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19-03-2011, 02:54 PM
Post: #11
RE: holographic data storage full report

.doc  holographicmemory.doc (Size: 473.5 KB / Downloads: 172)
INTRODUCTION
Devices that use light to store and read data have been the backbone of data storage for nearly two decades. Compact discs revolutionized data storage in the early 1980s, allowing multi-megabytes of data to be stored on a disc that has a diameter of a mere 12 centimeters and a thickness of about 1.2 millimeters. In 1997, an improved version of the CD, called a digital versatile disc (DVD), was released, which enabled the storage of full-length movies on a single disc.
CDs and DVDs are the primary data storage methods for music, software, personal computing and video. A CD can hold 783 megabytes of data. A double-sided, double-layer DVD can hold 15.9 GB of data, which is about eight hours of movies. These conventional storage mediums meet today's storage needs, but storage technologies have to evolve to keep pace with increasing consumer demand. CDs, DVDs and magnetic storage all store bits of information on the surface of a recording medium. In order to increase storage capabilities, scientists are now working on a new optical storage method called holographic memory that will go beneath the surface and use the volume of the recording medium for storage, instead of only the surface area. Three-dimensional data storage will be able to store more information in a smaller space and offer faster data transfer times.
Holographic memory is developing technology that has promised to revolutionalise the storage systems. It can store data upto 1 Tb in a sugar cube sized crystal. Data from more than 1000 CDs can fit into a holographic memory System. Most of the computer hard drives available today can hold only 10 to 40 GB of data, a small fraction of what holographic memory system can hold. Conventional memories use only the surface to store the data. But holographic data storage systems use the volume to store data. It has more advantages than conventional storage systems. It is based on the principle of holography.
Scientist Pieter J. van Heerden first proposed the idea of holographic (three-dimensional) storage in the early 1960s. A decade later, scientists at RCA Laboratories demonstrated the technology by recording 500 holograms in an iron-doped lithium-niobate crystal and 550 holograms of high-resolution images in a light-sensitive polymer material. The lack of cheap parts and the advancement of magnetic and semiconductor memories placed the development of holographic data storage on hold.
HOLOGRAPHY
A hologram is a block or sheet of photosensitive material which records the interference of two light sources. To create a hologram, laser light is first split into two beams, a source beam and a reference beam. The source beam is then manipulated and sent into the photosensitive material. Once inside this material, it intersects the reference beam and the resulting interference of laser light is recorded on the photosensitive material, resulting in a hologram. Once a hologram is recorded, it can be viewed with only the reference beam. The reference beam is projected into the hologram at the exact angle it was projected during recording. When this light hits the recorded diffraction pattern, the source beam is regenerated out of the refracted light. An exact copy of the source beam is sent out of the hologram and can be read by optical sensors. For example, a hologram that can be obtained from a toy store illustrates this idea. Precise laser equipment is used at the factory to create the hologram. A recording material which can recreate recorded images out of natural light is used so the consumer does not need high-tech equipment to view the information stored in the hologram. Natural light becomes the reference beam and human eyes become the optical sensors.
Holography was invented in 1947 by the Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor (1900-1979), who won a 1971 Nobel Prize for his invention.
APPLICATION TO BINARY
In order for holographic technology to be applied to computer systems, it must store data in a form that a computer can recognize. In current computer systems, this form is binary. In the previous section, it was mentioned that the source beam is manipulated. In common holograms, this manipulation is the creation of an optical image such as a ball or human face. In computer applications, this manipulation is in the form of bits. The next section explains the spatial light modulator, a device that converts laser light into binary data.
SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR (SLM)
A spatial light modulator is used for creating binary information out of laser light. The SLM is a 2D plane, consisting of pixels which can be turned on and off to create binary 1.s and 0.s. An illustration of this is a window and a window shade. It is possible to pull the shade down over a window to block incoming sunlight. If sunlight is desired again, the shade can be raised. A spatial light modulator contains a two-dimensional array of windows which are only microns wide. These windows block some parts of the incoming laser light and let other parts go through. The resulting cross section of the laser beam is a two dimensional array of binary data, exactly the same as what was represented in the SLM. After the laser beam is manipulated, it is sent into the hologram to be recorded. This data is written into the hologram as page form. It is called this due to its representation as a two dimensional plane, or page of data. Spatial light modulator is a Liquid Crystal Display panel that consists of clear and dark areas corresponding to the binary information it represent.
Spatial light modulator is actually that device which makes holography applicable to computers. So it is one of the important components of Holographic Data Storage System.
IMPLEMENTATION
The components of Holographic data storage system is composed of
Blue-green argon laser
Beam splitters to spilt the laser beam
Mirrors to direct the laser beams
LCD panel (spatial light modulator)
Lenses to focus the laser beams
Lithium-niobate crystal or photopolymer
Charge coupled device camera
They can be classified into three sections namely recording medium, optical recording system and photodetector array. The laser is used because it provides monochromatic light. Only the interference pattern produced by the monochromatic beam of light is stable in time. Lithium niobate crystal is used as photosensitive material on which hologram is recorded. It has certain optical characteristics that make it behave as photosensitive material. CCD camera detects the information in the light, converts to digital information and forward it to computer.
RECORDING OF DATA IN HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY SYSTEM
When the blue-green argon laser is fired, a beam splitter creates two beams. One beam, called the object or signal beam, will go straight, bounce off one mirror and travel through a spatial-light modulator (SLM). An SLM is a Liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows pages of raw binary data as clear and dark boxes. The information from the page of binary code is carried by the signal beam around to the light-sensitive lithium-niobate crystal. Some systems use a photopolymer in place of the crystal. A second beam, called the reference beam, shoots out the side of the beam splitter and takes a separate path to the crystal. When the two beams meet, the interference pattern that is created stores the data carried by the signal beam in a specific area in the crystal -- the data is stored as a hologram.
19-03-2011, 04:25 PM
Post: #12
RE: holographic data storage full report

.ppt  Holographic_Data_Storage_System_-_Paul.ppt (Size: 1,022 KB / Downloads: 218)
We Need More Data Storage !
Holographic Data-Storage System

These two diagrams show how information is stored and retrieved in a holographic data storage system.
(Images courtesy of Lucent Technologies)
Capacity, Speed, Cost Comparison
Probable Projects
HDSS Juke box
E-Library
Movie Library
Personal Clan Video
Government Agencies
Educational Tutorials
Magic Sing with Holographic Data Chips
Dream Projects

HVD-RW
Lasers as Transmission Cables
Laser Transformer
Storing Holographic Energy
Sources:
The Economist Technology Quartely, June 2007
How Holographic Memory Will Work
by Kevin Bronsor
How Holographic Versatile Discs Work
by Julia Layton
24-03-2011, 11:31 AM
Post: #13
RE: holographic data storage full report
presented by:
VISHNU JOSHI

ABSTRACT:
Holographic data storage is a potential replacement technology in the area of high-capacity data storage currently dominated by magnetic and conventional optical data storage. Magnetic and optical data storage devices rely on individual bits being stored as distinct magnetic or optical changes on the surface of the recording medium. Holographic data storage overcomes this limitation by recording information throughout the volume of the medium and is capable of recording multiple images in the same area utilizing light at different angles. Additionally, whereas magnetic and optical data storage records information a bit at a time in a linear fashion, holographic storage is capable of recording and reading millions of bits in parallel, enabling data transfer rates greater than those attained by optical storage.
Holographic data storage captures information using a non optical interference pattern within a thick, photosensitive optical material. Light from a single laser beam is divided into two separate optical patterns of dark and light pixels. By adjusting the reference beam angle, wavelength, or media position, a multitude of holograms (theoretically, several thousand) can be stored on a single volume. The theoretical limits for the storage density of this technique is approximately several tens of Terabytes (1 terabyte = 1024 gigabytes) per cubic centimeter. From this we can deduce that a regular disk (with 4 cm radius of writing area) could hold up to a maximum of 3895.6 GB. Holographic data storage can provide companies a method to preserve and archive information. The write-once, read many approach to data storage would ensure content security, preventing the information from being overwritten or modified.
16-07-2011, 03:53 PM
Post: #14
RE: holographic data storage full report
Presented By:
Manu G.R


.ppt  Manu G.R..ppt (Size: 9.36 MB / Downloads: 221)
HOLOGRAPHIC DATA STORAGE
INTRODUCTION

The storage of information and data has been an important issue since men first drew pictures on the walls of caves. The methods of storing data have changed over the years, especially now that we have CD, DVD, HDD.
Scientist Pieter J. van Heerden first proposed the idea of holographic (three-dimensional) storage in the early 1960s.
Holographic memory is developing technology that has promised to revolutionalise the storage systems.
Holographic data storage is a volumetric approach.
What Is Holographic Storage?  
·     Holographic storage is the computer storage that uses laser beams to store data in 3 dimensions.
·     Holographic Storage is an optical technology that allows 1 million bits of data to be written or read in a single flash of light.
·     Holography records through the full depth of the medium.
·     Holography enables transfer rates significantly higher than current optical storage devices.
Why Holographic Storage?
·    Three dimensional data storage has the potential to store more data in a smaller space and at a quicker speed.
·    Parallel access to data i.e. Multiplex data pages in one location.
·    Fast data transfer rates.
·    Competitive with other optical technology.
·    Thousands of holograms can be stored in the same location throughout the entire depth of the medium.
What Is A Hologram?
A three-dimensional image formed by the interference of light beams from a laser.
The intersection of two beams creates an interference pattern of bright and dark regions.
COMPONENTS OF A HOLOGRAPHIC STORAGE SYSTEM
Blue-green argon laser
Beam splitters
Mirrors
LCD panel (SLM)
Lenses
Lithium-niobate crystal or photopolymer
Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera
How a holographic memory works
ADVANTAGES
Entire page of data can be retrieved quickly and at one time.
Offers storage of 1TB of data in a sugar cube sized crystal.
It offers high density storage.
Low Scatter: Low levels of noise in data recovery
It transfer rate is so high that a person can easily load the required data.
Resistance to damage – If some parts medium are damaged, all information can still be obtained from other parts.
Efficient retrieval – All information can be retrieved from any part of the medium
APPLICATIONS
CONCLUSION

Holographic data storage is a convenient and effective way of data storage.
This storage technique is rapidly gaining attention because of its capacity (GB to TB) and high speed data storage.
Holographic data storage will help to create a new tapeless era in the video production and broadcast industry.
No other storage technology under development can match holography's capacity and speed potential.
Finally, Holography could provide a unique hardware device for searching databases rapidly.
18-07-2011, 10:45 AM
Post: #15
RE: holographic data storage full report

.pdf  holographic data storage.pdf (Size: 682.09 KB / Downloads: 121)
INTRODUCTION
1.1 History

Digital data are ubiquitous in modern life. The capabilities of current storage
technologies are continually being challenged by applications as far ranging
as the distribution of content, digital video, interactive multimedia, small
personal data storage devices, archiving of valuable digital assets, and downloading
over high-speed networks . Current optical data storage technologies,
such as the compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD), and Bluray disk
(BD) , have been widely adopted because of the ability to provide random access
to data, the availability of inexpensive removable media, and the ability
to rapidly replicate content (video, for example)[1].
Traditional optical storage technologies, including CD, DVD and BD,
stream data one bit at a time , and record the data on the surface of the
disk-shaped media. In these technologies, the data are read back by detecting
changes in the reflectivity of the small marks made on the surface of the
media during recording. The traditional path for increasing optical recording
density is to record smaller marks, closer together. These improvements in
characteristic mark sizes and track spacing have yielded storage densities
for CD, DVD, and BD of approximately 0.66, 3.2, and 17 Gb in m−2 ,
respectively.
To further increase storage capacities, multi-layer disk recording is possible,
but signal to noise losses, and reduced media manufacturing yields,
make using significantly more than two layers impractical. Considerable
drive technology changes, such as homodyne detection and dynamic spher-
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 3
ical aberration compensation servo techniques, have been proposed to deal
with the signal to noise losses inherent in multiple layers[2].
1.2 Holographic Data Storage
Holog aphic data storage (HDS) breaks through the density limitations of
conventional storage technologies by going beyond two-dimensional layered
approaches, to write data in three dimensions. Before discussing page-based
HDS, here an alternate approach; bitwise holographic storage .
In bitwise holographic storage, multiple layers of small localized holograms
are recorded at the focus of two counter-propagating beams. Each
of these holograms represents a single bit that is subsequently read out by
monitoring the reflectance of a single focused beam . racking the hologram
locations through the volume in three dimens ions is typically accomplished
using a reference surface or part of the holograms themselves. Bitwise holographic
storage is appealing because the drive technology and components
are similar to traditional optical storage , and because the media is homogenous
and hence easy to manufacture. However, there are several serious
drawbacks. First, it is difficult to achieve fast transfer rates. Also, it requires
the invention of a material that is optically nonlinear. The technique also
requires a complex servo system because the two recording beams must be
dynamically focused into the same volume. Finally, the multiple layers of
micro holograms cause distortion in the optical beams, which significantly
limits the achievable density.
Page-wise HDS has demonstrated the highest storage densities (712 Gb
in m−2 ) of any removable technology, and has a theoretically achievable
density of around 40 Tb in m−2. High storage densities , fast transfer rates
and random access, combined with durable, reliable , low cost media, make
page-wise holography a compelling choice for next-generation storage and
content distribution applications. The flexibility of the technology allows
the development of a wide variety of holographic storage products, ranging
from handheld devices for consumers to storage products for the enterprise
market.
Figure 1.1 shows the highlihts in holographic storage developments over
the last 15years. The right-hand side of the figure shows technical advances
made by Bell Laboratories and InPhase Technologies, while those of other
companies and institutions are shown on the left-hand side of the figure[
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