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21-05-2012, 12:45 PM
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ENGINEERING MATERIALS
ENGINEERING MATERIALS


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CEMENT

WHAT IS CEMENT
Material with adhesive and cohesive properties
Any material that binds or unites-essentially like glue.

FUNCTION OF CEMENT
To bind the sand and coarse aggregate togetherto fill voids in between sand and coarse aggregate particleto form a compact mass

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
Goodqualitycementpossesthefollowingproperties(whichdependuponitschemicalcomposition,thoroughnes​sofburningandfinenessofgrinding).
1.Providestrengthtomasonry.
2.Stiffensorhardenseasily.
3.Possessesgoodplasticity.
4.Easilyworkable.
5.Goodtomoistureresistant

SETTING AND HARDENING OF CEMENT

thatpropertyoffreshlymixedconcreteormortarwhichdeterminestheeaseandhomogeneitywithwhichitcanbem​ixed,placed,consolidatedandfinishediscalledtheworkabilityofconcrete(ACI).Workabilitydependsonwa​tercontent,aggregate(shapeandsizedistribution),cementitiouscontentandage(levelofhydration)andca​nbemodifiedbyaddingchemicaladmixtures,likesuperplasticizer. Raisingthewatercontentoraddingchemicaladmixtureswillincreaseconcreteworkability.Excessivewaterw​illleadtoincreasedbleeding(surfacewater)and/orsegregationofaggregates(whenthecementandaggregatesstarttoseparate),withtheresultingconcreteha​vingreducedquality.

MIXING CONCRETE

Separatepastemixinghasshownthatthemixingofcementandwaterintoapastebeforecombiningthesematerials​withaggregatescanincreasethecompessivestrengthoftheresultingconcrete.Thepasteisgenerallymixedin​ahigh-speed,sheartypemixerataw/cm(watertocementratio)of0.30to0.45bymass.Thecementpastepremixmayincludeadmixturessuchasaccelera​torsorretarders,superplasticizers,pigments,orsilicafume.

PLACING AND COMPACTION

Themethodschosenforplacingandcompactingtheconcretewilldependonthetypeofconstruction,thetotalvol​umetobeplaced,therequiredrateofplacingandthepreferencesandexpertiseoftheconstructioncompaniesin​volved.Thereare,however,severalbasicruleswhichshouldbefollowedtoensurethattheconcreteisproperly​placedandcompactedintoauniform,voidfreemassonceithasbeendeliveredtotheformworkinasatisfactoryst​ate:

REGULAR CONCRETE
Regularconcrete-isthelaytermdescribingconcretethatisproducedbyfollowingthemixinginstructionsthatarecommonlypubl​ishedonpacketsofcement,typicallyusingsandorothercommonmaterialastheaggregate,andoftenmixedinimp​rovisedcontainers.Thisconcretecanbeproducedtoyieldavaryingstrengthfromabout10MPa(1450psi)toabou​t40MPa(5800psi),dependingonthepurpose,rangingfromblindingtostructuralconcreterespectively
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