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17-11-2012, 02:23 PM
Post: #1
CMOS VLSI Design ppt

CMOS VLSI Design


.ppt  CMOS VLSIDesign.ppt (Size: 918.5 KB / Downloads: 209)

Introduction


Integrated circuits: many transistors on one chip.
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI): very many
Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) transistor
Fast, cheap, low-power transistors
Complementary: mixture of n- and p-type leads to less power
Today: How to build your own simple CMOS chip
CMOS transistors
Building logic gates from transistors
Transistor layout and fabrication
Rest of the course: How to build a good CMOS chip



Dopants


Silicon is a semiconductor
Pure silicon has no free carriers and conducts poorly
Adding dopants increases the conductivity
Group V: extra electron (n-type)
Group III: missing electron, called hole (p-type)



nMOS Transistor


Four terminals: gate, source, drain, body
Gate – oxide – body stack looks like a capacitor
Gate and body are conductors
SiO2 (oxide) is a very good insulator
Called metal – oxide – semiconductor (MOS) capacitor
Even though gate is
no longer made of metal


nMOS Operation


When the gate is at a high voltage:
Positive charge on gate of MOS capacitor
Negative charge attracted to body
Inverts a channel under gate to n-type
Now current can flow through n-type silicon from source through channel to drain, transistor is ON



CMOS Fabrication


CMOS transistors are fabricated on silicon wafer
Lithography process similar to printing press
On each step, different materials are deposited or etched
Easiest to understand by viewing both top and cross-section of wafer in a simplified manufacturing process
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