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03-04-2010, 07:31 PM
Post: #1
Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
INTROUCTION



ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF HV CIRCUIT BREAKER

High-voltage circuit breaker play an important role in transmission and distribution systems. They must clear faults and isolate faulted sections rapidly and reliably. In-short they must possess the following qualities.

" In closed position they are good conductors.
" In open position they are excellent insulators.
" They can close a shorted circuit quickly and safely without unacceptable contact erosion.
" They can interrupt a rated short-circuit current or lower current quickly without generating an abnormal voltage.

The only physical mechanism that can change in a short period of time from a conducting to insulating state at a certain voltage is the arc.

With the advancement of power system, the lines and other equipment operate at very high voltages and carry large currents. High-voltage circuit breakers play an important role in transmission and distribution systems. A circuit breaker can make or break a circuit, either manually or automatically under all conditions viz. no-load, full-load and short-circuit conditions. The American National Standard Institute (ANSI) defines circuit breaker as: "A mechanical switching device capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making, carrying for a specified time, and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of short circuit". A circuit breaker is usually intended to operate infrequently, although some types are suitable for frequent operation.


HISTORY

The first circuit breaker was developed by J.N. Kelman in 1901. It was the predecessor of the oil circuit breaker and capable of interrupting a short circuit current of 200 to 300 Ampere in a 40KV system. The circuit breaker was made up of two wooden barrels containing a mixture of oil and water in which the contacts were immersed. Since then the circuit breaker design has undergone a remarkable development. Now a days one pole of circuit breaker is capable of interrupting 63 KA in a 550 KV network with SF6 gas as the arc quenching medium.

THE NEED FOR TESTING

Almost all people have experienced the effects of protective devices operating properly. When an overload or a short circuit occurs in the home, the usual result is a blown fuse or a tripped circuit breaker. Fortunately few have the misfortune to see the results of a defective device, which may include burned wiring, fires, explosions, and electrical shock.

It is often assumed that the fuses and circuit breakers in the home or industry are infallible, and will operate safely when called upon to do so ten, twenty, or more years after their installation. In the case of fuses, this may be a safe assumption, because a defective fuse usually blows too quickly, causing premature opening of the circuit, and forcing replacement of the faulty component. Circuit breakers, however, are mechanical devices, which are subject to deterioration due to wear, corrosion and environmental contamination, any of which could cause the device to remain closed during a fault condition. At the very least, the specified time delay may have shifted so much that proper protection is no longer afforded to devices on the circuit, or improper coordination causes a main circuit breaker or fuse to open in an inconvenient location.

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08-08-2010, 07:02 AM
Post: #2
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
plz give me ppts,documentation on digital testing of high voltage circuit breakers
27-09-2010, 01:28 PM
Post: #3
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker

.pptx  today circuit breaker.pptx (Size: 913.51 KB / Downloads: 430)
Circuit Breaker

presented by By:
Chandramohan S. Jha
Class :- 7th EE
Roll no :- 26.


abstract
Mechanical switching devices capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under normal and abnormal
24-01-2011, 02:06 PM
Post: #4
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
sir i needed to take a seminar on digital testing of high voltage circuit breakers .so i request you to sent me the full content about this papper
25-01-2011, 11:53 AM
Post: #5
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker


ABSTRACT

The functionality of high-voltage circuit breakers is tested in high-power laboratories. Due to the necessary power and the physical size of the equipment, testing is rather expensive and time consuming. The steps followed so far by the authors in order to enable the digital testing of HV circuit breakers are described in this paper. At the end of the article, examples of digital testing are also presented.

INTRODUCTION.

Electrical Energy, Transients and Circuit Breakers.
With the introduction of alternating current (AC) electrical energy as a versatile power source for every conceivable application by the end of the 19th Century, the problem of transporting and distributing this energy arose /a/. In the case of changing the topology of a power system and protecting against (total) failure, the Circuit Breaker (CB) is an irreplaceable element. Although it is commonly said that: "the circuit breaker opens the circuit", it is in fact the electric-arc (arc for short) formed inside the circuit breaker, which interrupts the circuit current. How the arc is able to interrupt a (short-circuit) current is known through many years of practical experience and from the science of plasma physics e.g. /b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k/. However, since many energy exchange processes play a role in the extinguishing process of the arc, we are still unable to predict, with a near to 100% probability, whether a (newly built) circuit breaker will interrupt a certain current in a specific circuit. It is for this reason that circuit breakers are put to the test during the design and proving stages. These tests are carried out in so called 'High Power Laboratories' /l/. High Power Laboratories test especially High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers in a separate test circuit, since in-grid-testing would jeopardize normal operations of the power system. Test circuits try to simulate the most conceivable network or circuit conditions /m/. This is quite difficult since the electrical phenomena which occur when a circuit is interrupted are rather complicated and depend on numerous network (and arc) conditions. The most harsh conditions occur when a circuit breaker has to interrupt a short circuit current. At first the breaker is subjected to a high current which heats it up considerably (or the arc for that matter) and by means of the accompanying Lorentz forces parts are put under great mechanical stress. When the breaker interrupts the current (at a natural current zero) the subsequent Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) subjects the breaker (or former arc channel) to a high dielectric stress. Both phenomena, i.e. the high current and the high (transient) voltage, have to be withstood by the breaker and cannot be avoided in any way.


With the advancement of power system, the lines and other equipment operate at very high voltages and carry large currents. High-voltage circuit breakers play an important role in transmission and distribution systems. A circuit breaker can make or break a circuit, either manually or automatically under all conditions viz. no-load, full-load and short-circuit conditions. The American National Standard Institute (ANSI) defines circuit breaker as: "A mechanical switching device capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making, carrying for a specified time, and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of short circuit". A circuit breaker is usually intended to operate infrequently, although some types are suitable for frequent operation.

THE NEED FOR TESTING

Almost all people have experienced the effects of protective devices operating properly. When an overload or a short circuit occurs in the home, the usual result is a blown fuse or a tripped circuit breaker. Fortunately few have the misfortune to see the results of a defective device, which may include burned wiring, fires, explosions, and electrical shock.
It is often assumed that the fuses and circuit breakers in the home or industry are infallible, and will operate safely when called upon to do so ten, twenty, or more years after their installation. In the case of fuses, this may be a safe assumption, because a defective fuse usually blows too quickly, causing premature opening of the circuit, and forcing replacement of the faulty component. Circuit breakers, however, are mechanical devices, which are subject to deterioration due to wear, corrosion and environmental contamination, any of which could cause the device to remain closed during a fault condition. At the very least, the specified time delay may have shifted so much that proper protection is no longer afforded to devices on the circuit, or improper coordination causes a main circuit breaker or fuse to open in an inconvenient location.

Fore more:
http://www.adl.nl/phd%20thesis.pdf
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login....ision=-203
http://www.andhracolleges.com/online/sem...%20Breaker



22-10-2011, 08:51 PM
Post: #6
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
sir,
i need it's complete seminar repo[/align]rt.
22-10-2011, 09:04 PM
Post: #7
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
can u send me the report?
24-10-2011, 11:03 AM
Post: #8
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
to get information about the topic"Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker"refer the link bellow

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15-02-2012, 11:48 AM
Post: #9
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
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04-03-2012, 09:54 PM
Post: #10
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
sir i need full content on this report so kindly send full content on digital testing of hv circuit breaker
04-03-2012, 10:44 PM
Post: #11
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
sorry i too dnt am also waiting for that only am also a student
05-03-2012, 09:42 AM
Post: #12
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
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05-11-2012, 11:30 AM
Post: #13
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
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31-01-2013, 10:14 AM
Post: #14
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
please send me ppt on digital testing of high voltage circuit breaker
18-02-2013, 10:35 AM
Post: #15
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
hello sir
i want complete ppt of digital testing of circuit breaker
19-02-2013, 10:21 AM
Post: #16
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
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18-04-2013, 04:07 PM
Post: #17
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
i need a document file for the Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
19-04-2013, 09:30 AM
Post: #18
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
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30-05-2013, 11:31 AM
Post: #19
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breakers


.pdf  Digital Testing.pdf (Size: 523.36 KB / Downloads: 110)


INTRODUCTION

Acircuit hreaker is a switching device that the
American National Staiidarcls Institute (ANSI)
defines as: "A mechanical switching device, capable
of making, carrying, ancl breaking currents under normal
circuit conditions and also making, High-voltage circuit breakers play an impartant rolc in
transmission and distribution systems. They must clear
faults and isolate faulted sections rapidly and reliably. In
short, they must possess the followiiig qualities:
In closed position, they are good conductors
In open position, they are excellent insulators
w They can close a shorted circuit quickly and safely
without unacceptable contact erosion
They can interrupt a rated short-circuit current, or
lower current, quickly without generating an abnormal
voltage.
The only physical mechanisiii that can change in a short
period of time from a conducting to an insulating state at
a certain voltage is the arc. It is this principle on which
all circuit breakers are Iiased.

Circuit Breaker Switching and Arc Modeling

The switching action, the basic function oi thc circuit
breaker, refers to the change from conductor to insulator
at a certain voltage. Beā‚¬ore interruption, the (shortcircuit)
current flows through the arc channet of the
circuit breaker. Bccause of the nonzero resistance of the
arc channel, this short-circuit current caiises a voltage
across the colitacts of the circuit breaker: the arc voltage.
The arc behaves as a nonlinear resistance. Thus,
both arc voltage and arc current cross the zero-value at
the same time instant. If the arc is coded sufficiently at
the time the current goes through zero, the circuit breaker
interrupts the current, because thc electrical power
input is zero. During current interruption, the arc resistance
increases from practically zero to alinnst infinite in
microseconds. Immediately aftcr current interruption,
the transient recovery voltage builds up across the circuit
breaker. As the gas mixture in the interelectrodc
space does not change to a completely insulating state
instantaneously, the arc resistance is finite at that time,
and a sniall current can flow: thc post-arc current,

Measurements and Data Analysis

I-ligh-resolution ineasurcmcnts of current and voltage in
the critical period around short-circuit current zero
must supply the necessary parameters, characterizing
the breakers' behavior. A tailor-macle high-frequency
measuring system was realized for this purpose. This
system consists of a number of battery-pciwcred, singlechaniicl,
40 MHz, 12 bit AD converters, each storing the
data temporarily in on-board local RAM (2Stik samples
each). The concept of on-site data storage is necessary
for reaching a maximum overall sysLern bandwidth,
Cables to the current and voltage S ~ I I S O ~caSn thus be
kept very short, and thc system can operate 011 floating
potential. The arc voltage is measured with standard
brnad-band RCR-type voltage dividers; current is measurecl
with a spccial Rogowski coil. After the remote
RAM is fillcd, data is transmitted serially through optical
fibers to the proccssirig unit in the command ccntcr. The
greatest challenge with respect to developing the equiprneiit
in this application design lies in the electromagnetic
compatibility, since the microelectronics has to
function in an extremely hostile environment of intense
EM fields of various origin.

Arc-Circuit Interaction Software

At the final stage of the realization of digital testing, measured
arc model parameters will be used as input for the
arc model. Of course, this arc model behaves a a nonlinear
element in the electrical circuit ancl must therefore
be analyzed with a dedicated cnmputer program. The
analysis of arc-circuit interaction iiivolving nonlinear clcments
in relation to stiff differential equations makes it
necessary to perform the calculations with a variable
step size and adjustable accuracy of the computed currents,
voltages, and canductaiices. Because they have
fixed step-size solvers, EMTP ancl comparable programs
are less suitable for this purpose and thercfore a new
approach, the integration of differential algebraic cquations
(DAE) by means of the backward differentiation formulas
@DO method.
06-01-2015, 10:39 PM
Post: #20
RE: Digital Testing of High Voltage Circuit Breaker
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