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30-07-2009, 05:07 PM
Post: #1
CDMA (Download Full Seminar Report)
(Code Division Multiple Access) A method for transmitting real-time signals over a shared portion of the spectrum. The foremost application of CDMA is the digital cellular phone technology that operates in the 800MHz band and 1.9GHz . Unlike GSM and TDMA, which divides the spectrum into different time slots CDMA uses a spread spectrum technique to assign a code to each conversation. After the speech codec converts voice to digital, CDMA spreads the voice stream over the full 1.25MHz bandwidth of the CDMA channel coding each stream separately so it can be decoded at the receiving end. The rate of the spreading signal is known as the chip rate, as each bit in the spreading signal is called a chip voice conversations use the full bandwidth at the same time. One bit from each conversation is multiplied into 128 coded bits by the spreading techniques, giving the receiving side an enormous amount of data it can average just to determine the value of one bit.

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20-08-2010, 10:31 PM
Post: #2
RE: CDMA (Download Full Seminar Report)
cdma report for manvendra so

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27-09-2010, 10:51 AM
Post: #3
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.doc  CDMA.doc (Size: 893 KB / Downloads: 522)
INTRODUCTION

Mobile communications are rapidly becoming more and more necessary for everyday activities. With so many more users to accommodate, more efficient use of bandwidth is a priority among cellular phone system operators. Equally important is the security and reliability of these calls. One solution that has been offered is a CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM.

CDMA is one method for implementing a multiple access communication system. MULTIPLE ACCESS is a technique where many subscribers or local stations can share the use of the use of a communication channel at the same time or nearly so despite the fact originate from widely different locations. A channel can be thought of as merely a portion of the limited radio resource, which is temporarily allocated for a specific purpose, such as someone’s phone call. A multiple access method is a definition of how the radio spectrum is divided into channels and how the channels are allocated to the many users of the system.
Since there are multiple users transmitting over the same channel, a method must be established so that individual users will not disrupt one another. There are essentially three ways to do this.


Code Division Multiple Access is a new technology used in wireless communication devices. This technology made its commercial debut in the early nineties. Significant advantage of the CDMA is the fact that unlike other modulation schemes it does not have to allocate part of the frequency for each user. It allocates whole frequency spectrum to each user, distinguishing each signal with the unique pseudo-random sequence.

CDMA stands for "Code Division Multiple Access." It is a form of spread-spectrum, an advanced digital wireless transmission technique. Instead of using frequencies or time slots, as do traditional technologies, it uses mathematical codes to transmit and distinguish between multiple wireless conversations. Its bandwidth is much wider than that required for simple point-to-point communications at the same data rate because it uses noise-like carrier waves to spread the information contained in a signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth. However, because the conversations taking place are distinguished by digital codes, many users can share the same bandwidth simultaneously.


Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a digital cellular spread-spectrum modulation technique that implements distributed voice and data networks.
CDMA works by converting speech into digital information, which is then transmitted as a radio signal over a wireless network. CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user, but the full available spectrum. Each signal is encoded differently using a unique code. This way CDMA enables a large number of users to share the same frequency band at the same time, without interference.
The receiving device is instructed to use the code to extract the data out of the received signal.



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29-09-2010, 01:36 PM
Post: #4
RE: CDMA (Download Full Seminar Report)

.docx  COMPARISON OF CDMA AND TDMA SYSTEMS.docx (Size: 72.96 KB / Downloads: 154)
This article is presented by:
Malathy Elumalai
Advance topics in Communication
Spring 2010


COMPARISON OF CDMA AND TDMA SYSTEMS

ABSTRACT

In this report two candidates for high capacity cellular systems are simulated and analyzed, one CDMA and one TDMA system. Simulations of the CDMA example indicate a high sensitivity to variations in certain system parameters. The TDMA example is a GSM system using random frequency hopping and operating without frequency planning. The outage probabilities of both the systems that have been compared in the reference IEEE paper are also simulated in this project.
INTRODUCTION
In today’s world cell phone have become the single greatest tool in day today life. It has become a necessity that business associates should be able to communicate on the go. That’s why it has become so important to make choices in choosing which handheld device one should go for. A handheld device is selected according to its features and benefits, like does it provide access to internet and email or does it look slick and more.

An important question when designing and standardizing cellular systems is the
Selection of the multiple access schemes. Multiple Access methods address the problem of how many users can share the same spectrum resources in an efficient manner. We distinguish between them as follows
• Multiple access within one cell, i.e., a fixed assignment of resources in time or bandwidth to specific users
• Random access, i.e., a dynamic assignment of spectrum resources in time or bandwidth to users, according to their needs
• Frequency reuse, i.e., assignment of spectrum resources considering the location of users and the attenuation of radio signals that travel over sufficiently large distances
Examples of multiple access schemes are FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access), TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). All three principles allow
Multiple users to share the same physical channel. But the two competing technologies differ in the way user sharing the common resource. TDMA allows the users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. Each user takes turn in a round robin fashion for transmitting and receiving over the channel. CDMA uses a spread spectrum technology that is it spreads the information contained in a particular signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal. In TDMA users can only transmit in their respective time slot. Unlike TDMA, in CDMA several users can transmit over the channel at the same time.



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01-10-2010, 03:56 PM
Post: #5
Thumbs Up RE: CDMA (Download Full Seminar Report)

.pptx  C D M A.pptx (Size: 2.67 MB / Downloads: 250)
This article is presented by:

SABYASACHI RANA
SAPTARSHI CHATTERJEE
AVIK MODAK
ANURAN ROY CHOUDHARY


C D M A
What is Multiple Access?
Simultaneous private use of a transmission medium by multiple, independent users.

Advantages of Multiple Access

Increased capacity: serve more users
Reduced capital requirements since fewer media can carry the traffic
Decreased per-user expense
Easier to manage and administer

MOST POPULER MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES THAT ESTABLISHED CHANNELS

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiplex Access)
each user on a different frequency
a channel is a frequency

TDMA (Time Division Multiplex Access)
each user on a different window period
in time (“time slot”)
a channel is a specific time slot on a specific frequency

CDMA (Code Division Multiplex Access)
each user uses the same frequency all the time
, but mixed With different distinguishing code patterns
a channel is a unique set of code patterns


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