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02-02-2010, 09:58 PM
Post: #1
bionic eyes for the blind full report

.doc  Bionic Eyes - Hope for the blind.doc (Size: 130 KB / Downloads: 1388)

Paper Presentation On Bionic Eyes - Hope for the blind!
Abstract
Technology has done wonders for the mankind. We have seen prosthetics that helped overcome handicaps. Bio medical engineers play a vital role in shaping the course of these prosthetics. Now it is the turn of Artificial Vision through Bionic Eyes.
Chips-designed specifically to imitate the characteristics of the damaged retina, and the cones and rods of the organ of sight are implanted with a microsurgery.
Whether it be Bio medical, Computer, Electrical, or Mechanical Engineers “ all of them have a role to play in the personification of Bionic Eyes. This multidisciplinary nature of the ˜new technology™ has inspired me to present this paper.
There is hope for the blind in the form of Bionic Eyes. This technology can add life to their vision less eyes!

Presented by
-K. Harish Kumar, M. Santosh Kumar, T.Sanjeev Kumar


Introduction:

There is no lovelier way to
thank God for your sight
Than by giving a helping hand
To those in dark.
There is no replacement for human sight. It is simply incomparable because of its capacity to see. Our life is full of pictures we daily see. Life without sight is dark. And blind people lead dark lives. As capable human beings, we need to do something more than just helping a blind person cross the road.
Belonging to the community of engineers “ there is no frontier that we cannot conquer. If scientists give birth to ideas, then it is we engineers who put life into those ideas. Today, we have every tool in our hand. The ball is in our court! It is our turn now, to return what mankind has given us. What about bestowing sight for the blind? There is no magic wand to do this in a jiffy. But yes! We certainly know the magic route to reach our goal: Science and Technology.
Today, we talk of artificial intelligence that has created waves of interest in the field of robotics. When this has been possible, why not artificial vision? It is with this dream that I present this paper on Bionic Eyes. Sooner or later, this shall create a revolution in the field of medicine.
It is important to know few facts about the organ of sight i.e, the Eye before we proceed towards the technicalities involved.
How are we able to see?
Having seen the anatomical part of human eye, lets try to know as to how we are able to see “ how is an image being formed?
For vision to occur, 2 conditions need to be met:
1.An image must be formed on the retina to stimulate its receptors (rods and cones).
2.Resulting nerve impulses must be conducted to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex for interpretation.
Four processes focus light rays, so that they form a clear image on the retina
1.refraction of light rays
2.accommodation of the lens
3.constriction of the pupil
4.convergence of the eyes
How is vision impaired?
Damage or degeneration of the optic nerve, the brain, or any part of the visual pathway between them, can impair vision. For example, the pressure associated with glaucoma can also damage the optic nerve. Diabetes, already cited as a cause of retina damage, can also cause degeneration of the optic nerve.
Damage to the visual pathway does not always result in total loss of sight. Depending on where the damage occurs, only a part of the visual field may be affected. For example, a certain form of neuritis (nerve inflammation), often associated with multiple sclerosis, can cause loss of only the center of the visual field “ a condition called scotoma.
A stroke can cause vision impairment when the resulting tissue damage occurs in one of the regions of the brain that process visual information. For example, damage to an area that process information about colors may result in a rare condition called acquired cortical color blindness. This condition is characterized by difficulty in distinguishing any color “ not just one or two colors as in the more common inherited forms of color blindness.
A more common treatment for curing blindness has been corneal transplantation. More about it:
Corneal Transplants:
Surgical removal of opaque or deteriorating corneas and replacement with donor transplants is a common medical practice. Corneal tissue is avascular; that is, the cornea is free of blood vessels. Therefore corneal tissue is seldom rejected by the bodyâ„¢s immune system. Antibodies carried in the blood have no way to reach the transplanted tissue, and therefore long-term success following implant surgery is excellent.
What are Bionic Eyes?
An artificial eye provokes visual sensations in the brain by directly stimulating different parts of the optic nerve.
There are also other experimental implants that can stimulate the ganglia cells on the retina or the visual cortex of the brain itself. There is more concentration given to the production of artificial retinas.
Here is the description of a Bionic Eye:
Many types of artificial eyes have been designed and research is still going on . There is no standard model in this case. Researchers are working out different types of concepts. Here are a few examples:
The prototype devices are 2 millimeters across and contain some 3,500 micro photodiodes. Placed behind the retina, this collection of miniature solar cells is designed to convert natural light to electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain by the remaining healthy parts of the retina.

A Belgian device has a coil that wraps around the optic nerve, with only four points of electrical contact. By shifting the phase and varying the strength of the signals, the coil can stimulate different parts of the optic nerve, rather like the way the electron guns in TVs are aimed at different parts of the screen. The video signals come from an external camera and are transmitted to the implant via a radio antenna and microchip beneath the skin just behind the ear.
Implants of a microchip, smaller than the head of a pin and about half the thickness of a sheet of paper were used to remove blindness.
Engineering details of the Bionic Eye:
First, for visually impaired people to derive the greatest benefit from an enhanced-vision system, the image must be adapted to their particular blind areas and areas of poor acuity or contrast sensitivity. Then the information arriving instantaneously at the eye must be shifted around those areas. The thrust of all prosthetic vision devices is to use an electrode array to give the user perceptions of points of light (phosphenes) that are correlated with the outside world. Thus, to achieve the expected shift of the image across the stimulating electrode array, the camera capturing the image must follow the wearer's eye or pupil movements by monitoring the front of the eye under infrared (IR) illumination. The eye-position monitor controls the image camera's orientation. If the main image-acquisition camera is not mounted on the head, compensation for head movement will be needed, as well.
Finally, if a retinal prosthesis is to receive power and signal input from outside the eye via an IR beam entering the pupil, the transmitter must be aligned with the intraocular chip. The beam has two roles: it sends power, and it is pulse- or amplitude-modulated to transmit image data. Under the control of eye movement, the main imaging camera for each eye can swivel in any direction. Each of these cameras--located just outside the users' field of view to avoid blocking whatever peripheral vision they might have--captures the image of the outside world and transmits the information through an optical fiber to a signal-processing computer worn on the body.
The surgery!
This concept of Artificial Vision is also interesting to engineers, because there are a number of technicalities involved in this surgery apart from the anatomical part.
The microsurgery starts with three incisions smaller than the diameter of a needle in the white part of the eye. Through the incisions, surgeons introduce a vacuuming device that removes the gel in the middle of the eye and replaces it with saline solution. Surgeons then make a pinpoint opening in the retina to inject fluid in order to lift a portion of the retina from the back of the eye, creating a pocket to accommodate the chip. The retina is resealed over the chip, and doctors inject air into the middle of the eye to force the retina back over the device and close the incisions.
During the entire surgery, a biomedical engineer takes part actively to ensure that there is no problem with the chip to be implanted.
Some facts about Bionic Eyes:
Scientists at the Space Vaccum Epitaxy Centre (SVEC) based at the University of Houston, Texas, are using a new material, comprising tiny ceramic photocells that could detect incoming light and repair malfunctioning human eyes. Scientists at SVEC are conducting preliminary tests on the biocompatibility of this ceramic detector.
The artificial retinas constructed at SVEC consist of 100,000 tiny ceramic detectors, each 1/20th the size of a human hair. The assemblage is so small that surgeons canâ„¢t safely handle it. So, the arrays are attached to a polymer film one millimeter in size. After insertion into an eyeball, the polymer film will simply dissolve leaving only the array behind after a couple of weeks.
The Analogy:
There is a great degree of coherence between the way our eyes function to that of a camera. Perhaps “ our eyes had been the inspiration behind the camera™s invention. Here™s more about it:
From the structural point of view the eye may be compared with a camera. The eyelids act as a shutter and there is an entrance window for light “ the cornea; a diaphragm to regulate the aperture and therefore the amount of light entering “ the iris; a lens to focus the image; a darkened interior formed by the choroid, and a light “sensitive plate which receives the image “ the retina.
Brain Implants:
There is one more concept similar to Bionic Eyes that is also making waves in the medical field and that is the use of Brain Implants to remove blindness.
In recent years, progress is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind. In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the visual cortex at the backside of the head.
If we try to do a fair and objective comparison between auditory display technology and brain implant technology it should first be stressed that result of any comparisons can of course change over time as the respective technologies are further developed and refined.
The Challenges:
There are many very many obstacles to be overcome before Bionic Eyes become a success story.
Our eyes are perhaps the most sensitive of all organs in the human body. A nano-sized irritant
can create havoc in the eye.
¢ There are 120 million rods and 6 million cones in the retina of every
healthy human eye. Creating an artificial replacement for these is no
easy task.
¢ Si based photo detectors have been tried in earlier attempts. But Si
is toxic to the human body and reacts unfavorably with fluids in the eye.
¢ There are many doubts as to how the brain will react to foreign signals
generated by artificial light sensors.
¢ Infection and negative reaction are the always-feared factors. It is
imperative that all precautionary measures need to be ascertained.
Conclusion:
Restoration of sight for the blind is no more a dream today. Bionic Eyes have made this true.
Though there are a number of challenges to be faced before this technology reaches the
common man, the path has been laid. This paper has tried to present the concept of
Artificial Vision through a engineers viewpoint. Engineers play a major role in the design
stage of Bionic Eyes.
It is just a matter of 4-5 years, that the blind will be able to see through these Bionic Eyes;
thanks to Science and Technology.
References:
1. Neural Implants “ First Bionic Eyes by Victor Chase.
2. Hitting the Nerve (from the New Scientist).
3. Doctors Test Chips in Eyeballs to Restore Sight from azcentral.com
4. http://www.dobelle.com
5. Anthonyâ„¢s textbook of Anatomy and Physiology - Gary A Thibodeau, Kevin T Patton
6. Science Reporter (December 2004)
04-02-2010, 09:35 AM
Post: #2
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.ppt  Bionics-Help-for-the-disabled.ppt (Size: 507 KB / Downloads: 677)

.ppt  Bionics.ppt (Size: 2.16 MB / Downloads: 831)
16-03-2010, 07:06 PM
Post: #3
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
please read http://www.seminarprojectsThread-bionics-full-report for more about bionic eyes for the blind

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
26-08-2010, 08:01 PM
Post: #4
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
hello i want full report on bionic eyes..!plz send
17-02-2011, 03:55 PM
Post: #5
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.pptx  ppt eye.pptx (Size: 1.06 MB / Downloads: 257)
BIONIC EYE
A Look into Current Research and Future Prospects
WHAT’S BIONIC EYE ?

 Bio-electronic eye
 Electronic device which replaces functionality of a part or whole of the eye.
 Used for replacing functionality (or)
 Adding functionality to the eye.
Causes of Blindness:
Damage to:

 Clear Structures in the eye, that allow the light to pass through
 The nerves within the eye
 Optic Nerve
 Brain
Why we should be optimistic?
The Success of :
 Cardiac pacemakers as neural prosthesis
 Cochlear implants to restore hearing to the deaf.
Rapid developments in :
 VLSI design
 Micro- fabrication technology
MIT-Harvard device:
Features

 Epi-Retinal Approach
 Microelectrode array replaces damaged photoreceptors
 Power source – Laser(820nm wavelength)
 Image Acquisition - Using CCD Camera
 Patient spectacle holds the camera and power source
Implant Structure:
 Layers
1- Photodiode Array
2- Polyimide strip
3- Stimulator chip
 Electrodes on other end of Polyimide strip
The Eye:
 Human Eye is similar to a camera
 Macula provides the highest resolution of the image which we see.
 Macula is comprised of multiple layers of cells which process the initial “analog "light energy entering the eye into “digital”
electrochemical impulses.
 Human eye has nearly 100 million photoreceptors.
Fundamental idea behind ASR
 ASR is a solid state biocompatible chip which contains an array of photo receptors ,and is implanted to replace the functionality of the defective photoreceptors .
 Current generated by the device in response to light stimulation will alter the membrane potential of the overlying neurons and thereby activate the visual system.
 Visual sensations or “phosphenes” can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the different levels of the visual pathway.
 Phosphenes are evoked by the stimulation of the eyeball or the visual cortex.
 Artificial vision created by the controlled electric stimulation of the retina has color.
Post Implant function and Inference:
 Measurement procedure:
 IR stimulation at 940nm on the ASR chip
 Recorded at the corneal surface using contact lens electrode
 Comparison of responses of gold, platinum and iridium electrodes
 Iridium based device has a longer persistence
 Stability of these electrodes
18-03-2011, 02:24 PM
Post: #6
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
Amalant Alfias.A
Abirami.T


.doc  electronic eye.doc (Size: 110.5 KB / Downloads: 112)
AN ELECTRONIC EYE FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED
Abstract: This paper proposes a method for detecting frontal pedestrian crossings from image data obtained with a single camera as a travel aid for the visually challenged. The process of detecting a crossing is a pre-process followed by the process for detecting the state of the traffic lights. It is important for the visually challenged to know whether or not a frontal area is a crossing. The existence of a crossing is detected in two steps. In the first step, edge detection and pattern detection are employed to identify the crossing. In the second step, the existence of a crossing is detected by checking the periodicity of white lines on the road using projective invariants.
I) INTRODUCTION
Blindness is the most feared of all human ailments. Crossing busy roads can be a challenge for people with good vision. For blind people, it is a perilous activity. Our electronic eye aims at helping millions of blind and visually impaired people lead more independent lives.
The electronic eye can be adapted to help the blind or visually impaired get around without a walking stick or seeing-eye dog. Canes and other travel aids with sonar or lasers can alert the user to approaching objects. Global Positioning Systems can tell what streets, restaurants, parks and other landmarks the user is passing. Devices like these are very good at giving locations and directions. But the limitations of G.P.S. technology mean that they cannot pin down the location of a curb or crosswalk and frequently fail in areas that have many tall buildings and high traffic. None of these devices are able to specifically identify a crosswalk, nor do they have the potential for figuring out the state of the traffic signals.
An effective navigation system would improve the mobility of millions of blind people all over the world. Our new “eye” will allow blind people to cross busy roads in total safety for the first time. Our “electronic eye”, which would be mounted on a pair of glasses, will be capable of detecting the existence and location of a pedestrian crossing, and at the same time measure the width of the road to the nearest step and detect the color of the traffic lights.
II) AN OVERVIEW OF OUR ELECTRONIC EYE
We have developed a system that is able to detect the existence of a pedestrian crossing in front of a blind person using a single camera. By measuring the width of the road and the color of traffic lights, this single camera can now give the blind all the information they need to cross a road in safety. The camera would be mounted at eye level, and be connected to a tiny computer. It will relay information using a voice speech system and give vocal commands and information through a small speaker placed near the ear.
III) FUNCTIONING OF THE SYSTEM
1) Tells the user whether any cross road is present
2) Tells the user whether the traffic signal is favorable or not
3) Tells the user the time taken to cross the road.
The style of crosswalks commonly used in India are known as zebra crossings and they feature a series of thick white bands that run in the same direction as the vehicle traffic.
To detect the presence of a zebra crossing we use the “projective invariant” which takes the distance between the white lines and a set of linear points on the edges of the white lines. This gives an accurate way of detecting whether crossing is present in a given image or not.
The length of a pedestrian crossing is measured by projective geometry. The camera makes an image of the white lines painted on the road, and then the actual distances are determined using the properties of geometric shapes as seen in the image.
The traffic light detector checks images for symmetrical shapes and compares them to a list of road signs. If the pedestrian light is ON, the voice speech system instructs the user to cross the road.
The timer unit calculates the average time required by the visually challenged person to cross the road and ‘tells’ it to the user via the voice speech system.
High-level scene interpretation applied to the processed images will produce a symbolic description of the scene. The symbolic description is then converted into verbal instructions appropriate to the needs of the user by using voice speech software
IV) IMAGE ANALYSER
The image analyzer contains the bitmap image, which has to be processed to detect the presence of a zebra crossing. Given an X-bit per pixel image, slicing the image at different planes (bit-planes) plays an important role in image processing.
Edge detection :
One way to detect edges or variations within a region of an image is by using the gradient operator. There are several well-known gradient filters. In this experiment we use the Sobel gradients, which are obtained by convolving the image with two kernels, one for each direction.
Crossroad pattern detection:
The zebra crossing has alternate white bands running across the width of the road. This pattern has to be recognized to confirm the presence of a crossing. To detect basic shapes within the image, we make use of the Hough transform. At its simplest the Hough transform can be used to detect straight lines from edges detected in an earlier processing step.
If the pixels detected fall on a straight line then they can be expressed by the equation:
Y=mx+c
The basis of the Hough transform is to translate the points in (x, y) space into (m,c) space using the equation:
c=(-x)m+y
Thus each point in (x,y) space (i.e. the image) represents a line in (m,c) space. Where three or more of these lines intersect a value can be found for the gradient (m) and intercept © of the line that connects the (x,y) space points.
Calculation of the width of the road and time required to cross it:
Calculation of the width of the road is based on the concept of projection invariants. This requires us to define the term Cross Ratio.
18-03-2011, 02:43 PM
Post: #7
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.doc  Bionic eye.doc (Size: 132 KB / Downloads: 109)
Bionic Eyes - Hope for the blind!
Abstract

Technology has done wonders for the mankind. We have seen prosthetics that helped overcome handicaps. Bio medical engineers play a vital role in shaping the course of these prosthetics. Now it is the turn of Artificial Vision through Bionic Eyes.
Chips-designed specifically to imitate the characteristics of the damaged retina, and the cones and rods of the organ of sight are implanted with a microsurgery.
Whether it be Bio medical, Computer, Electrical, or Mechanical Engineers – all of them have a role to play in the personification of Bionic Eyes. This multidisciplinary nature of the ‘new technology’ has inspired me to present this paper.
There is hope for the blind in the form of Bionic Eyes. This technology can add life to their vision less eyes!
Introduction:
“There is no lovelier way to
thank God for your sight
Than by giving a helping hand
To those in dark.”
There is no replacement for human sight. It is simply incomparable because of its capacity to see. Our life is full of pictures we daily see. Life without sight is dark. And blind people lead dark lives. As capable human beings, we need to do something more than just helping a blind person cross the road.
Belonging to the community of engineers – there is no frontier that we cannot conquer. If scientists give birth to ideas, then it is we engineers who put life into those ideas. Today, we have every tool in our hand. The ball is in our court! It is our turn now, to return what mankind has given us. What about bestowing sight for the blind? There is no magic wand to do this in a jiffy. But yes! We certainly know the magic route to reach our goal: Science and Technology.
Today, we talk of artificial intelligence that has created waves of interest in the field of robotics. When this has been possible, why not artificial vision? It is with this dream that I present this paper on Bionic Eyes. Sooner or later, this shall create a revolution in the field of medicine.
It is important to know few facts about the organ of sight i.e, the Eye before we proceed towards the technicalities involved.
How are we able to see?
Having seen the anatomical part of human eye, lets try to know as to how we are able to see – how is an image being formed?
For vision to occur, 2 conditions need to be met:
1.An image must be formed on the retina to stimulate its receptors (rods and cones).
2.Resulting nerve impulses must be conducted to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex for interpretation.
Four processes focus light rays, so that they form a clear image on the retina
1.refraction of light rays
2.accommodation of the lens
3.constriction of the pupil
4.convergence of the eyes
How is vision impaired?
Damage or degeneration of the optic nerve, the brain, or any part of the visual pathway between them, can impair vision. For example, the pressure associated with glaucoma can also damage the optic nerve. Diabetes, already cited as a cause of retina damage, can also cause degeneration of the optic nerve.
Damage to the visual pathway does not always result in total loss of sight. Depending on where the damage occurs, only a part of the visual field may be affected. For example, a certain form of neuritis (nerve inflammation), often associated with multiple sclerosis, can cause loss of only the center of the visual field – a condition called scotoma.
A stroke can cause vision impairment when the resulting tissue damage occurs in one of the regions of the brain that process visual information. For example, damage to an area that process information about colors may result in a rare condition called acquired cortical color blindness. This condition is characterized by difficulty in distinguishing any color – not just one or two colors as in the more common inherited forms of color blindness.
A more common treatment for curing blindness has been corneal transplantation. More about it:
Corneal Transplants:
Surgical removal of opaque or deteriorating corneas and replacement with donor transplants is a common medical practice. Corneal tissue is avascular; that is, the cornea is free of blood vessels. Therefore corneal tissue is seldom rejected by the body’s immune system. Antibodies carried in the blood have no way to reach the transplanted tissue, and therefore long-term success following implant surgery is excellent.
What are Bionic Eyes?
An artificial eye provokes visual sensations in the brain by directly stimulating different parts of the optic nerve.
There are also other experimental implants that can stimulate the ganglia cells on the retina or the visual cortex of the brain itself. There is more concentration given to the production of artificial retinas.
Here is the description of a Bionic Eye:
Many types of artificial eyes have been designed and research is still going on . There is no standard model in this case. Researchers are working out different types of concepts. Here are a few examples:
The prototype devices are 2 millimeters across and contain some 3,500 micro photodiodes. Placed behind the retina, this collection of miniature solar cells is designed to convert natural light to electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain by the remaining healthy parts of the retina.
A Belgian device has a coil that wraps around the optic nerve, with only four points of electrical contact. By shifting the phase and varying the strength of the signals, the coil can stimulate different parts of the optic nerve, rather like the way the electron guns in TVs are aimed at different parts of the screen. The video signals come from an external camera and are transmitted to the implant via a radio antenna and microchip beneath the skin just behind the ear.
Implants of a microchip, smaller than the head of a pin and about half the thickness of a sheet of paper were used to remove blindness.
Engineering details of the Bionic Eye:
First, for visually impaired people to derive the greatest benefit from an enhanced-vision system, the image must be adapted to their particular blind areas and areas of poor acuity or contrast sensitivity. Then the information arriving instantaneously at the eye must be shifted around those areas. The thrust of all prosthetic vision devices is to use an electrode array to give the user perceptions of points of light (phosphenes) that are correlated with the outside world. Thus, to achieve the expected shift of the image across the stimulating electrode array, the camera capturing the image must follow the wearer's eye or pupil movements by monitoring the front of the eye under infrared (IR) illumination. The eye-position monitor controls the image camera's orientation. If the main image-acquisition camera is not mounted on the head, compensation for head movement will be needed, as well.
Finally, if a retinal prosthesis is to receive power and signal input from outside the eye via an IR beam entering the pupil, the transmitter must be aligned with the intraocular chip. The beam has two roles: it sends power, and it is pulse- or amplitude-modulated to transmit image data. Under the control of eye movement, the main imaging camera for each eye can swivel in any direction. Each of these cameras--located just outside the users' field of view to avoid blocking whatever peripheral vision they might have--captures the image of the outside world and transmits the information through an optical fiber to a signal-processing computer worn on the body.
The surgery!
This concept of Artificial Vision is also interesting to engineers, because there are a number of technicalities involved in this surgery apart from the anatomical part.
The microsurgery starts with three incisions smaller than the diameter of a needle in the white part of the eye. Through the incisions, surgeons introduce a vacuuming device that removes the gel in the middle of the eye and replaces it with saline solution. Surgeons then make a pinpoint opening in the retina to inject fluid in order to lift a portion of the retina from the back of the eye, creating a pocket to accommodate the chip. The retina is resealed over the chip, and doctors inject air into the middle of the eye to force the retina back over the device and close the incisions.
During the entire surgery, a biomedical engineer takes part actively to ensure that there is no problem with the chip to be implanted.
Some facts about Bionic Eyes:
Scientists at the Space Vaccum Epitaxy Centre (SVEC) based at the University of Houston, Texas, are using a new material, comprising tiny ceramic photocells that could detect incoming light and repair malfunctioning human eyes. Scientists at SVEC are conducting preliminary tests on the biocompatibility of this ceramic detector.
The artificial retinas constructed at SVEC consist of 100,000 tiny ceramic detectors, each 1/20th the size of a human hair. The assemblage is so small that surgeons can’t safely handle it. So, the arrays are attached to a polymer film one millimeter in size. After insertion into an eyeball, the polymer film will simply dissolve leaving only the array behind after a couple of weeks.
The Analogy:
There is a great degree of coherence between the way our eyes function to that of a camera. Perhaps – our eyes had been the inspiration behind the camera’s invention. Here’s more about it:
From the structural point of view the eye may be compared with a camera. The eyelids act as a shutter and there is an entrance window for light – the cornea; a diaphragm to regulate the aperture and therefore the amount of light entering – the iris; a lens to focus the image; a darkened interior formed by the choroid, and a light –sensitive plate which receives the image – the retina.
Brain Implants:
There is one more concept similar to Bionic Eyes that is also making waves in the medical field and that is the use of Brain Implants to remove blindness.
In recent years, progress is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind. In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the visual cortex at the backside of the head.
If we try to do a fair and objective comparison between auditory display technology and brain implant technology it should first be stressed that result of any comparisons can of course change over time as the respective technologies are further developed and refined.
The Challenges:
There are many very many obstacles to be overcome before Bionic Eyes become a success story.
Our eyes are perhaps the most sensitive of all organs in the human body. A nano-sized irritant
can create havoc in the eye.
• There are 120 million rods and 6 million cones in the retina of every
healthy human eye. Creating an artificial replacement for these is no
easy task.
• Si based photo detectors have been tried in earlier attempts. But Si
is toxic to the human body and reacts unfavorably with fluids in the eye.
• There are many doubts as to how the brain will react to foreign signals
generated by artificial light sensors.
• Infection and negative reaction are the always-feared factors. It is
imperative that all precautionary measures need to be ascertained.
06-04-2011, 04:59 PM
Post: #8
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
PRESENTED BY
G.NITHIYA DEVI
S.AUXILIA VINNARASI


.ppt  paper prsentation on electronic eye.ppt (Size: 225 KB / Downloads: 94)
INTRODUCTION
 Our electronic eye aims at helping millions of blind and visually impaired people lead more independent lives.
 An effective navigation system would improve the mobility of millions of blind people all over the world.
 Our new “eye” will allow blind people to cross busy roads in total safety for the first time.
TOP II TECH INVENTION OF 2010
THE ELECTRONIC EYE

 MIT researchers are developing a microchip that will enable a blind person to recognize faces and navigate a room without assistance. It helps the blind to regain partial eyesight.
 Users are required to wear special glasses fitted with a small camera that transmits images to the titanium- encased chip. It fires an electrode array under the retina that simulates the optic nerve.
The camera would be mounted at eye level, and be connected to a tiny computer. It will relay information using a voice speech system and give vocal commands and information through a small speaker placed near the ear
 1 – Tells the user whether any cross road is present
 2 - Tells the user whether the traffic signal is favorable or not
 3 – Tells the user the time taken to cross the road.
IMAGE ANALYSER
 The image analyzer contains the bitmap image, which has to be processed to detect the presence of a zebra crossing.
EDGE DETECTION
 There are 2 methods to detect edges:
1. Gradient
2. Laplacian
CROSSROAD PATTERN DETECTION
 To detect basic shapes within the images ,we use Hough transform .
 Hough transform can be used to detect straight lines from edges detected.
 In the first figure lines are constructed from collinear points & in the second figurea line is formed by joining the points L1,L2,L3,L4.
 Cross ratio of the original four points = the cross ratio of the constructed lines.
 To detect the presence of a zebra crossing we use the “projective invariant”
 The time required to cross the road is calculated based on an assumption that the user covers a distance of one foot in a minute on an average.
 So, the time required to cover the calculated distance is calculated based on a simple logic.
 Generally, the time taken, T, to cross the road can be found out by
TRAFFIC LIGHT DETECTOR
 The function of the traffic light detector is to recognize if the pedestrian light .
 If the user can cross the road safely, the voice speech system will instruct him to cross the road.
CURVATURE SCALE SPACE COMPUTATION AND MATCHING
 The CSS image is a multi-scale organization of the inflection points
 curvature is a local measure of how fast a planar contour is turning.
 Contour evolution is achieved by first parametrizing using arclength.
 The result is a set of 2 coordinate functions which are then convolved, with a Gaussian filter standard deviation.
 In CSS image ,the horizontal axis represents the arc length parameter
 vertical axis represents the standard deviation of the Gaussian filter.
 If an image of a pedestrian light in the image database finds a match with an image in the camera, the pedestrian can cross the road.
 The time in seconds required to cross the road is also detected based on the image of numbers in the database.
TIMING UNIT
 The timing unit compares the calculated value T, the time required by the user to cross the road with the time left to cross the road T1, as identified from the image (traffic signal time).
 If T < T1, the system instructs the user to cross the road. Else it asks to wait till it is safe to cross the road.
VOICE SPEECH SYSTEM
AUDITORY IMAGE REPRESENTATION

 The images captured by the camera t and the pixels in each column generate a particular sound pattern, consisting of a combination of frequencies
 The result is an auditory signature effectively an inverse spectrogram that characterizes the particular image.
 High-level scene interpretation applied to the processed images will produce a symbolic description of the scene.
 The symbolic description is then converted into verbal instructions appropriate to the needs of the user.
VOICE VISION
 The VOICE VISION technology for the totally blind offers the experience of live camera views through sophisticated image-to-sound renderings.
 The VOICE mapping: vertical positions of points in a visual sound are represented by pitch, while horizontal positions are represented by time-after-click.
 Brightness is represented by loudness. In this manner, pixels become... voicels
CONCLUSION
 The development of mobility aids for the visually impaired is a challenging task that has many potential solutions.
 Blind pedestrians in the greatest danger are those who must cross wide, busy roads.
 This system along with the available low technology aids can relieve the visually challenged of being dependent on others and lead normal lives.
 This effective navigation system would improve the mobility of millions of blind people all over the world.
11-04-2011, 03:33 PM
Post: #9
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
presented by:
MADAN T


.docx  bioniceye.docx (Size: 1.11 MB / Downloads: 89)
ABSTRACT
Technology has created manypathways for the mankind. Nowtechnology has been improved to thatextent in the entire human body can becontrolled using a single electronicchip. Previously prosthetics helped toovercome handicaps. Bio medicalengineers play a vital role in shapingthe course of this prosthetics. Nowtechnology is developed to introduce bionics for artificial vision.
The implant is based on a small chip that is surgically implanted behind the retina, at the back of the eye ball. An ultra-thin wire strengthens the damaged optic nerve; its purpose is to transmitlight and images to the brain’s vision system,where it is normally processed. Other than theimplanted chip and wire, most of the device sitsoutside the eye. The users would need to wearspecial eye glasses battery-powered camera and atransmitter, which would send images to the chipimplanted behind the retina. The new device isexpected to be quite durable, since the chip isenclosed in a Titanium casing, making it bothwater-proof and corrosion-proof. The researchesestimate that the device will last for at least10years inside the eye.
INTRODUCTION
There is no replacement for humansight. It is simply incomparablebecause of its capacity to see. Our lifeis full of pictures we daily see. Lifewithout sight is dark. The purpose of the report is to provide an accurate and detailed description of the Bionic eye(Optoelectronic Retinal Prosthesis System) and its function. The new technology uses an external camera worn on a pair of dark glasses that sends images to a radio receiver implanted near the eye that transmits the signal on to a tiny silicon and platinum chip that sits on the retina. This information then goes down the optic nerve into the brain.
THE HUMAN EYE
We are able to see because light from an object can move through space and reach our eyes. Once light reaches our eyes, signals are sent to our brain, and our brain deciphers the information in order to detect the appearance, location and movement of the objects we are sighting at. The whole process, as complex as it is, would notbe possible if it were not for the presence of light.Without light, there would be no sight.The human eye is the organ which gives us the sense of sight, allowing us to learn more about the surrounding world than any of the other five senses. The eyeball is set in a protective cone-shaped cavity in the skull called the orbit or socket and measures approximately one inch in diameter. The orbit is surrounded by layers of soft, fatty tissue which protect the eye and enable it to turn easily. The important part of an eye that is responsible for vision is retina.
Rods and Cones are the two light sensing cells present in the retina responsible for capturing light and resulting in vision. Rod cells pick up movement out of the corner of the eye and also, in a normal eye it is the rods that operate in poor light or at night. There are about 120 million rods in each eye and they are more numerous towards the outer edge of the retina The cone cells are used in colour vision and in close precision work like reading. There are not as manycones and they are more concentrated in the centre of the retina (the Macula).
For vision to occur, 2 conditions need to be met:
1. An image must be formed on the retina to stimulate its receptors (rods and cones).
2. Resulting nerve impulses must be conducted to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex for interpretation.
Disease of eye
• Retinitis pigmentosa
• Macular degeneration
Retinitis pigmentosa
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is the name given to agroup of hereditary diseases of the retina of the eye.RP may be caused by a breakdown in the functionof the rods or the cones in some part of the retina.The retina is so complex that breakdowns mayoccur in a variety of ways and so RP is not a singledisorder but a great number of disorders. Thebreakdown of cone function may be called MacularDegeneration.
Macular Degeneration
Macular is a sensitive area in the centre of the retinawhich provides us with sight in the centre of ourfield of vision. It allows us to see the fine detailswhen we look directly at something. In maculardegeneration, a layer beneath the retina, called theretinal pigment epithelium (RPE), gradually wearsout from its lifelong duties of disposing of retinalwaste products.A large proportion of macular degeneration casesare age- related.
Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) usually affects people over the age of 50 and there are two distinct types - "wet" AMD and "dry" AMD. "Wet" AMD results from the growth of new blood vessels in the choroid, causing an accumulation of fluid in the macula which leads to retinal damage. This type of degeneration can often be successfully arrested by laser surgery.
"Dry" AMD represents at least 80% of all AMD cases and results in atrophy of the Retina. Usually yellowish-white round spots called drusen first appear in a scattered pattern deep in the macula Later degeneration of both the Pigment Epithelium and the cones begins. While AMD is not inherited in a predictable way, heredity may be involved to some extent.
HOW IS VISION IMPAIRED?
Damage or degeneration of theoptic nerve, the brain, or any part ofthe visual pathway between them, canimpair vision. For example, thepressure associated with glaucoma canalso damage the optic nerve. Diabetes,already cited as a cause of retinadamage, can also cause degenerationof the optic nerve.Damage to the visual pathway does notalways result in total loss of sight.
Depending on where damage occurs,only a part of the visual field may beaffected. A stroke can cause visionimpairment when the resulting tissuedamage occurs in one of the regions ofthe brain that process visualinformation.
A more common treatment for curing blindness has been corneal transplantation
BIONIC EYE
Bionic eye is a type of neural prosthesis intended to partially restore lost vision or amplify the existing image.An artificial eye provokes visual sensations in the brain by directly stimulating different parts of the optic nerve. There are also other experimental implants that can
stimulate the ganglia cells on the retina or the visual cortex of the brain itself.
09-07-2011, 07:05 AM
Post: #10
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
please send me the full report of bionic eye
09-07-2011, 09:41 AM
Post: #11
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
we cant send report or ppt into specific user email id , but you can download "bionic eyes for the blind" full report and ppt from following pages
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-bionic-eyes-for-the-blind-full-report
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-bionic-eyes-for-the-blind-full-report?pid=50520#pid50520
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-bionic-eye-report
(see attached files along the post to download report and ppt)
13-07-2011, 06:29 AM
Post: #12
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
I NEED THE FULL REPORT OF BIONIC EYE. PLEASE HELP ME.
13-07-2011, 09:38 AM
Post: #13
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
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18-07-2011, 11:53 AM
Post: #14
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.ppt  BIONIC EYE Srujan.ppt (Size: 6.41 MB / Downloads: 160)
BIONIC EYE
Organization
Introduction
The Human Eye
The Retina
Causes of Blindness
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Bionic Eye: Two Approaches
MARC – Concept
MARC System
Image Acquisition System
RF Telemetry
Introduction
Bio-electronic Eye.
Replaces functionality for a part or the whole eye
Chips specifically designed to imitate retina characteristics
Hope for the blind
Huge revolution in the field of medicine
The Human Eye
Human Eye is similar to a camera
Macula provides the highest
resolution
Macula contains maximum cones.
Has nearly 100 million
photoreceptors.
The Retina
Causes of Blindness
Damage to the Retina:
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Damage to the Optic Nerve
Damage to the Brain
Bionic Eye restores vision lost due to retinal damage.
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Hereditary Genetic Disease
Peripheral rods degenerate
Gradually progresses towards center of the eye
Tunnel vision results
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Genetically Related
Cones in the macula region degenerate
Loss of central vision
Peripheral Retina spared
Common among old people
Macular Degeneration
Bionic Eye: Two Approaches
MARC – Concept
MARC System
Image Acquisition System
RF Telemetry
Data Recovery
Low frequency data obtained by low pass filtering
The first RF signal received sets pulse width, height & period
ASK demodulator obtains PWM scheme
Delay Locked Loop (DLL) deciphers PWM to obtain data
Image Formation
Important Aspects
Field of View:
More number of Ganglion cells stimulated, more is the field of view
Large electrodes and area becomes a trade-off
Changing Scene and Real-time vision:
The whole process must be extremely fast for real time vision
Any noticeable lag could stimulate the "vestibular-ocular reflex", making people feel dizzy and sick.

Artificial Silicon Retina
ASR mimics the neural circuitry of a real retina.
Chip contains light sensors and circuitry equivalent to nerves in a real retina.
Current generated in response to light stimulation
Visual sensations or “phosphenes” are evoked by electrical stimulation
Artificial vision created by the controlled electric stimulation of the retina has color
Retinal Implantation Approaches
Epiretinal Approach
ASR chip positioned on the surface
of the retina
Tries to simulate remaining
overlying cells
Subretinal Approach
ASR chip behind the retina
Tries to simulate remaining viable
cells
Epiretinal Approach
Site of Implant:
Implant Structure
Layers
Photodiode Array
Polyimide Strip
Stimulator Chip
Electrodes on end of
Polyimide Strip
Working of System
Laser source hits photodiode array & powers stimulator chip.
Stimulator chip drives current to electrodes facing retina.
This excites the ganglionic cells > axons > optic nerve > visual cortex in occipital lobe of brain.
Brain helps in perceiving image.
Subretinal Approach
Basic Idea – Alter the membrane potential
Single Micro Photodiode Array
No external power supply
Implants are comprised of a doped & ion-implanted silicon substrate disk
Images
Limitations of ASR
ASR is designed to interface & function with partially degenerated retina.
ASR can only be applied when photoreceptor cellular is damaged.
The remaining cellular layers need to be functioning.
Summary
Human Eye & Causes of Blindness
Two approaches used in Bionic Eye
MARC Approach
Artificial Silicon Retina
Epiretinal Approach in ASR
Subretinal Approach in ASR
19-07-2011, 11:50 AM
Post: #15
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
PRESENTED BY:
Y. Srujan Reddy


.ppt  BIONIC EYE Srujan.ppt (Size: 6.37 MB / Downloads: 125)
Organization
Introduction
The Human Eye
The Retina
Causes of Blindness
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Bionic Eye: Two Approaches
MARC – Concept
MARC System
Image Acquisition System
RF Telemetry
Organization
MARC – Concept
Data Recovery
Image Formation
Important Aspects
Artificial Silicon Retina
Retinal Implantation Approaches
Epiretinal Approach
Subretinal Approach
Limitations of ASR
Summary
References
Introduction
Bio-electronic Eye.
Replaces functionality for a part or the whole eye
Chips specifically designed to imitate retina characteristics
Hope for the blind
Huge revolution in the field of medicine
The Human Eye
Human Eye is similar to a camera
Macula provides the highest
resolution
Macula contains maximum cones.
Has nearly 100 million
photoreceptors.
The Retina
Causes of Blindness
Damage to the Retina:
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Damage to the Optic Nerve
Damage to the Brain
Bionic Eye restores vision lost due to retinal damage.
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Hereditary Genetic Disease
Peripheral rods degenerate
Gradually progresses towards center of the eye
Tunnel vision results
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Genetically Related
Cones in the macula region degenerate
Loss of central vision
Peripheral Retina spared
Common among old people
Macular Degeneration
Bionic Eye: Two Approaches
MARC – Concept
MARC System
Image Acquisition System
RF Telemetry
Data Recovery
Low frequency data obtained by low pass filtering
The first RF signal received sets pulse width, height & period
ASK demodulator obtains PWM scheme
Delay Locked Loop (DLL) deciphers PWM to obtain data
Image Formation
Important Aspects
Field of View:
More number of Ganglion cells stimulated, more is the field of view
Large electrodes and area becomes a trade-off
Changing Scene and Real-time vision:
The whole process must be extremely fast for real time vision
Any noticeable lag could stimulate the "vestibular-ocular reflex", making people feel dizzy and sick.

Artificial Silicon Retina
ASR mimics the neural circuitry of a real retina.
Chip contains light sensors and circuitry equivalent to nerves in a real retina.
Current generated in response to light stimulation
Visual sensations or “phosphenes” are evoked by electrical stimulation
Artificial vision created by the controlled electric stimulation of the retina has color
Retinal Implantation Approaches
Epiretinal Approach
ASR chip positioned on the surface
of the retina
Tries to simulate remaining
overlying cells
Subretinal Approach
ASR chip behind the retina
Tries to simulate remaining viable
cells
Epiretinal Approach
Site of Implant:
Implant Structure
Layers
Photodiode Array
Polyimide Strip
Stimulator Chip
Electrodes on end of
Polyimide Strip
Working of System
Laser source hits photodiode array & powers stimulator chip.
Stimulator chip drives current to electrodes facing retina.
This excites the ganglionic cells > axons > optic nerve > visual cortex in occipital lobe of brain.
Brain helps in perceiving image.
Subretinal Approach
Basic Idea – Alter the membrane potential
Single Micro Photodiode Array
No external power supply
Implants are comprised of a doped & ion-implanted silicon substrate disk
Images
Limitations of ASR
ASR is designed to interface & function with partially degenerated retina.
ASR can only be applied when photoreceptor cellular is damaged.
The remaining cellular layers need to be functioning.
Summary
Human Eye & Causes of Blindness
Two approaches used in Bionic Eye
MARC Approach
Artificial Silicon Retina
Epiretinal Approach in ASR
Subretinal Approach in ASR
27-07-2011, 09:43 AM
Post: #16
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.ppt  bio.ppt (Size: 2.96 MB / Downloads: 341)
BIONIC EYE
A Look into Current Research and Future Prospects
Blindness
Inability to see
Causes of Blindness
Damage to:
Clear Structures in the eye, that allow the light to pass through
The nerves within the eye
Optic Nerve
Brain
Bradley’s Research
Breakthrough in 1960
First electrical stimulation of Visual Cortex
Bright spots called phosphenes produced
Why we should be optimistic?
The Success of :
Cardiac pacemakers as neural prosthesis
Cochlear implants to restore hearing to the deaf
Rapid developments in :
VLSI design
Micro- fabrication technology
Overview
Biology of the Eye
MIT – Harvard Device
ASR – Artificial Silicon Retina
MARC – Multiple Unit Artificial Retina Chip Set System
BIONIC EYE ?
Bio-electronic eye
Electronic device which replaces functionality of a part or whole of the eye
Used for replacing functionality (or)
Adding functionality to the eye
Structure of the Eye
The Retina
The Eye with Retina
Diseases of the Eye
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Hereditary Genetic Disease
Peripheral Rods degenerate
Gradually progresses towards center of eye
Spares the foveal region
Tunnel vision results
Macular Degeration
Genetically Related
Cones in Macula region degenrate
Loss or damage of central vision
Peripheral Retina spared
Common among old people
Retinitis Pigmentosa ( Opthalmoscope View )
Macular Degeneration (Opthalmoscope View)
Regions of Implantation
Retina
Optic Nerve
Lateral geniculate body
Visual Cortex
MIT-Harvard device
Features
Epi-Retinal Approach
Microelectrode array replaces damaged photoreceptors
Power source – Laser(820nm wavelength)
Image Acquisition - Using CCD Camera
Patient spectacle holds the camera and power source
Site of Implant
Implant Structure
Layers
1- Photodiode Array
2- Polyimide strip
3- Stimulator chip
Electrodes on other end of Polyimide strip
Working of the System - 1
CCD camera input – External light intensity
CCD output amplitude-modulates laser source
This hits photodiode array of implant
This in turn powers stimulator chip (SC)
Working of the System - 2
SC drives current to electrodes facing retina
This excites the ganglionic cells > axons > optic nerve > visual cortex in occipital lobe of brain
Brain helps in perceiving an image
The Whole Picture
Advantages
Very Early in the visual pathway
No Batteries implanted within body
No complicated surgical procedure
Power Requirement – ¼ of milliwatt
Disadvantages
Axons b/w electrodes and ganglionic cells
Other axons get excited – unwanted perception of large blur
Extra circuitry required for downstream electrical input
Artificial Retina Prosthesis using ASR (Artificial Silicon Retina)
The Eye
Human Eye is similar to a camera
Macula provides the highest
resolution of the image which
we see.
Macula is comprised of multiple
layers of cells which process
the initial “analog”light energy
entering the eye into “digital”
electrochemical impulses.
Human eye has nearly
100 million photoreceptors
Need for ASR
Retinitis Pigmentosa(RP) and Age related Macular degeneration (ARMD)
are Progressive blinding disorders of the outer retina which involve degeneration of the neurons.
There are no proven effective therapeutic remedy for these disorders .
Some of Methods employed to slow or halt the disease time course are
Use of Intravitreal injection of certain growth factors.
Identification of specific gene mutations has led to the development of the gene therapy approaches.
Transplantation can be effective in rescuing the photoreceptors
from degeneration.
Need for ASR
The first two methods are promising for treating patients early in the course of the degenerative process, they are of relatively modest value for the patients in whom the photoreceptors have already degenerated.
Besides the Genetic and the Anatomic approach , there is an need to find an alternative approach.
Fundamental idea behind ASR
ASR is a solid state biocompatible chip which contains an array of photo receptors ,and is implanted to replace the functionality of the defective photoreceptors .
Current generated by the device in response to light stimulation will alter the membrane potential of the overlying neurons and thereby activate the visual system.
Visual sensations or “phosphenes” can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the different levels of the visual pathway.
Phosphenes are evoked by the stimulation of the eyeball or the visual cortex.
Artificial vision created by the controlled electric stimulation of the retina has color.
Approaches Towards Retinal Prosthetic Implantation
Epiretinal Approach involves a
semiconductor based device positioned
on the surface of the retina to try to simulate
the remaining overlying cells of the retina.
Subretinal Approach involves
implanting the ASR chip behind the
retina to simulate the remaining
viable cells.
Enhancement of the image quality using the ASR
Limitations Of ASR’s
ASR is designed to interface and function with the retina that has partial outer retinal degeneration.
ASR can be applied only when the photoreceptor cellular layer of the retina is damaged but the remaining cellular layers are still functional.
ASR can be effectively applied to RP and AMD.
Conditions amenable to treatment with ASR’s include some forms of long-term retinal detachment,Usher’s syndrome, Cone- Rod Dystrophy.
Sub-Retinal Approach
The basic idea-”Alter the membrane potential”
IMPLANT DESIGN
Primitive devices
Single photosensitive pixel(3mm in diameter)
Neo devices
The current micro photodiode array (MPA) is comprised of a regular array of individual photodiode subunits, each approximately 20×20-µm square and separated by 10-µm channel stops (37). The resulting micro photodiode density is approximately 1,100/m2.
IMPLANT features
The size has decreased from 250um to 50um
No external power supply
500nm to 1100nm wavelength response
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Implants are comprised of a doped and ion-implanted silicon substrate disk to produce a PiN (positive-intrinsic-negative) junction. Fabrication begins with a 7.6-cm diameter semiconductor grade N-type silicon wafer.
For the MPA device, a photomask is used to ion-implant shallow P+ doped wells into the front surface of the wafer, separated by channel stops in a pattern of individual micro photodiodes. An intrinsic layer automatically forms at the boundary between the P+-doped wells and the N-type substrate of the wafer.
Micro photodiodes
PROCESS (Contd.)

The back of the wafer is then ion-implanted to produce a N+ surface. Thereafter, an insulating layer of silicon nitrate is deposited on the front of the wafer, covering the entire surface except for the well openings.
A thin adhesion layer, of chromium or titanium, is then deposited over the P+ and N+ layers. A transparent electrode layer of gold, iridium/iridium oxide, or platinum, is deposited on the front well side, and on the back ground side.
In its simplest form, the photodiode and electrode layers are the same size. However, the current density available at each individual micro photodiode subunit can be increased by increasing the photodiode collector to electrode area ratio.
Post Implant function and Inference
Measurement procedure
IR stimulation at 940nm on the ASR chip
Recorded at the corneal surface using contact lens electrode
Comparison of responses of gold, platinum and iridium electrodes
Iridium based device has a longer persistence
Stability of these electrodes
ASR implanted into the eye
BIO-COMPATIBILTY results
The good news
There is no progressive change in retinal appearance that may be associated with retinal toxicity.
How do we know? ----”ERG and Ganzfeld stimulus has an answer”
The Bad news
Loss of photoreceptive layer over the region of implant which is expected due to deprival of oxygen and nutrients to those cells underlying the chip.
Conclusion
Its been 40 years since Arne Larsson received the first fully implanted cardiac pacemaker at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.
Researchers throughout the world have looked for ways to improve people's lives with artificial, bionic devices.
Bionic devices are being developed to do more than replace defective parts.
Researchers are also using them to fight illnesses.
Providing power to run bionic implants and making connections to the brain's control system pose the two great challenges for biomedical engineering.
We are now looking at devices like bionic arms, tongues, noses etc.
04-08-2011, 07:37 AM
Post: #17
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
I need the full report of bionic eye in word format. at-least 40 page required. please help me.
04-08-2011, 09:26 AM
Post: #18
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
To get more information about the topic "bionic eyes for the blind full report " please refer the link below

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25-08-2011, 10:48 AM
Post: #19
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.pptx  bionic eye.pptx (Size: 718.39 KB / Downloads: 51)
THE HUMAN EYE
We are able to see because light from an object can move through space and reach our eyes.
Once light reaches our eyes, brain orders to detect the appearance, location and movement of the objects we are sighting at.
Lens : is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Iris : is responsible for controlling the amount of light reaching the retina.
Pupil : is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to enter the retina.
Cornea : is the transparent front part of the eye that contributes on the focusing power.
Retina : is a light-sensitive tissue where image is obtained, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera.
Macula : is an oval-shaped yellow spot, responsible for central, high resolution vision.
Optic nerve : transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Light Sensitive Cells in Retina
Rod Cells(Rods):
Rods operate in poor light or at night.
Cone Cells:
Used in colour vision and in close precision work like reading.
Very few in number and are more concentrated in the centre of the retina (the macula)
Eye Diseases
Retinitis pigmentosa : group of hereditary diseases of the retina of the eye caused by a breakdown in the function of the rods or the cones in some part of the retina.
Macular degeneration : wearing out of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
What Is a Bionic Eye?
Bionic Eye is an experimental visual device intended to restore functional vision in those suffering from partial or total blindness.
It rectifies Retinitis pigmentosa and Macular degeneration to an extent.
Founders behind the Bionic Eye
Researchers working for the Boston Retinal Implant Project have been developing the Bionic eye implant that could restore the eye sight of people who suffer from age related blindness.
Inspiration Behind Bionic Eye
Dr. Mark Humayun demonstrated that a blind person could be made to see light by stimulating the nerve ganglia behind the retina with an electrical current.
This test proved that the nerves behind the retina still functioned even when the retina had degenerated.
How does it restore sight?
The bionic eye uses a retinal implant connected to a video camera that converts images into electrical impulses that activate remaining retinal cells that then carry the signal back to the brain.
In this way the bionic eye mimics the function of the retina and restores sight.
METHODS
Bionic eye is implemented in different ways:
Using the ASR
Using the MARC system
Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR)
The ASR is a silicon chip 2 mm in diameter and 1/1000 inch in thickness.
It contains approximately 3,500 microscopic solar cells called "micro photodiodes," each having its own stimulating electrode.
Convert the light energy from images into thousands of electrical impulses to stimulate the remaining functional cells of the retina.
The ASR is powered solely by incident light and does not require wires or batteries
Original Size of ASR
MARC(MULTIPLE UNIT ARTIFICIAL RETINA CHIPSET) SYSTEM
Working of MARC System

An external camera acquires an image, encodes into data stream and transmitted via RF telemetry to an intraocular transceiver.
A data signal will be transmitted by modulating the amplitude of a higher frequency carrier signal.
The signal will be rectified and filtered, and the MARC extracts power, data, and a clock signal. The subsequently derived image will then be stimulated upon the patient’s retina.
Working of Bionic Eye
Advantages of Bionic Eye

Assist individuals suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (a genetic condition)
The technology may enable people to recognize faces and facial expressions.
The bionic eye will be affective for individuals who once had sight, since their brain knows how to process visual information.
Advantages of Bionic Eye
Advantages : water-proof and corrosion- proof (The chip is enclosed in a titanium casing)
Expected Durability : 10 years
Disadvantages of Bionic Eye
This technology till now will not help glaucoma patients.
The unfortunate people who were born blind do not have the neurological capability to process the data received via the wire.
The optic nerve must be at least partly functional or else the data will not be fully processed.
CONCLUSION
Bionic devices are being developed to do more than replace defective parts.
Providing power to run bionic implants and making connections to the brain's control system pose the two great challenges for biomedical engineering.
We are now looking at devices like bionic arms, tongues, noses etc.
28-08-2014, 06:49 PM
Post: #20
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
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