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29-05-2010, 08:48 PM
Post: #1
embedded systems ppt

.ppt  embedded systems ppt.ppt (Size: 425 KB / Downloads: 1324)

Embedded Systems
Theory and Design

Anupam Basu

Course overview

Tentative contents:
¢ Introduction to Embedded Computing
¢ Embedded System Hardware
¢ Embedded Computing Platform
¢ Programming Embedded Systems
¢ Embedded System Development
6. Case Study and Assignments for Designing a Complete System

Course Overview

¢ Evaluation criteria:
Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20% will be clubbed with end term marks and 20% will contribute as Teacher's Assessment)
Mid Term (written): 20%
End Term (written): 40%

What is an Embedded System

An Embedded System is a microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a larger system (which may or may not be a computer system).


Application areas

¢ Automotive electronics
¢ Aircraft electronics
¢ Trains
¢ Telecommunication

Application areas

¢ Authentication

¢ Military applications

¢ Medical systems

Application areas

¢ Consumer electronics

¢ Smart buildings

¢ Fabrication equipment

Essential Components

¢ Microprocessor / DSP
¢ Sensors
¢ Converters (A-D and D-A)
¢ Actuators
¢ Memory (On-chip and Off chip)
¢ Communication path with the interacting environment

Embedded System Structure

Processor & ASICs

Essential Considerations

¢ Response Time -- Real Time Systems
¢ Area
¢ Cost
¢ Portability
¢ Low Power (Battery Life)

¢ Fault Tolerance
¢ 11
Design Issues
(Hardware-Software Co-design)

¢ System Specification
o Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and Power Constraints
¢ Hardware Software Partitioning
¢ Hardware Synthesis
¢ Software Synthesis and Code Generation
¢ Simulation
¢ Implementation

ES, MS and RTS

¢ All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems, but all microprocessor basedsystems may not be amenable to embedding (Area, Power, Cost, Payload parameters).
¢ Most of the embedded systems have real time constraints, but there may be ES which are not hard RTS (for example off line Palm tops)
¢ There may be RTS which are not embedded (e.g. Separate Process Control Computers in a network)
¢ Embedded Systems are not GPS; they are designed for dedicated applications with specific interfaces with the sphere of control

General Characteristics of Embedded Systems

¢ Perform a single task
o Usually not general purpose
¢ Increasingly high performance and real time constrained
¢ Power, cost and reliability are important considerations
¢ HW-SW systems
o Software is used for more features and flexibility
o Hardware (processors, ASICs, memory etc. are used for performance and security

General Characteristics of Embedded Systems (contd.)
Processor Cores

ASIPs and ASICs form a significant component

o Adv: customization lower power, cost and enhanced performance
o Disadv: higher development effort (debuggers, compilers etc.) and larger time to market

Analog IO

Classification of Embedded Systems

¢ Distributed and Non distributed

¢ Reactive and Transformational

¢ Control dominated and Data dominated

Application Specific Characteristics

¢ Application is known before the system is designed
¢ System is however made programmable for
o Feature upgrades
o Product differentiation
¢ Often application development occurs in parallel to system development
o Hw-Sw partitioning should be as delayed as possible
¢ For upgrades design reuse is an important criterion
o IP reuse, object oriented development

DSP Characteristics

¢ Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of samples
¢ ADCs are moving closer to signals; RFs are also treated digitally
¢ Typical DSP processing includes:
o Filtering, DFT, DCT etc.
o Speech and image: Compression, decompression, encryption, decryption etc.
o Modems: Equalization, noise and echo cancellation, better SNR
o Communication channel: encoding, decoding, equalization etc.

Distributed Characteristics

¢ Components may be physically distributed
¢ Communicating processes on multiple processors
¢ Dedicated hw connected through communicating channels

¢ Often economical
o 4 x 8 Bit controllers may be cheaper than a 32 bit microcontroller
o Multiple processors can perform multiple time critical tasks
o Better logistics “ devices being controlled may be physically distributed

Design Metrics

¢ Unit cost “ the $ cost for each unit excluding development cost
¢ NRE cost: $ cost for design and development
¢ Size: The physical space reqd. “ determined by bytes of sw, number of gates and transistors in hw
¢ Performance: execution time or throughput of the system
¢ Power: lifetime of battery, cooling provisions
¢ Flexibility: ability to change functionality without heavy NRE cost

Design Metrics (contd.)

¢ Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine + Time to produce in bulk
¢ Correctness: Test and Validation
¢ Safety:

¢ Often these metrics are contradictory “ hence calls for optimization
¢ Processor choice, partitioning decisions, compilation knowledge
¢ Requires expertise in hw and sw both

Major Subtasks of Embedded System Design

¢ Modeling the system to be designed and constraints
o Experimenting with different algorithms and their preliminary evaluation
o Factoring the task into smaller subtasks and modeling their interaction
¢ Refinement
¢ HW-SW partitioning
o Allocating the tasks into hw, sw running on custom hw or general purpose hw
¢ Scheduling “ allocation of time steps for several modules sharing the same resource
¢ Implementation: Actual hw binding and sw code generation
¢ Simulation and Validation
¢ Iterate if necessary

What is Co-design

¢ Traditional design
o SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and development henceforth proceeds independently
¢ CAD tools are focussed towards hardware synthesis
¢ For embedded systems we need several components
o DSPs, microprocessors, network and bus interface etc.
¢ HW-SW codesign allow hw and sw design to proceed in parallel with interactions and feedback between the two processes
¢ Evaluation of trade offs and performance yields ultimate result

CAD for Embedded Systems

¢ Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize design metrics
¢ Co-synthesis: Synthesizes designs from formal specifications
¢ Rapid prototyping and design space exploration
¢ Many of the tasks are interrelated
¢ Intermediate evaluation is not easy as a later decision in one path affects the other

A Mix of Disciplines

¢ Application Domain (Signal processing, control ¦)
¢ Software Engg. ( Design Process plays an important role)
¢ Programming Language
¢ Compilers and Operating System
¢ Architecture “ Processor and IO techniques
¢ Parallel and Distributed Computing
¢ Real Time Systems

Importance of Embedded Software

and Embedded Processors
... the New York Times has
estimated that the average
American comes into contact with about 60 micro-processors every day.... [Camposano, 1996]
Latest top-level BMWs
contain over 100 micro-
[Personal communication]
Most of the functionality
of embedded systems
will be implemented in software!

¢ It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as 'regular' software
¢ The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market ... ; only a small portion of CPU's is applied in PC's
¢ ... the number of software-constructors of Embedded Systems will rise from 2 million in 1994 to 10 million in 2010;
... the number of constructors employed by software-producers 'merely' rises from 0.6 million to 1.1 million.

[Department of Trade and Industry/ IDC Benelux BV: Embedded software research in the Netherlands. Analysis and results, 1997
(according to:]
Views on embedded System

Some problems

¢ How can we capture the required behaviour of complex
¢ How do we validate specifications
¢ How do we translate specifications efficiently into
¢ Do software engineers ever consider electrical power
¢ How can we check that we meet real-time constraints
¢ How do we validate embedded real-time software
(large volumes of data, testing may be safety-critical)

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30-05-2010, 09:35 PM
Post: #2
RE: embedded systems ppt

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05-10-2010, 05:42 PM
Post: #3
RE: embedded systems ppt

.ppt  ch4.ppt (Size: 411 KB / Downloads: 266)
embeded system design


Single-purpose processors
Performs specific computation task
Custom single-purpose processors
Designed by us for a unique task
Standard single-purpose processors
“Off-the-shelf” -- pre-designed for a common task
a.k.a., peripherals
serial transmission
analog/digital conversions
22-11-2010, 05:25 PM
Post: #4
RE: embedded systems ppt
i need embedded systems ppt pls heip me
22-11-2010, 06:13 PM
Post: #5
RE: embedded systems ppt
please download the attachment from the top post

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