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19-02-2010, 11:46 AM
Post: #1
gas insulated substation full report

.pptx  GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION.pptx (Size: 4.78 MB / Downloads: 2837)

GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION

INTRODUCTION

Conventional substations requires, small installation size, protection against atmospheric pollution and moisture, noiseless operation, nonexplosive and flame resistant, reduced maintenance, minimal radio interference, but totally enclosed substations using SF6 gas as insulation that are also known as GIS is now in widespread use in the electrical power industry .
It consist of
¢ Bus bars
¢ Circuit breakers
¢ Disconnecting switches
¢ Earthing switches
¢ Current transformers
¢ Voltage transformers
¢ Densimeter
¢ Cable and boxes
¢ Gas supply and gas monitoring equipment
¢ Local control

Circuit Breaker

Under short circuit conditions, however, the current may reach tens of thousands of amperes at a power factor as low as 0.1. It is duty of a circuit breaker to interrupt such currents as soon as possible to avoid equipment damage.

Disconnectors

¢ Disconnectors or isolators are used for electrical isolation of circuit parts
¢ They are slow acting and operating at off load
¢ Disconnectors must be carefully designed and tested to be able to break small charging current without generating too-high over voltage,

Local Control Cubicles LCC

LCC is the interface cubicles to all secondary systems of a substation which are represent a station control and protection.
LCC includes control and alarm functions as well as the correct distribution of auxiliary power supply for the relevant GIS bay.

Earthing Switch

Slow-operating earthing switch are used for protection purpose when work is being done in the substation, but are operated only when it is certain that the high-voltage system is not energized. The fast-closing earthing switch can close against full voltage and short circuit power. The high speed earthing switch is achieved by means of a spring-closing device.

Voltage Transformer

Variable location on feeder and busbars.
¢ Integrated disconnecting facility for GIS and power cable testing without dismantling and gas handling.
¢ Flexible gas compartment allocation for optimal service oriented gas supervision.

Current Transformer

¢in the single phase enclosed Core of CT is located outside the enclosure$inside for three phase
¢ Gas compartment to reduce access of moisture and to suppress gas-tight bushings for secondary connections.

Cables Compartment

1. Optimized solution for plug-in type power cable connection.
2. Adjustable support structures for minimum requirements for the GIS floor.
3. Fixation to the GIS floor by cemented anchor bolts, no need for special foundation (steel beams¦.etc)

PROPERTIES OF SF6


¢ SF6 does not harm to
the ozone layer.
¢ Sf6 gas is chemically stable
¢ Non poisonous
¢ Colourless&heavier than air
¢ Almost water insoluble
¢ Non inflammable

ADVANTAGES

¢ Gis have no risks for fire&explosion due to leakage of oil
¢ They generate no noise&have no radio interference
¢ Located closure to load centers there by reducing transmission&distribution s\ms
¢ It offer solutions including
-In industrial areas where space&pollution problems
-Mountain areas where ice&snow are major problems

DISADVANTAGES

GIS installations tend to be much more expensive that air-insulated installations with the same rating.
VFTO during switching operations or earth faults and transient enclosure voltages and particle contamination

APPLICATIONS

¢ High voltage installations (above 115kv)
¢ Urban installations
¢ Indoor installations

GAS INSULATED TRANSFORMER

Use SF6 Gas as the insulating and cooling medium instead of insulating oil.
First units produced in 1967.
Transformer applications: Distribution class units up to 400 MVA, 345 kV.
¢Primarily used in substations located in urban areas (including inside buildings, underground) due to safety benefits.

GAS INSULATED SWITCH GEAR

The space occupied by switch gear is greatly reduced
Totally unaffected by atmospheric conditions
Provides high degree of operational reliability
Easier to install in difficult site conditions

GAS INSULATED SHUNT REACTOR

Features
¢ Suitable for installation
¢ Excellent history of reliability and safety
¢ Fine radial core
¢ Circular yoke and circular tank
¢ Low loss
¢ Easy maintenance
Manufacturing Range
¢ Voltage-13.8 ~ 138kV
¢ Frequency-50 or 60Hz
¢ Capacity-5 ~ 60Mvar

FUTURE TRENDS IN GAS INSULATED SUBSTATIONS

Compact design of switch gear by using three phase modules
Use of vacuum circuit breaker cells in the medium high voltage GIS and fewer brakes per pole in high voltage circuit breakers
Optimization of GIS design to allow easier maintenance

CONCLUSION

GIS are necessary for EHV&UHV and some important areas to be studied include more conservative designs better particle control&improved gas handling&decomposition product management techniques
Achieving&maintaining high levels of availability requires a more integrated approach to quality control by both users and manufactures

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02-03-2010, 01:38 PM
Post: #2
RE: gas insulated substation full report
THNK U

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21-04-2010, 03:39 PM
Post: #3
RE: gas insulated substation full report

.doc  Gas Insulated Substation.doc (Size: 54.5 KB / Downloads: 804)

Gas Insulated Substation
Gas Insulated Substations(GIS) is a compact, multicomponent assembly enclosed in a ground metallic housing which the primary insulating medium is compressed sulphur hexaflouride(SF6) gas. It generally consists components Of
a) Bus bars
b) Circuit Breakers
c) Disconnecting switches
d) Earthing switches
e) Current transformers
f) Voltage transformers
g) Cable and boxes
h) Gas supply and gas monitoring equipment
i) Densimeters and
j) Local control
Why we need GIS1) Gas insulated Substations have found a broad range applications in power systems over the last three decades because of their high reliability Easy maintenance, small ground space requirements etc.,. 2) In our country also few GIS units have been in operation and a large number of units are under various stages of installation. 3) Although GIS has been in operation in several years, some of the problems are needful attention4) These problems include VFTO during switching operations or earth faults and transient enclosure voltages and particle contamination.
Advantages of GIS:
a) Because of the entire equipment being enclosed in enclosures, filled with pressurized SF6 gas, installation is not subject to environmental pollutions, as experienced along coastal areas or certain types of industries. b) Such installations are preferred in cosmopolitan cities, industrial townships, etc., where cost of land isveryhighand higher cost of SF6 insulated switchgear is justified by saving due to reduction in floor area requirement. It is not necessary that high voltage or extra high voltage switchgear to be installed out doors. c) Since most of the construction is modular and the assembly is done in the works, one site erection time both for supporting structures and switchgear is greatly reduced.

Disadvantages with Air Insulated Substations:
a) It requires huge amount of area .
b) Each and every component of substation is exposed to air and pollution.
c) Particularly in coastal area all the insulators are exposed to air and saline contamination.
d) Frequent flashovers and breakdown occurs.
e) Maintenance cost is more.
f) Installation time is also more.
g) More concrete work is necessary.

A) The necessity of this study :
Extremely high dielectric properties of SF6 have long been recognized. Compressed SF6 has been used as an insulating medium as well as arc quenching medium in electrical apparatus in a wide range of voltages.
Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) can be used for longer times without any periodical inspections. Conducting contamination (i.e. aluminum, copper and silver particles) could, however, seriously reduce the dielectric strength of gas-insulated system
B) The origin of these particles :
Metallic particles in GIS have their origin mainly from the manufacturing process or they may originate from moving parts of the system, such as breakers and disconnectors.
Metallic particles can be either free to move in the GIS or they may be stuck either to an energized electrode or to an insulator surface (spacer, bushing etc.). 1) Different metallic contamination viz Cu, Al and Ag have been considered for the above study. Typically a GIB of inner and outer dia 102/292mm have been considered for a 245KV system. used for simulation. Co-efficient of restitution and pressure have been varied from 0.1 to 0.9 and 0.1Mpa to 1Mpa respectively. 3) Typical results show that for a variation of copper particles of radii from 0.2 to 5mm, the maximum radial movement reduces from 6mm to 1mm. 4) Whereas in the case of variation of length from 1mm to 16mm the radial movement increases from 1mm to 9.8mm. With the change of pressure the movement is found to be almost same for majority of particles consider If a metallic particle crosses the gap and comes into contact with the inner electrode or if a metallic particle adheres to the inner conductor, the particle will act as protrusion on the surface of the electrode, and the voltage required for breakdown of the GIS will be dramatically decreased.
A metallic particle stuck on an insulator surface in a GIS will also cause a significant reduction of the breakdown voltage
Depending on the shape of the particles, as well as the geometry and voltage levels of the system, the particles get more or less influenced by the electric field which, in turn, makes them hazardous to the electrical system, in terms of partial discharges and breakdown.
1. The introduction of SF6 gas has revolutionized not only the technology of circuit breakers but also the layout of substations. 2. The dielectric strength of SF6 gas at atmospheric pressure is approximately three times that of air. 3. It is incombustible, non toxic, colourless and chemically inert. 4. It has arc-quenching properties 3 to 4 times better than air at equal pressure. 5. This enables the substation to be laid in a much lesser space.
6. Space requirement is only 10 to 25 percent of what is required is a conventional substation. 7. Thus where creation of a substation becomes necessary but adequate space is not available, such as in big cities or otherwise highly populated areas, GIS is the solution
reference:
http://www.ayyarao.blog.co.in
http://www.google.com
http://www.wikipedia.com

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23-04-2010, 02:43 PM
Post: #4
RE: gas insulated substation full report

.pdf  gas insulated substation presentation.pdf (Size: 764.73 KB / Downloads: 835)

Design Features

GIS technology: compact, low-life cycle cost and
modular for indoor and outdoor applications
Modular design, factory pre-assembled and tested units
Space requirement less than 20 % of comparable AIS
Safety (enclosed energized components)
Continous monitoring of SF6 densitity
Sealed for operating life > 50 years
Major inspection: not before 25 years 1)
GIS Pressure Systems
Closed pressure systems:
The closed pressure system uses isolated

apparatus compartments with o-ring

sealed bolted flanges.
The tightness characteristic of a closed

pressure system stated by the

manufacturer shall be consistent with a

minimum maintenance and inspection

philosophy.
The leakage rate from any single

compartment of GIS to atmosphere and

between compartments shall not exceed

0.5 % per year for the service life of

the equipment.*
Practical experiences to the today's

design of GIS show as low as 0.2 % per

year.

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27-04-2010, 09:24 AM
Post: #5
RE: gas insulated substation full report
Huge thanks, helped a lot

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