It is the branch of physics and engineering that involve the study of very low temperatures, their production, and how materials behave at those low temperatures.
1Liquifaction of gases.
Liquid nitrogen and helium are use in many industrial applications. Liquid nitrogen is the most widely used and liquid helium is used to attain the lowest atainable temperatures worldwide. They are stored in dewar flasks.
Principle: Materials attain more hard when cooled to low temperatures.
Tools were subjected to cryogenic tempering as an alternattive to heat treatment. later, microprocessor based industrial controls were used to design the cryogenic processor which produedmore stable results when applied to cryogenic hardening.
Chilling and freezing applications
some reactions that occur at low temperatures of approximately -100 Ã‚Â°C can be carried out through the use of cryogenics.
Some soft materials can be hardened on cooling and then powdered in a mill.
-mainly liquid nitrogen has been used as rocket fuel.
-liquid oxigen has been used as the oxidiser.
Low temperatures in production environments is achieved via the use of liquid nitrogen, liquid helium, or a cryocompressor.
More details and seminar report download: