CRDi.pps (Size: 1.43 MB / Downloads: 3800)
CRDi.doc (Size: 912 KB / Downloads: 2601)
Compared with petrol, diesel is the lower quality product of petroleum family. Diesel particles are larger and heavier than petrol, thus more difficult to pulverize. Imperfect pulverization leads to more unburnt particles, hence more pollutant, lower fuel efficiency
and less power.
Common-rail technology is intended to improve the pulverization process. Conventional direct injection diesel engines must repeatedly generate fuel pressure for each injection. But in the CRDI engines the pressure is built up independently of the injection sequence and remains permanently available in the fuel line. CRDI system that uses an ion sensor to provide real-time combustion data for each cylinder. The common rail upstream of the cylinders acts as an accumulator, distributing the fuel to the injectors at a constant pressure of up to 1600 bar. Here high-speed solenoid valves, regulated by the electronic engine management, separately control the injection timing and the amount of fuel injected for each cylinder as a function of the cylinder's actual need.
In other words, pressure generation and fuel injection are independent of each other. This is an important advantage of common-rail injection over conventional fuel injection systems as CRDI increases the controllability of the individual injection processes and further refines fuel atomization, saving fuel and reducing emissions. Fuel economy of 25 to 35 % is obtained over a standard diesel engine and a substantial noise reduction is achieved due to a more synchronized timing operation. The principle of CRDi is also used in petrol engines as dealt with the GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) , which removes to a great extent the draw backs of the conventional carburetors and the MPFI systems.
Submitted By:Junet Babu
CRDi stands for Common Rail Direct Injection meaning, direct injection of the fuel into the cylinders of a diesel engine via a single, common line, called the common rail which is connected to all the fuel injectors.
Whereas ordinary diesel direct fuel-injection systems have to build up pressure anew for each and every injection cycle, the new common rail (line) engines maintain constant pressure regardless of the injection sequence. This pressure then remains permanently available throughout the fuel line. The engine's electronic timing regulates injection pressure according to engine speed and load. The electronic control unit (ECU) modifies injection pressure precisely and as needed, based on data obtained from sensors on the cam and crankshafts. In other words, compression and injection occur independently of each other. This technique allows fuel to be injected as needed, saving fuel and lowering emissions.
More accurately measured and timed mixture spray in the combustion chamber significantly reducing unburned fuel gives CRDi the potential to meet future emission guidelines such as Euro V. CRDi engines are now being used in almost all Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, Hyundai, Ford and many other diesel automobiles.
2. PRINCIPLE OF CRDi IN GASOLINE ENGINES.
Gasoline or petrol engines were using carburetors for supply of air-fuel mixture before the introduction of MPFI system .but even now carburetors are in use for its simplicity and low cost. Now a days the new technology named Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is in use for petrol engines. The GDI is using the principle of CRDi system. Now let us examine the various factors that lead to introduction of GDI technology.
2.1.The fall of carburettor.
For most of the existence of the internal combustion engine, the carburetor has been the device that supplied fuel to the engine. On many other machines, such as lawnmowers and chainsaws, it still is. But as the automobile evolved, the carburetor got more and more complicated trying to handle all of the operating requirements. For instance, to handle some of these tasks, carburetors had five different circuits:
2.1.1 : Main circuit Provides just enough fuel for fuel-efficient cruising
2.1.2 : Idle circuit Provides just enough fuel to keep the engine idling
2.1.3 : Accelerator pump Provides an extra burst of fuel when the accelerator pedal is first depressed, reducing hesitation before the engine speeds up
2.1.4 : Power enrichment Provides extra fuel when the car is going up a hill or
circuit towing a trailer
2.1.5 : Choke Provides extra fuel when the engine is cold so that it will start effortlessly
In order to meet stricter emissions requirements, catalytic converters were introduced. Very careful control of the air-to-fuel ratio was required for the catalytic converter to be effective. Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust, and the engine control unit (ECU) uses this information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time. This is called closed loop controlâ€it was not feasible to achieve this control with carburetors. There was a brief period of electrically controlled carburetors before fuel injection systems took over, but these electrical carburetors were even more complicated than the purely mechanical ones.
At first, carburetors were replaced with throttle body fuel injection systems (also known as single point or central fuel injection systems) that incorporated electrically controlled fuel-injector valves into the throttle body. These were almost a bolt-in replacement for the carburetor, so the automakers didn't have to make any drastic changes to their engine designs.
Gradually, as new engines were designed, throttle body fuel injection was replaced by multi-port fuel injection (also known as port, multi-point or sequential fuel injection). These systems have a fuel injector for each cylinder, usually located so that they spray right at the intake valve. These systems provide more accurate fuel metering and quicker response.
3.DIRECT INJECTION SYSTEMS.
Direct injection means injecting the fuel directly into the cylinder instead of premixing it with air in separate intake ports. That allows for controlling combustion and emissions more precisely, but demands advanced engine
Unlike petrol engines, diesel engines donâ„¢t need ignition system. Due to the inherent property of diesel, combustion will be automatically effective under a certain pressure and temperature combination during the compression phase of Otto cycle. Normally this requires a high compression ratio around 22 : 1 for normally aspirated engines. A strong thus heavy block and head is required to cope with the pressure. Therefore diesel engines are always much heavier than petrol equivalent.
The lack of ignition system simplifies repair and maintenance, the absence of throttle also help. The output of a diesel engine is controlled simply by the amount of fuel injected. This makes the injection system very decisive to fuel economy. Even without direct injection, diesel inherently delivers superior fuel economy because of leaner mixture of fuel and air. Unlike petrol, it can combust under very lean mixture. This inevitably reduces power output but under light load or partial load where power is not much an important consideration, its superior fuel economy shines.
Another explanation for the inferior power output is the extra high compression ratio. On one hand the high pressure and the heavy pistons prevent it from revving as high as petrol engine (most diesel engine deliver peak power at lower than 4500 rpm.), on the other hand the long stroke dimension required by high compression ratio favors torque instead of power. This is why diesel engines always low on power but strong on torque.
To solve this problem, diesel makers prefer to add turbocharger. It is a device to input extra air into the cylinder while intake to boost up the power output of the engine. Turbochargerâ„¢s top end power suits the torque curve of diesel very much, unlike petrol. Therefore turbocharged diesel engines output similar power to a petrol engine with similar capacity, while delivering superior low end torque and fuel economy.
4.COMMON RAIL DIRECT INJECTION: FEATURES:
Simply explained, common rail refers to the single fuel injection line on the CRDi engines. Whereas conventional direct injection diesel engines must repeatedly generate fuel pressure for each injection, in CRDi engines the pressure is built up independently of the injection sequence and remains permanently available in the fuel line.
In the CRDi system developed jointly by Mercedes-Benz and Bosch, the electronic engine management system continually adjusts the peak fuel pressure according to engine speed and throttle position. Sensor data from the camshaft and crankshaft provide the foundation for the electronic control unit to adapt the injection pressure precisely to demand.
Common Rail Direct Injection is different from the conventional Diesel engines. Without being introduced to an antechamber the fuel is supplied directly to a common rail from where it is injected directly onto the pistons which ensures the onset of the combustion in
the whole fuel mixture at the same time. There is no glow plug since the injection pressure is high. The fact that there is no glow plug lowers the maintenance costs and the fuel consumption.
Compared with petrol, diesel is the lower quality fuel from petroleum family. Diesel particles are larger and heavier than petrol, thus more difficult to pulverize. Imperfect pulverization leads to more unburned particles, hence more pollutant, lower fuel efficiency and less power. Common-rail technology is intended to improve the pulverization process.
To improve pulverization, the fuel must be injected at a very high pressure, so high that normal fuel injectors cannot achieve it.
In common-rail system, the fuel pressure is implemented by a very strong pump instead of fuel injectors. The high-pressure fuel is fed to individual fuel injectors via a common rigid pipe (hence the name of "common-rail").
In the current first generation design, the pipe withstands pressures as high as 1,600 bar or 20,000 psi. Fuel always remains under such pressure even in stand-by state. Therefore whenever the injector (which acts as a valve rather than a pressure generator) opens, the high-pressure fuel can be injected into combustion chamber quickly. As a result, not only pulverization is improved by the higher fuel pressure, but the duration of fuel injection can be shortened and the timing can be more precisely controlled. Precise timing reduces the characteristic Diesel Knock common to all diesel engines, direct injection or not.
Benefited by the precise timing, common-rail injection system can introduce a "post-combustion", which injects small amount of fuel during the expansion phase thus creating small scale combustion after the normal combustion takes place. This further eliminates the unburned particles and also increases the exhaust flow temperature thus reducing the pre-heat time of the catalytic converter. In short, "post-combustion" cuts pollutants. The drive torque and pulsation inside the high-pressure lines are minimal, since the pump supplies only as much fuel as the engine actually requires. The high-pressure injectors are available with different nozzles for different spray configurations. Swirler nozzle to produce a cone-shaped spray and a slit nozzle for a fan-shaped spray.
The new common-rail engine (in addition to other improvements) cuts fuel consumption by 20%, doubles torque at low engine speeds and increases power by 25%. It also brings a significant reduction in the noise and vibrations of conventional diesel engines. In emission, greenhouse gases (CO2) is reduced by 20%. At a constant level of NOx, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are reduced by 40%, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) by 50%, and particle emissions by 60%.
CRDI principle not only lowers fuel consumption and emissions possible; it also offers improved comfort and is quieter than modern pre-combustion engines. Common-rail engines are thus clearly superior to ordinary motors using either direct or indirect fuel-injection systems.
This division of labor necessitates a special chamber to maintain the high injection pressure of up to 1,600 bar. That is where the common fuel line (rail) comes in. It is connected to the injection nozzles (injectors) at the end of which are rapid solenoid valves to take care of the timing and amount of the injection.
The microcomputer regulates the amount of time the valves stay open and thus the amount of fuel injected, depending on operating conditions and how much output is needed. When the timing shuts the solenoid valves, fuel injection ends immediately.
With the state-of-the-art common-rail direct fuel injection used an ideal compromise can be attained between economy, torque, ride comfort and long life.
A fuel injector is nothing but an electronically controlled valve. It is supplied with pressurized fuel by the fuel pump, and it is capable of opening and closing many times per second. When the injector is energized, an electromagnet moves a plunger that opens the valve, allowing the pressurized fuel to squirt out through a tiny nozzle.
The nozzle is designed to atomize the fuel -- to make as fine a mist as possible so that it can burn easily. The amount of fuel supplied to the engine is determined by the amount of time the fuel injector stays open. This is called the pulse width, and it is controlled by the ECU. The injectors are mounted in the intake manifold so that they spray fuel directly at the intake valves. A pipe called the fuel rail supplies pressurized fuel to all of the injectors. Each injector is complete and self-contained with nozzle, hydraulic intensifier, and electronic digital valve. At the end of each injector, a rapid-acting solenoid valve adjusts both the injection timing and the amount of fuel injected. A microcomputer controls each valve's opening and closing sequence.
4.2 Spiral-Shaped Intake Port For Optimum Swirl:
The aluminum cylinder head for the CRDI engines is a new development. Among its distinguishing features are two spiral-shaped intake ports. One serves as a swirl port while the other serves as a charge port. Both ports are paired with the symmetrical combustion chamber, rapidly swirling the intake air before it enters the cylinders. The result is an optimum mixture, especially under partial throttle. The newly-designed injector nozzles (injectors) located in the middle of the cylinders provide for even distribution of fuel inside the combustion chambers
4.3 Integrated Port For Exhaust Gas Recycling:
Another novelty is the integrated port for exhaust gas recycling (EGR) in the cylinder head. Whereas older diesel engines lead exhaust gases outside around the engine the new CRDi engines are incorporated with a cast port for the direct injection motor which conducts the gases within the cylinder head itself. The exhaust gases recirculate directly from the exhaust side to the intake side. There are three advantages to this system. For one, it eliminates external pipes which are subject to vibration. Then, integrating EGR into the cylinder head means that part of the exhaust heat is transferred to the coolant, resulting in quicker engine warm-up. Finally, this new technique allows cooler exhaust gases and that means better combustion.
4.4 Precise Timing Courtesy Air Flow Metering:
The hot-film mass air-flow meter is located in front of the turbocharger's compressor permitting an exact analysis of the air-mass that is being taken in. This mass will alter depending on temperature or atmospheric pressure. Due to this metering system, the microcomputer that controls engine timing receives precise data. It is thus able to regulate exhaust-gas recycling according to engine load and speed in the interest of lowering nitrous oxide and particle emissions.
The compressed air from the turbocharger then flows through the intercooler which cools it down to 70 degrees centigrade. Since cool air has less volume than warm air, more air is taken inside the combustion chamber, thus amplifying the effect of the turbocharger. In the subordinate mixing chamber, fresh air and exhaust gas mingle in a computer-determined ratio to match engine load at the moment. The mixing chamber is outfitted with a special exhaust-gas recycling valve and a butterfly valve controlled by a electro-pneumatic converter. The throttle increases the pressure gradient between the intake and outlet sides, thus increasing the recycled exhaust gases' effect on performance
4.5 Swirl-Control Valves In The Intake Manifolds:
Pneumatically guided swirl valves in the intake system help bring the fuel-air mixture to a high swirl rate at low rpm. This leads to efficient combustion and high torque. At high rpm the swirl is reduced and this in turn improves power output.
On the way to the combustion chambers the compressed fresh air mixed with exhaust gases passes through swing manifolds. The intake area just before the cylinder head is single-channel, later becoming dual-channel. These two channels have different tasks. One acts as a spiral channel, swirling the mixture while the other serves as a charge channel which closes with the aid of electro-pneumatically activated valves under partial-load operation. The advantage of this arrangement is that de-energizing increases the rate of swirl in the cylinders so that combustion produces less particle emissions than older direct-injection engines.
4.6 Multiple Pilot Injection And Post Injection:
The high combustion pressure of up to 145 bar (2130 psi) and the rate at which this pressure rises during the combustion process normally produce higher noise levels in direct injection engines than in their pre-chamber (indirect injection) counterparts. However, the CRDi system employs a piece of technical wizardry known as pilot injection' to overcome this problem: A few nanoseconds before the main fuel injection, a small amount of diesel is injected into the cylinder and ignites, thereby establishing the combustion process and setting the ideal conditions for the main combustion process. Consequently, the fuel ignites faster with the result that the rise in pressure and temperature is less sudden.
The system utilizes multiple pilot injections - small doses of fuel made prior to the main injection of fuel in each cylinder's firing, which help to smooth the sharp combustion character of the diesel engine to gasoline-like smoothness. The end effect, however, is not only a reduction in combustion noise but also a reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.
Post injection is a similarly small dose of fuel injected after the main injection. Common rail technology's potential to lower particulate emissions is profound in this area. The small post injection is inserted with precise timing at the moment that is ideal for lower particulate discharge.
Other methods to reduce noise are providing special cover for the cylinder head and the intercooler, and bracing on the oil pan, the timing-gear case and crankcase. The bottom line is that the noise produced by the new CRDI engines is lower than for comparable pre-combustion engines
4.7 Powerful Microcomputer:
The new direct-injection motors are regulated by a powerful microcomputer linked via CAN (Controller Area Network) data bus to other control devices on board. These devices exchange data. The engine's electrical controls are a central element of the common rail system because regulation of injection pressure and control of the solenoid valves for each cylinder - both indispensable for variable control of the motor - would be unthinkable without them.
This electronic engine management network is a critical element of the common rail system because only the speed and spontaneity of electronics can ensure immediate pressure injection adjustment and cylinder-specific control of the injector solenoid valves.
4.8 Newly-Developed Catalytic Converters With Zeolith Coating:
Besides electronically-controlled exhaust-gas recycling which contributes to lower nitrous oxide emissions, CRDi engines are equipped with catalytic converters near the motor and emission control devices on the underbody. These vouch for a high degree of efficiency. Emissions conform for the German "D3" norms which are 50 percent tighter than the maximum values prescribed in the EURO-2 guidelines. A new coating for the catalytic converters consisting of platinum, aluminum oxide and Zeolith crystals has been devised that besides oxidizing hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, also converters diminish nitrous oxide. The converter near the engine is equipped with a bypass channel via which a residual amount of hydrocarbons are passed on to the emission control devices on the underbody.
4.9 High Rigidity Cylinder Block And Dual Mass Flywheel
To complement the new-generation common-rail system's unprecedented smoothness and low noise several enhancements have been added to its structure. Cylinder- block rigidity is increased by ribs in the water jacket and the crankshaft bearing cap is integrated into the lower block to greatly reduce engine vibration. A dual-mass flywheel is fitted to the engines to compensate for the harmonic effect of diesel engine on the powertrain elements, eliminating the characteristic rattle often associated with diesels.
4.10 Unique Intake And Exhaust Ports:
The CRDi engine uses an aluminium cylinder head with two spiral intake ports, one for swirling the fuel/air mixture and the other for filling the combustion chamber.
Both ports are tuned to the symmetrically shaped combustion chambers and are designed to set the air into rapid swirling motion even before it reaches the cylinders. This ensures an optimal fuel/air mixture, especially in the part throttle range.
Inside the combustion chambers, newly developed injectors are positioned in the middle of the cylinder to promote uniform fuel distribution.
Another new feature of the CRDi engine is the integration of a port in the cylinder head for the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In most diesel engines this system is routed around the outside of the engine but in the CRDI system an EGR port has been cast into the cylinder head to channel gas from the exhaust side of the engine to the intake side.
This design has three distinct benefits: It dispenses with external EGR lines, transfers exhaust heat to the coolant for quicker engine warm-up, and at the same time cools exhaust gases to further enhance combustion.
4.11 Reduced Noise Levels:
Diesel engines are known to be noisy. But the introduction of the CRDi engines has made many attributes of the old Diesel engines have become something of the past. One of these is noise. The noisy side of the old Diesel engines which was a cause of inconvenience has given way largely to a quietness in the CRDi technology, because many functions executed by mechanical systems in the old Diesel engines are carried out electronically in the CRDi technology. This in turn enables the engine to run with much less noise. Moreover the carrying out of the injection via multiple injections instead of single is one of the causes which ensures the quietness of the engine. In the CRDi technology it is ensured that all the parts of the engine work in harmony, thereby minimizing the engine noise. Besides that, a high efficiency is achieved now even at low engine speeds. If the unequalled noise insulation is added to this it is almost impossible to hear any engine noise, especially inside the car.
5 CRDi â€œ FUTURE TRENDS :
5.1 Ulra-High Pressure Common â€œRail Injection:
Newer CRDi engines feature maximum pressures of 1800 bar. This pressure is up to 33% higher than that of first-generation systems, many of which are in the 1600-bar range. This technology generates an ideal swirl in the combustion chamber which, coupled with the common-rail injectorsâ„¢ superior fuel-spray pattern and optimized piston head design, allows the air/fuel mixture to form a perfect vertical vortex resulting in uniform combustion and greatly reduced NOx (nitrogen oxide) emissions. The system realizes high output and torque, superb fuel economy, emissions low enough to achieve Euro Stage IV designation and noise levels the same as a gasoline engines. In particular, exhaust emissions and Nox are reduced by some 50% over the current generation of diesel engines.
5.2 CRDi And Particle Filter:
Particle emission is always the biggest problem of diesel engines. While diesel engines emit considerably less pollutant CO and Nox as well as green house gas CO2, the only shortcoming is excessive level of particles. These particles are mainly composed of carbon and hydrocarbons. They lead to dark smoke and smog which is very crucial to air quality of urban area, if not to the ecology system of our planet.
Basically, particle filter is a porous silicon carbide unit; comprising passageways which has a property of easily trapping and retaining particles from the exhaust gas flow. Before the filter surface is fully occupied, these carbon / hydrocarbon particles should be burnt up, becoming CO2 and water and leave the filter accompany with exhaust gas flow. The process is called regeneration.
Normally regeneration takes place at 550Ã‚Â° C. However, the main problem is: this temperature is not obtainable under normal conditions. Normally the temperature varies between 150Ã‚Â° and 200Ã‚Â°C when the driving in town, as the exhaust gas is not in full flow.
The new common-rail injection technology helps solving this problem. By its high-pressure, precise injection during a very short period, the common-rail system can introduce a "post-combustion" by injecting small amount of fuel during expansion phase. This increases the exhaust flow temperature to around 350Ã‚Â°C.
Then, a specially designed oxidizing catalyst converter locating near the entrance of the particle filter unit will combust the remaining unburnt fuel come from the "post-combustion". This raises the temperature further to 450Ã‚Â° C.
The last 100Ã‚Â°C required is fulfilled by adding an addictive called Eolys to the fuel. Eolys lowers the operating temperature of particle burning to 450Ã‚Â° C, now regeneration occurs. The liquid-state additive is store in a small tank and added to the fuel by pump. The PF unit needs to be cleaned up every 80,000 km by high-pressure water, to get rid of the deposits resulting from the additive.
5.3 CRDi And Closed-Loop Control Injection:
One feature of diesel-engine management had been holding back diesel's technical advance: the lack of true, closed-loop control of the injection system. This is significant because an open-loop system cannot accurately compensate for factors such as wear, manufacturing tolerances in the fuel injectors, or for variations in temperature and fuel quality. Gasoline-injection systems have been closed loop for years, and many of the advances in power, refinement, economy, and emissions seen today have been possible because of the real-time feedback that this provides.
Its solution to this problem is an all-new common-rail, direct-injection system that uses an ion sensor to provide real-time combustion data for each cylinder. It is said to provide closed-loop control at a cost that will be roughly equivalent to today's best production systems. High-speed, common-rail direct-injection diesel engines are theoretically capable of excellent performance, economy, and emissions, but to achieve this they will require a much higher level of control than is possible with today's technology. With closed-loop systems and ion-sensing technology, the potential of diesel engines for automotive applications can be unlocked.
The ion-sensing system creates an electrical field in the region where combustion starts by introducing a positive dc voltage at the tip of the glow plug. The field attracts the negatively charged particles created during combustion, producing a small current from the sensor to the piston and cylinder walls, which provide a ground. The current is measured by the engine control module (ECM) and processed to provide a signal that is proportional to the applied sensor voltage and to the level of ionization in the vicinity of the sensor. The difference in ionization before and after the start of combustion is quite pronounced, allowing the ion-sensing system to provide precise start-of-combustion (SOC) data that can be compared with a table of required SOC timings held by the ECM. The fuel control strategy can therefore be changed from open loop to closed loop, allowing the desired SOC to be maintained for all engine speeds, loads, temperatures, and fuel qualities; and to accommodate production tolerances and wear in each injector. Because the sensing function is combined with the glow plug, no engine modifications are required, and the sensor is in a near ideal location. One significant feature of the location is that soot build-up, which can reduce the resistance between the sensor and ground, can be easily detected and burnt off through a simple, automated routine.
To reduce audible noise and NOx, a current production high-pressure common-rail system will typically inject a pilot pulse of around 3-5 mm3 of fuel before the main injection event. Pilot injection can reduce noise by 3-5 dB, but too large a pulse will compromise fuel consumption and emissions. Existing technology can reduce the pilot injection volume to around 1-2 mm3 but only at low injection pressures. Most engine designers would prefer higher pressures because this allows cylinders to be fueled more quickly and for the spray pattern to be improved, leading to increased torque and less smoke.
Closed-loop system allows a pilot volume of around 0.5-1.0 mm3 under high pressures using standard injectors, and is said to reduce particulates by around 10-20%. The precise volume of the pilot injection can be balanced between cylinders, leading to a further reduction in noise. The adaptively learned injector calibrations can also be applied to post-injection pulses, which provide a more complete combustion. 2-3% improvement in fuel consumption can be achieved compared with today's high-pressure systems by
incorporating closed loop control.
The seminar that I had taken is CRDi system from which we reached to the conclusion that CRDi technology revolutionized diesel engines and also petrol engines(by introduction of GDI technology).
By introduction of CRDi a lot of advantages are obtained ,some of them are
Â¢ More power is developed.
Â¢ Increased fuel efficiency.
Â¢ Reduced noise.
Â¢ More stability.
Â¢ Pollutants are reduced.
Â¢ Particulates of exhaust are reduced.
Â¢ Exhaust gas recirculation is enhanced.
Â¢ Precise injection timing is obtained.
Â¢ Pilot and post injection increase the combustion quality.
Â¢ More pulverization of fuel is obtained.
Â¢ A very high injection pressure can be achieved.
Â¢ The powerful microcomputer make the whole system more perfect.
Â¢ It doubles the torque at lower engine speeds.
The main disadvantage is that this technology increase the cost of the engine.Also this technology cant be employed to ordinary engines.
1. Automotive Mechanics by S Srinivasan.
2. I C Engines By M.L.Malthur & Sharma.
3. I C Engines By V . Ganesan.
4. Automotive Engines by S Srinivasan.