteristics means Fingerprints, Retinal and Iris Patterns, Hand and Finger Geometry, Facial recognition etc.

Behavioural characteristics means Voice Patterns, Signature etc.

There are different biometric solutions. Some of them are Finger Print Recognition, Iris Pattern recognition, Facial Recognition, Voice Pattern Recognition, Hand and Finger Geometry etc. In all these biometric solutions the details about the physiological/behavioural characteristics are entered into a database. When the user uses the sytem the characteristics required for the system are scanned and a template is formed. It is checked whether there exists a match for this template with any of the records already stored in the database. If a match is found, the user is allowed access. Otherwise the user is denied access.

Each biometric solution can be used in two different modes.

In Identification mode, where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match.
In Verification mode, where the biometric system authenticates a person's claimed identity from his/her previously enrolled pattern.

Applications of Biometrics.
Improving airport security.
Strenghthening our national borders in travel documents, visas, passports etc.
In peventing ID theft.

e-banking, e-commerce and other financial transactions.
Law enforcement.
Health and Social Services.
In Network security infrastructures, etc.
In Enterprise and Government networks.
Biometrics based authentication applications include workstation, network and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and web security etc.
Advantages of using biometrics in various applications.
Only the biometric authentication is based on an intrinsic part of a human being. So unlike a password or PIN or Smart Card, it can't be forgotten, misplaced, lost or stolen. We are having our identification with ourselves and therefore there is no need to carry any card or remember passwords for our identification.
A biometric template is unique for an individual for whom it is created.
Biometrics ensures that the person trying to access your network and applications is actually a sanctioned user, and not in a posession of a stolen smartcard or someone who found, hacked or cracked password.
Disadvantages of using biometric solutions.
It is not only the intial cost that of the sensor or the matching hardware that is involved. Often the life cycle support cost can overtake the intial cost of the hardware.
Most of the biometric systems like firnger print recognition, iris recognition etc. are accurate. But someothers like facial recognition etc. are not that accurate.

Accuracy of a biometric system include
False Acceptance Rate “ Percentage of impostors accepted.
False Rejection Rate “ Percentage of authorised users rejected.
Equal-Error Rates “ When the decision threshhold is adjusted so that the false-acceptance rate equal the false-rejection rate.
An important point to be noted in constructing a biometric system is that it should be based upon a distiguishable triat. For eg: Law enforcement has used finger prints to identify people. There is a great deal of scientific data supporting the idea that no fingerprints are alike.
All biometric systems capture data from individuals. Once these date have been captured by the system, they can be forwarded to any location and put to many different uses which are capable of compromising on an individual's privacy.
A good biometric system is one that is of low cost, fast, accurate, and easy to use.

Download Full Report And Abstract

Biometrics is an advanced technology for superb security and authentication .The very term "biometric it represent that "bio" means related to the biological study and "metric " means something, which is related to measurement. In network environment security is a crucial factor. Provide security to pages in the network is to difficulty. Password is not a good measurement for security. Good security mechanism is necessary on the Internet. Security in different levels applies to various documents. Security is depends how security assign to documents. Security depends on following categories.

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16-07-2009, 09:08 PM
Post: #2
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
thanks brother...
13-02-2010, 04:04 PM
Post: #3
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.doc  BIOMETRICS.doc (Size: 338.5 KB / Downloads: 925)

networks. It can be used during transactions conducted via telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking). In automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with key-less entry devices
Biometrics technology allows determination and verification of one's identity through physical characteristics. To put it simply, it turns your body into your password. These characteristics can include face recognition, voice recognition, finger/hand print scan, iris scans and even retina scans. Biometric systems have sensors that pick up a physical characteristic, convert it into a digital pattern and compare it to stored patterns for identification.
A person's identity can be resolved in two ways: identification and verification. The former involves identifying a person from all biometric measurements collected in a database and this involves a one-to-many match also referred to as a 'cold search". "Do I know who you are" Is the inherent question this process seeks to answer. Verification involves authenticating a person's claimed identity from his or her previously enrolled pattern and this involves a one-to-one match. The .question it seeks to answer is, "Are you claim to be"
Verification requires comparing a person's fingerprint to one that pass previously recorded in the system database. The person claiming an identity provided a fingerprint, typically by placing a finger on an optical scanner. The computer locates the previous fingerprint by looking up the person's identity. This process is relatively easy because the computer needs to compare two-fingerprint record (although most systems use two fingerprints from each person to provide a safety factor). The verification process is referred as a 'closed search' because the search field is limited. The second question is "who is this person" This is the identification function, which is used to prevent duplicate application or enrollment. In this Case a newly supplied fingerprint is supplied to all others in the database. A match indicates that the person has already enrolled/applied.
(Dept. of Computer Science atuf<Engg. 3
SNqCE, %adayiruppu
The identification process, also known as an 'open search', is much more technically demanding. It involves many more comparisons and may require differentiating among several database fingerprints that are similar to the objects.
(Dept. of Computer Science and Engg. 4 SNgCE, "Kadayiruppu
A biometric system is a combined hardware/software system for biometric identification or verification. Therefore the system should be able to:
¢ Receive biometric samples from an enrollee or candidate.
¢ Extract biometric featured from the sample.
¢ Compare the sample of the candidate with stored templates from individuals.
¢ Indicate identification or verification upon the result of the previous comparison.
Biometric devices have three primary components:
¢ One is an automated mechanism that scans and captures a digital of analog image of a living personal characteristic.
¢ The second handles compression of the image with the stored data.
¢ The third interfaces with application systems
These pieces may be configured to suit different situations. A common issue is where the stored images reside: on a card presented by the person being verified or at host computer. Recognition occurs when an individual's is matched with one of a group of stored images.
Biometric accuracy is the system's ability of separating legitimate matches from imposters. There are two important performance-characteristics for biometric systems
(Dept. of Computer Science and^Engg. 5
SNgCE, 'Kadayiruppu
False rejection is the situation when a biometric system is not able to verify the legitimate claimed identity of an enrolled person.
¢ False acceptance is a situation when a
4. biometric system wrongly verifies the identity by
comparing biometric features from .not identical individuals.
¢ False Rejection Rate (FRR) refers to the statistical probability that the biometric system is not able to verify the legitimate claimed identity of an enrolled person, or fails to identify an enrolled person.
* False Acceptance Rate (FAR) refers to the statistical probability of False Acceptance or incorrect verification.
In the most common context, both False Rejection and False
Acceptance represent a security hazard. I
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 6 S5VgC% Kadayiruppu
Static Biometric methods
It ' is also called physiological method. It involves authentication based on a feature that is always present. Examples of Static methods are:
¢ Fingerprint Identification.
¢ Retinal scan.
¢ Iris scan.
¢ Hand geometry.
Dynamic Biometric Methods
It is also called behavioral method. It involves authentication based on a certain behavior pattern. Examples of Dynamic Methods are:
¢ Signature recognition. ® Speaker recognition.
¢ Keystroke dynamics
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 7 SNCjCE, %adayiruppu
Major components of a biometric system are:
o Data collection,
o Signal processing,
o Matching,
o Decision,
o Storage,
o Transmission.
=> Data collection subsystem
It is also called data acquisition system. It comprises of input device or sensor that reads the biometric information from the user. It then converts biometric information into a suitable form for processing by the remainder of the biometric system. Examples of data collection subsystems are video camera, fingerprint scanner, microphone, etc. Various requirements for data collection involves the following
" Sampled biometric characteristic must be similar to the user's enrolled template.
¦ The users may require training.
<Deft. of Computer Science aruffcngg. 8
SNQCE, 'Kfldayiruppu
¦ Adaptation of the user's template or reenrollment may be necessary to accommodate changes in physiological characteristics.
« Sensors must be similar, so that biometric features are measured consistently at other sensors.
Various changes that can happen in the biometric system are the following:
¦ The biometric feature may change.
¦ The presentation of the biometric feature at the sensor may change.
¦ The performance of the sensor itself may change.
¦ The surrounding environmental conditions may change.
=> Signal processing subsystem
This subsystem is used mainly for feature extraction. It receives the biometric data from the data collection subsystem and transforms the data into the form required by the matching subsystem. It is in this subsystem the discriminating features are extracted from the raw biometric data and also filtering may be applied to remove noise.
=> Matchingsubsystem
The matching subsystem plays the key role in the biometrics system. It receives processed biometric data from signal processing subsystem and biometric template from the storage subsystem. It then measures the similarity of the claimant's sample with the reference template. The result is a number known as match score.
=> Decision subsystem
The decision subsystem interprets the match score from the matching subsystem. A threshold is defined. If the score is above the threshold,
(Dept. of Computer Science and <Engg. 9
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
the user is authenticated. If it is below, the user is rejected. Typically a binary decision yes or no may require more than one submitted samples to reach a decision. The subsystem may reject a legitimate claimant or accept an imposter.
=> Storage subsystem
The storage subsystem maintains the templates for enrolled users. There will be one or more templates for each user. The templates may be stored in physically protected storage within the biometric device or conventional database or portable tokens such as a smartcard.
=> Transmission subsystem
Subsystems are logically separate units. Some subsystems may be physically integrated. Usually, there are separate physical entities in a biometric system. The biometric data has to be transmitted between the different physical entities as the biometric data is vulnerable during transmission.
=> Enrolment
Enrolment involves data collection and feature extraction. It is the process through which the user's identity is bound with biometric template data. Biometric template is stored in a database or an appropriate portable token. There may be several iterations of this process to refine biometric template.
=> Security 6f enrolment
Requirements for enrolment:
¦ Secure enrolment procedure.
¦ Binding of the biometric template to the enrollee.
¦ Check of template quality and matchability.
(Dept. of Computer Science and%ngg. 10 SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
¦ A genuine individual is accepted.
¢ A genuine individual is rejected (error).
¢ An impostor is rejected.
¢ An impostor is accepted (error).
There are mainly two types of errors. They are:
¢ Type I: system fails to recognize valid user ('false non-match' or 'false rejection')
¢ Type II: system accepts impostor ('false match' or 'false acceptance')
'Dept. of Computer Science and <Engg. 11
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
There are several components to a system that uses fingerprints to identify or verify the identity of an Individual. Figure 1 illustrates the most common basic model for use of fingerprints In government-based identification applications, incorporating the five functions performed by information systems to manage and utilize fingerprint flies, An Individual submits fingerprint samples either through a live scan or card scan system. The fingerprint images are processed into digital data files, These files are transmitted to a centralized database, where they are compared to a stored database of Images also processed into digital data files. In order to explain the finger print identification system, the finger print identification system used for border security is explained below.
Figure 1: Fingerprint processing model.
There are several methods to capture fingerprint images, and the choice has typically been determined by the specific requirements of the application and the constraints of a particular environment. In government applications, where collection of a fingerprint sample is sometimes a step in the legal process, the priority is collecting as much
(Dept. of Computer Science anfQZngg. 12 SNQCE, %pJdyiruppu
data from the fingers as possible, and processing time is rarely a factor. This is why the FBI takes full ten print, rolled fingerprints, despite the longer time it takes to collect these prints. Such a large sample also increases accuracy, as each individual fingerprint increases the amount of data collected.
Alternatively, where the INS is required to process large volumes of individuals quickly, they have traditionally placed a greater priority on speed of process. This is why in the past the INS has collected impressions of only two index fingers.
For either application, storage of biometric images in WSQ format is crucial to preserving the interoperability of the biometric system. This is important in ensuring the usability of the fingerprints by new systems and techniques as they are developed in the future. The extractions of features and patterns from a fingerprint image rely on proprietary methods, making true interoperability between different systems difficult. Capturing and storing a high quality image ensures that any system or technology can make use of all images in a database perpetually.
Two ways to capture fingerprints are live scan and card scan. A live scan approach involves the use of optical scanners designed specifically for capture of fingerprints. They are used by placing and/or rolling the fingers onto'a glass platen. Scanning technology below the platen creates an image of the finger(s), and the image is processed using software residing on an associated PC or local computer network.
A card scan approach involves the use of consumer-grade scanners designed for document and photograph scanning. These can be used by first impressing fingers onto a card, using ink or inkless paper, and then placing the card in the scanner. The scanner then takes the image of the
(Dept. of Computer Science and (Engg. 13 SWQCE, Kjidayiruppu
card, and software residing on an associated PC or local computer network processes the image. For state and federal system usage, the FBI maintains a rigorous image quality testing and certification program that every live scan and card scan system must pass before a particular make and model can be used.
6.2 PROCESS: Minutiae Extraction
(Dept. of Computet Science and'Eru^. 14 SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
Minutiae extraction is the process of converting an image of a fingerprint to a set of data points that can be subsequently compared numerically to other data sets. These data "points of interest" are called minutiae, and are comprised of two primary features of fingerprints: ridge endings and ridge bifurcations. (See Figure 2)
Minutiae files are smaller than image files and are ideal for storage at the point of application, but are not typically interoperable between equipment from different vendors. To ensure future usability of the biometric, the image must be stored. It remains to be seen whether a standardized minutiae template model will be widely adopted.
In a typical system, type, location, and angle are recorded for each point of interest. Proposed standards specify that a Cartesian coordinate system is used to represent the location of a minutia, in units of pixels. Image resolution is also required. Also specified by the proposal, the origin of the coordinate system is located in the upper left, with values increasing in value to the right and downward.
An important area of work for standards groups such as INCITS M1 and ISO JTC 1 SC37 is to standardize the definition of minutiae locations and angles. Only then will biometric data extracted by different equipment be effectively compared and matched.
Matching of fingerprints lies at the heart of a fingerprint system. It is the process by which mathematical algorithms are used to compare a data set of minutiae of a single fingerprint to another or several others. These matching algorithms typically generate a match "score", and then compare this score to a threshold that is associated with some level of confidence that the two prints belong to the same finger.
6.4 STORING (compressing)
WSQ (wavelet scalar quantization) is the fingerprint image compression algorithm that is the standard for the exchange of fingerprint images across government biometric systems, as defined in the ANSI/NIST Data Format For The Interchange Of Fingerprint, Facial, and Scar/Mark/Tattoo
(Dept. of Computer Science and (Engg. 15 SNgCE, %adayiruppu.
Information published in 1993 and updated in 2000. WSQ is specified as required by the FBI's EFTS (Electronic fingerprint Transmission Specification). WSQ is designed to allow the interchange of fingerprint and other identification information between law enforcement agencies in the USA and the FBI centralized integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS). The IAFIS started accepting ten print records that comply with this standard from law enforcement agencies in July of 1S9S and from civilian agencies shortly thereafter.
(Dept. of Computer Science andQZngg. 16
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
¢ Optical sensors.
¢ Ultrasound sensors.
¢ Chip-based sensors.
¢ Thermal sensors.
¢ For identification - AFIS systems.
¢ For verification.
Optical fingerprint sensor [Fingerprint Identification UnitFIU-001/500 by Sony]
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg.
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
Capacitive Sensor
Thermal Sensor
Figure 4: Fingerprint recognition: Integrated system
Japanese Handset
Travel Mate 740 by Compaq and Acer
(Dept. of Computer Science and (Engg. 18
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
7.3 "VERIFINGER"-A software example
Neurotechnoiogija, Ltd. has developed fast, compact and reliable fingerprint identification engine VeriFinger, intended for system integrators who need powerful fingerprint identification algorithm for their biometric security systems, VeriFinger is available as a software development kit (SDK) for MS Windows 9x, 2000 and NT (current version 3.3) and Linux (current version 3.1). It can be easily integrated into a customer's security system. VeriFinger fingerprint recognition engine, integrated with the data management system, is used in our other product, person identification system Finger Point.
VeriFinger SDK includes the followings components:
s VeriFinger dynamic link library (DLL file) for Windows 9 x/2000/NT
or library files for Linux. # C source code of the example program using the library provided
j Visual Basic source code of the example program using the library provided functions (not available in Linux version).
s Delphi* source code of the exampre program using the library provided functions (not available in Linux version).
s Software description.
Access tools (DLLs) for Compaq and LLare.U fingerprint scanners and source code of the sample programs, where VeriFinger 3.3 engine is used with these scanners, are optionally available.
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 19
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
VeriFingertest results and technical specifications:
VeriFinger was tested with 2400 fingerprints, captured with four different scanners. Each fingerprint was compared with all other fingerprints (5,760,000 comparisons). The average test results as well as other specifications are presented below:
False rejection rate < 3 %
False acceptance rate < 0.001 %
Required fingerprint resolution > 250 dpi
Fingerprint processing time 0.35 second
Matching speed 5000* fingerprints/second
Size of one record in the database About 150 Bytes
Maximum database size Unlimited
Program occupied array size 250 kb
<Dept of Computer Science and<Engg. 20
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
There are many concerning potential biometric applications, some popular examples being;
Most of the leading banks have been experimenting with biometrics of ATM machines use arid as general means of combining card fraud. Surprisingly, these experiments have rarely consisted of carefully integrated devices into a common process, as could be achieved with certain biometric devices. Previous comments in this paper concerning user psychology come to mind here one wonder why we have not seen a more professional and carefully considered implementation from this sector. The banks will of course have a view concerning the level of fraud and cost of combating it via technology solutions such as biometrics. They will also express concern about potentially alienating customers with such as approach. However, it still surprises many in the biometric industry that the banks and financial institutions have so far failed to embrace this technology with any enthusiasm,
For a long time this was an area often discussed but rarely implemented until recent developments aw the unit price of biometric devices fall dramatically as well as several designs aimed squarely at this application. In addition, with household names such as Sony, Compaq, KeyTronics, Samsung and others entering the market, these devices appear almost as a standard computer peripheral. Many are viewing this as the application, which will provide critical mass for biometric industry and create the transition between sci-fi device to regular systems component, thus raising public awareness and lowering resistance to the use of biometrics in general.
(Dept. of Computer Science and<Engg. 21
SNgCE, Kadayiruppu
There are many in this industry that have the vision of a multi application * card for travelers which, incorporating a biometric, would enable them to participate in various frequent flyer and border controls systems as well as paying for their air ticket, hotel rooms, hire care etc, all with one
i convenient token. Technically this is eminently possible, but from a political and commercial point of view there are many issues to resolve, not the least being who would own the card, are responsible for administration and so on. These may not be insurmountable problems and perhaps we may see something along these lines emerge. A notable challenge in this respect would be packaging such an initiative in a way
\ that would be truly attractive for users.
Many immediately think of on line transactions as being an obvious area for biometrics, although there are some significant issues to consider in this context, Assuming device oost could be brought down to level whereby a biometric (and perhaps chip card) reader could be easily incorporated into a standard build PC, we still have the problem of authenticated enrollment and template management, although there are several approaches one could take to that. Of course, if your credit ; already incorporated a biometric this would simplify things considerably. It is interesting to note that certain device manufactures have collaborated with key encryption providers to provide an enhancement to their existing services. Perhaps we shall see some interesting developments in this area in the near future.
No doubt many telesales and call center managers have pondered the use of biometrics. It is an attractive possibility to consider, especially for
(Dept. of Computer Science andQZnQQ. 22
SNgCE, 'Kadayiruppu
Seminar Report 2005-2006
automated processes. However, voice verification is a difficult area of biometrics, especially if one does not have direct control over the transducers, as indeed you wouldn't when dealing with the general public. The variability of telephone handsets coupled to the variability of line quality and the variability of user environments presents a significant challenge to voice verification technology, and that is before you even consider the variability in understanding among users.
The technology can work well in controlled closed loop conditions but is extraordinarily difficult to implement on anything approaching a large scale. Designing in the necessary error correction and fallback procedures to automated systems in a user-friendly manner is also not a job for the faint hearted.
Perhaps we shall see further developments, which will largely overcome these problems. Certainly there is a commercial incentive to do so and I have no doubt that much research is under way in this respect.
A biometric incorporated into a multi purpose public ID cards would be useful in a number of scenarios if one could win public support for such a scheme. Unfortunately, in this country as in others there are huge numbers of individuals who definitely do not want to be identified. This ensures that any such proposal would quickly become a political hot potato and a nightmare for the minister concerned. You may consider this a shame-or a good thing, depending on your point of view. From a dispassionate technology perspective it represents something of a lost opportunity, but this is of course nothing new. It's interesting that certain local authorities in the UK have issued 'citizen' cards with which named cardholders can receive various benefits including discounts
(Dept. of Computer Science and%ngg. 23
SN<jCE, Kadayiruppu
at local stores and on certain services. These do not seem to have seriously challenged, even though they are in effect an ID card.
<Dept. ofComputer Science and^Engg. 24
S$fgC% %adayiruppu
The ultimate form of electronic verification of a person's identity is biometrics, using a physical attribute of the person to make a positive identification. People have always used the brain's innate ability to recognize a familiar face and it has long been known that a person's fingerprints can be used for identification. The challenge has been to turn these Into electronic processes that are inexpensive and easy to use.
Banks and others who have tested biometric-based security on their clientele, however, say consumers overwhelmingly have a pragmatic response to the technology. Anything that saves the information-overloaded citizen from having to remember another password or personal identification number comes as a welcome respite.
Biometrics can address most of the security needs, but at what cost Surprisingly, the benefits quickly outweigh the costs. Like so many technological developments, innovative people have found new ways to implement biometric systems, so prices have come down dramatically ;n the last year or two. As prices have come down, the interest level and the knowledge about how to effectively utilize these systems have increased. So the investment is decreasing and the recognizable benefits are increasing. Biometrics, when properly implemented, not only increase security but also often are easier to use and fess costly to administer than the less secure alternatives. Biometrics can't be forgotten or left at home and they don't have to be changed periodically like passwords.
Devt. of Computer Science JTZSEIZJ.
SXgC% Kf&zyimppu
Chapter Contents Page No.
1. Introduction. 1-2
2. Identification and Verification Systems. 3-4
3. Biometric Systems and Devices. 5-6
4, Biometric Methods. 7
5. Biometric System Architecture. 8-11
6. Fingerprint Technology, 12-16
7. Fingerprint Recognition: Overview. 17-20
8. *
Future Applications. 21-24
9. Conclusion. 25
10. References. 26
(Dept. of Computer Science and<EngQ.
S!N~gCE, XacCayiruppu
22-04-2010, 05:44 PM
Post: #4
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.pdf  ATM access control using fingerprint scanning.pdf (Size: 120.74 KB / Downloads: 485)

.pdf  atm finger-print.pdf (Size: 78.85 KB / Downloads: 352) Abstract
Biometrics uses a persons biological characters to identify him such as fingerprint scanning, retinal scanning , DNA fingerprinting etc.Biometrics equipped Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) to provide a number of social services including identity verification and disbursement of social security, unemployment, welfare and pension benefits to a la rge segment of the population.
Biometric Access Control System
The goal of this project is to design and assemble a biometric access control system that uses fingerprint scanning and recognition to authenticate the user. Upon successful authentication, the user will be allowed to access the safe. On the
other hand, if the access is denied, it will be reported to the center administrative console for audit purposes. The fingerprint scanning device utilizes serial communication. This device will be connected to our microprocessor using the UART ports. The system will consist of an Atmel Atmega32 microprocessor, LCD display, fingerprint sensor, electronic door strike, and MCU to USB PC interfacing. Software will be written for the PC that allows the owner to register and delete fingerprints and monitor door entry. LCDâ„¢s and LEDâ„¢s will be used to display whether or not access was granted or denied.
The biggest challenge that will be faced is figuring out how to interface the Atmega32 with a PC via USB and writing software that allows the owner to manage fingerprint access. If time permits a cell module will be used to alert the owner of a possible break-in attempt.
The full project report with detailed drawings download(pdf):

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The source code is also available for download.

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23-04-2010, 09:10 PM
Post: #5
RE: Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)

.doc  Biometrics Project.doc (Size: 259.5 KB / Downloads: 371)


Presented By:
A. Sumithra
Biometrics is the development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences. It is a new method of verifying authenticity. Biometrics uses biological traits or behavioral characteristics to identify an individual. A Biometrics system is actually a pattern recognition system that utilizes various patterns like iris patterns, retina patterns and biological traits like fingerprints, facial geometry, voice recognition and hand recognition etc. What makes Biometrics really attractive is the fact that the various security codes like the passwords and the PIN can be interchanged between people but the physiological traits canâ„¢t be.
The current applications of Biometric authentication are Entry control, ATMs and Government programs. The most obvious use of biometrics for network security is for secure workstation logons for a workstation connected to a network. The main use of Biometric network security will be to replace the current password system. The most popular biometric authentication scheme employed for the last few years has been Iris Recognition. Many companies are adding biometric authentication features to their products for e.g. Key ware Technologies LBV (Layered biometrics verification) Internet toolkit provides high-level security to e-commerce applications. This toolkit finds use in the area of Internet Banking.
There are various pros and cons to Biometrics that ought to be considered .The advantages mainly are the high levels of security it provides when compared to conventional methods, the uniqueness of biometric attributes makes them an ideal candidate authenticating users, problems associated with passwords can be avoided and that a Biometric characteristic canâ„¢t be stolen as opposed to passwords etc. The various disadvantages are the low acceptance rate, high costs associated with Biometric authentication due to the integration into the current network and the acquisition of the hardware and the software, the danger of an individualâ„¢s biometric data can be exploited and there are instances especially in voice recognition where the individual is restricted access due to a change in Biometric characteristics due to a cold etc. So, all these disadvantages have to be worked upon to ensure that this brilliant technology be incorporated into all the security systems to ensure safer transactions and restricted access to them to prevent any kind of breach of security.
Biometrics is derived from the conjunction of the Greek words bios and metrics that mean life and to measure respectively. Biometrics has been put to use in computer and network security settings. It is defined as the development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences. Biometrics is an accurate method of authentication that uses the physiological and biological traits of a person to verify and establish their identity. It has its roots in the ancient methods of authentication and finds use in many areas like Internet Banking, e-commerce and network security settings etc.
There were various methods of authentication used earlier .The Chinese were the first to use Biometrics in the form of a fingerprinting method. This was later followed by a method called Bertillonage that sought to identify people on the basis of certain characteristics like the length of their fingers and the size of their skull. Later on Scotland Yard detectives then began using the method of Fingerprinting analysis, which was initially put into practice by the Chinese.
Pros and Cons of these methods:
These methods used in the past had various flaws in them like:
There could be two people with the same measurements and having the same kind of measurements would be convicted and this was gruesome. So, the development of sophisticated methods was necessary for identifying the real culprits.
So emerged the technology of Biometrics!!!!
Emergence of Biometrics:
Biometrics has found its application in many areas like Network authentication, Internet Banking, Entry Control and Government programs.
Biometrics works by taking into consideration certain parameters that are unique to each person like their facial geometry, iris recognition, hand geometry, voice recognition and fingerprinting analysis etc. The main advantage of using these physiological traits is that though other kinds of authentication like passwords and tokes can be presented by anybody, physiological traits canâ„¢t be replicated and thus form the main reason why these Biometrics systems are used.
Biometrics: How??
Biometrics is basically a pattern recognition system that utilizes the uniqueness of certain physiological patterns like iris patterns, voice recognition patterns, facial geometry, hand geometry and fingerprint patterns etc.
Each method has its own pros and cons and is used depending on the level of security desired and the various areas where they have to be implemented.
The Biometrics system works on the following principle:
First, it checks whether we are who we claim we are i.e. It sets off to verify our identity
Second, it tries to find out who we are, i.e. It sets off to establish an identity
Thus, Biometrics goes far from the traditional systems and thus helps in tightening Internet security to create safer workplaces and thus increasing the confidence of many like the bankers who are involved in e-commerce.
Avenues where Biometrics is used:
1. In Network security and authentication
2. Computer networks
3. Cellular phone industry
4. In Automatic Teller Machines
5. Internet Banking
Biometrics in Network authentication:
Network security relies on one of three approaches for identification - what you have, what you know or who you are.
The previous forms of authentication are:
1. Personal Identification Numbers (PINs),
2. Physical tokens e.g. Smart cards.
What lead to the use of Biometrics in Network authentication?
1. Passwords can be forgotten.
2. Tokens can be lost.
3. Passwords can be reused
4. These can be presented by anybody who is not genuine.
That is when the uniqueness of a physiological trait was established and Biometrics was put to use.
How Biometrics is implemented in Network security:
It is used to secure workstation logons for a workstation that is connected to the network.
This requires the setting up of the appropriate software required to enable authentication and the related hardware that would vary depending on the kind of Biometric trait being used. It helped in reducing the necessity to remember passwords etc that were frequently lost and thus overburdened the IT helpdesk with work.
Biometrics in computer networks:
Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on this unique biological trait.
This kind of security gives people immense confidence and relief in areas like e-commerce etc .The network can be exploited fully without a security breach.
Biometrics tighten the security in the areas of banking intelligence and secure Banking data and credit card numbers, medical information and other personal information.
Biometrics in the cellular phone industry:
The cellular phone industry faces the problem of cloning these days where new phones are created using a stolen number and a new subscription fraud takes place where a phone is obtained by claiming a false identity.
Biometrics exploits the unique biological trait like fingerprints or hand geometry and thus the people committing the fraud could be identified and convicted.
Biometrics in banking:
It is used to secure transactions in Automatic Teller Machines (ATMâ„¢s) thus no loner requiring the person to present the ATM card.
These Biometric traits can be used even during a sale to verify the authenticity of the individual.
Biometrics finds important application in the areas of internet banking and telephone banking and is widely used because the physiological traits can never be interchanged between two people even though other means of authentication like passwords etc can.
The latest in Biometric authentication:
There are many companies that are incorporating Biometric features into their products.
A few of them are Novell, Baltimore technologies and even Microsoft.
Key ware has come up with a unique system that integrates many Biometric features into one i.e. many biological traits are used for the authentication of the individual. This LBV software integrates many Biometric features and is compatible with the Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.01 and higher and with Microsoft's Information Server.
It has been said that layered security levels provide high security in areas where high “ value transactions etc take place especially when it comes to banking and these high levels of security are needed to protect highly precious data in order to prevent it from getting exploited.
How the LBV works:
The LBV software finds an important application in the field of Internet banking where a bank would require the authentication of an individual during high value transactions and that is when key ware LBV software comes into the picture. During these high value transactions, the bank would ask the person to speak a pass phrase and give his fingerprints that would be scanned by the Key ware LBV server that would help in establishing the authenticity of the individual. This way, the security during high value transactions is tightened using Biometric techniques.
Biometrics: The pros and cons:
Each system has its own advantages and disadvantages and Biometrics is not an exception to this rule. It has its own pros and cons. It is when these disadvantages are completely corrected then Biometrics can be exploited completely and be accepted by one and all.
1. Biometric attributes are unique and these canâ„¢t be faked or interchanged so, this uniqueness imparts a high level security to these systems. Using an inherent trait of the individual ensures that the person is who he claims to be he is.
2. There is no need for remembering passwords, PINâ„¢s etc and this convenience gives an edge to Biometrics. Thus, biometric logins ensure that the person who has logged on is not assuming a fake identity.
3. Though someone elseâ„¢s user ID and password can be stolen, his unique biological attributes canâ„¢t be and this gives an extra boost to this new technique.
4. This reduces the problems of the IT helpdesk at many workstations because passwords can be done without and these are the ones that overburden the helpdesk with work.
1. Biometric systems are very expensive because, not only the costs for the acqusition of the software and hardware costly but the integration of these in the networks are even more costly. These high costs are coupled with the fact that the returns arenâ„¢t highly encouraging. So, people are not ready to pool in so much money to utilize the latest technology that is available in the market.
2. It is an all or none technology, i.e. we set up biometric authentication features etc but if we permit the person for a remote login then there is no use incorporating this technology in the network.
3. Like every new technology, Biometrics has a low user acceptance rate.
4. People consider it to be an invasion of their privacy and thus, it hasnâ„¢t been exploited to its full potential. They donâ„¢t realize the fact that a Biometric system does not copy their fingerprints or any other attributes but goes for a mathematical representation of these attributes that are unique to each person.
5. Even though full secrecy is maintained regarding these attributes, even if they get leaked out once, they can be used in exploiting various other areas, like to get credit card and medical information, in banking security systems etc. Even though different biometric systems are highly incompatible with each other, their exploitation may ruin the life of the person who trusted this technology.
6. Sometimes, a genuine person maybe restricted access to the network and this is very commonly seen in voice recognition patterns where something as small as cold could have the personâ„¢s access rejected.
7. Like all systems, even a Biometric system is not foolproof and has its own flaws and can sometimes allow a person who has assumed a fake identity into the network.
8. Biometric template data consume more space than the conventional user ID/password combinations.
Different kinds of Biometric systems and their pros and cons:
There are a variety of Biometric systems available in the market and each one of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used Biometric systems are:
1. Fingerprint readers.
2. Hand scans.
3. Voice authentication system.
4. Retina Scans
5. Iris scans
6. Facial scans
FINGERPRINT READERS: These use a unique biological trait i.e. a fingerprint in this case to verify the authenticity of the individual. These have been used in novel methods like incorporating them in the mouse so that the person doesnâ„¢t feel uncomfortable with the idea of having to give his fingerprints.
Finger Scanner Certified Finger Print
Advantages and Disadvantages:
It has found low acceptability rate because people associate fingerprinting with criminal activity and the incorporation of a Biometric system inside each mouse is painstakingly expensive. People are uncomfortable with the fact that their fingerprints are with the company and if they come out, their lives may be put in jeopardy due to the exploitation of other Biometric systems that use their fingerprints etc.
An advantage of this method is that the storage space required for this biometric template is not much compared to other ones.
HAND SCANS: These use another biometric trait like hand geometry or other hand patterns that are unique to each individual.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
This method has the advantage that it has low data storage requirements for each template.
It also suffers from a major setback i.e., these are not unique to each individual and thus, there are times when an intrusion may take place, so, the safety factor is quite low in this case.
VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS: This system goes in for the voice analysis of the person to be authenticated. This method has many flaws compared to the other methods.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
The advantage of this method is that it has high acceptability rate compared to the other systems.
It is also cheap to install voice recognition software but, if one wants to go for highly sophisticated software, acquisition and installation costs are really high.
There are a number of disadvantages to this system.
1. Even a genuine person maybe prevented from entering because of simple issues like cold etc that change his voice
2. It also doesnâ„¢t work properly if there is any kind of background noise.
3. It also requires a lot of template space between 2000 and 10000 gigabytes.
4. For remote access phone lines may not be able to transmit the voice clearly and thus his/her entry may be restricted.
So, this method has more number of flaws compared to advantages.
RETINA SCANS: These scan the retina to authenticate the identity of a person. This method has many advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
The main advantage of this method is that it has high accuracy in identifying users and templates also require less storage space.
It also suffers from a major drawback and that is it has extremely low acceptance rate because the users find it really intrusive and this coupled with the fact that they are really costly has caused less number of people opting for this system.
IRIS SCANS: Eye recognition is the best method to identify a particular individual and these days, the iris is being scanned from up to twelve inches away and this has stopped the complaints of people that they were intrusive. This is by far, the best method of authentication. There are numerous advantages to this method.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
1. It has high accuracy in identifying users.
2. The iris can be scanned from up to twelve inches away.
3. It has low data storage requirements for template.
FACIAL SCANS: This kind of a biometric system utilizes the uniqueness of a personâ„¢s facial geometry.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
It has the advantage that it is extremely non-intrusive in nature.
It suffers from many drawbacks.
1. The data acquisition is very difficult because the user has to place his head in the same manner each time he has to verify his authenticity and this many not be possible.
2. The background lighting is very important for proper authentication of the person.
3. Users feel very uncomfortable using this system and consider it to be a violation of their privacy.
Thus, the various Biometric systems available in the market have been examined.
Biometrics can achieve its purpose only if the proper biometric is installed in the network depending on the amount of security needed. Depending on the type of network and how tight the security should be, the different type of Biometric to be used may be identified.
Just like every other technology, Biometrics will take some time to be incorporated into networks all over but first, the flaws that it has got ought to be corrected so as to make this technology useful and available to all. The massive disadvantages like pricing, lower acceptance rate etc should be corrected and this would lead to more use of this system to impart high-level security to the network. If all these things are worked upon, then Biometrics could be exploited completely. It will take some time for it to catch up with the customers but as they say. EVERY GOOD THING HAS A LONG GESTATION PERIOD. We only have to wait and watch!!!

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