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21-06-2011, 12:41 PM
Post: #1
INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL USING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

.doc  INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL USING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS.doc (Size: 155 KB / Downloads: 392)
ABSTRACT:
Embedded systems are fast achieving ubiquity, blurring the lines between science fiction and hard reality. These systems are found in almost every electronic device in use today. In fact Embedded Systems is not a new technology, but it has come into limelight only recently due to the convergence of many technologies like telecom, consumer electronics, automobiles (MPFI), factory automation, smart-cards, traffic control using the immense power of the Microprocessor. Embedded Systems have penetrated our lives in such a radical way that most of us may not even notice what lies under the hood of many commonly used gizmos and gadgets. Thus, we should have an idea about how embedded systems plays an important role in our day-to-day life.
In a nutshell, an embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software and perhaps additional mechanical parts that are designed to perform a specific function. “Embedded” reflects the fact that they are an integral part of the system. Embedded systems are also known as real time systems and have extreme diversity of applications in all walks of life. In fact RTOS and embedded systems are the unsung hero’s of much of the technology we use today.
This paper starts off with the basic definition of an embedded system, explains what an embedded system is, and lists the steps involved in creation of an embedded application & also lists few applications of embedded systems. This paper gives an overview of the “Intelligent Traffic Light Control Using Embedded Systems”, which aids the effective control of traffic.
1. INTRODUCTION:
How would you like to live in a house that recognizes your fingerprints and opens the front door automatically? Imagine a fridge that checks your food supplies and places orders to replenish them; or intelligent lights and air conditioners that adjust their settings automatically according to the light and heat available at various times of the day. What about a microwave oven that can send a message to your PDA saying that the cake you kept to bake is done? And what about a doctor configuring a cardiac pacemaker inside his patient's chest while sitting 200 kms away. Could you ever imagine a person traveling in a driver-less car? Impossible? Not really. All these are possible in the near future. Did you ever think how all these equipment have become so smart and intelligent?
Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) and embedded systems are two among the latest technologies that play a major role in making these concepts possible. Embedded microprocessors or micro controllers are the brain behind these systems. The application of these controllers makes the equipment user friendly, cheap and enables to add features otherwise impossible to provide by other means.
2. WHAT AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM IS?
General purpose definition of an Embedded system is that they are devices used to control, monitor or assist the operation of equipment, machinery or plant .Any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer is an embedded system. “Embedded” reflects the fact that they are integral part of the system. In simple terms, any device using a Microprocessor for control and automation is an Embedded System.
5. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL USING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:
Growing number of road users and the limited resources provided by current infrastructures lead to ever increasing traveling times. Traffic in a city is very much affected by traffic light controllers. When waiting for a traffic light, the driver looses time and the car uses fuel. To make traffic light controllers more intelligent, we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as communication networks and sensor networks, as well as the use of more sophisticated algorithms for setting traffic lights. The Intelligent Traffic Control System is formed as a network of embedded systems. Intelligent traffic light control does not only mean that traffic lights are set in order to minimize waiting times of road users, but also that road users receive information about how to drive through a city in order to minimize their waiting times. This means that we are coping with a complex multi-agent system, where communication and coordination play essential roles. The research has led to a novel system in which traffic light controllers and the behavior of car drivers are optimized using machine-learning methods.
09-02-2012, 09:55 AM
Post: #2
RE: INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL USING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
to get information about the topic Intelligent Traffic Control using embedded system full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-in...ed-systems

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27-03-2012, 12:04 PM
Post: #3
RE: INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL USING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLUSING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS



.pdf  10.1.1.1.5180.pdf (Size: 288.72 KB / Downloads: 103)

Introduction
Transportation research has the goal to optimize transportation flow of people and goods.
As the number of road users constantly increases, and resources provided by current infrastructures
are limited, intelligent control of traffic will become a very important issue in the
future. However, some limitations to the usage of intelligent traffic control exist. Avoiding
traffic jams for example is thought to be beneficial to both environment and economy, but
improved traffic-flow may also lead to an increase in demand [Levinson, 2003].
There are several models for traffic simulation. In our research we focus on microscopic
models that model the behavior of individual vehicles, and thereby can simulate dynamics
of groups of vehicles. Research has shown that such models yield realistic behavior
[Nagel and Schreckenberg, 1992, Wahle and Schreckenberg, 2001].



Modelling and Controlling Traffic
In this section, we focus on the use of information technology in transportation. A lot of
ground can be gained in this area, and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) gained interest
of several governments and commercial companies [Ten-T expert group on ITS, 2002,
White Paper, 2001, EPA98, 1998].
ITS research includes in-car safety systems, simulating effects of infrastructural changes,
route planning, optimization of transport, and smart infrastructures. Its main goals are:
improving safety, minimizing travel time, and increasing the capacity of infrastructures. Such
improvements are beneficial to health, economy, and the environment, and this shows in the
allocated budget for ITS.


Modelling Traffic
Traffic dynamics bare resemblance with, for example, the dynamics of fluids and those of sand
in a pipe. Different approaches to modelling traffic flow can be used to explain phenomena
specific to traffic, like the spontaneous formation of traffic jams. There are two common
approaches for modelling traffic; macroscopic and microscopic models.


Macroscopic models.
Macroscopic traffic models are based on gas-kinetic models and use equations relating traffic
density to velocity [Lighthill and Whitham, 1955, Helbing et al., 2002]. These equations can
be extended with terms for build-up and relaxation of pressure to account for phenomena like
stop-and-go traffic and spontaneous congestions [Helbing et al., 2002, Jin and Zhang, 2003,
Broucke and Varaiya, 1996]. Although macroscopic models can be tuned to simulate certain
driver behaviors, they do not offer a direct, flexible, way of modelling and optimizing them,
making them less suited for our research.


Microscopic models.
In contrast to macroscopic models, microscopic traffic models offer a way of simulating various
driver behaviors. A microscopic model consists of an infrastructure that is occupied by a set
of vehicles. Each vehicle interacts with its environment according to its own rules. Depending
on these rules, different kinds of behavior emerge when groups of vehicles interact.


Vehicle Control
It is a well-known fact that traffic flow would increase drastically if all drivers would drive
at the same (maximum) speed. Another fact is that this will never happen if you let drivers
decide. In this section we first show how vehicles could learn to cooperate. We then describe
an ambitious research program that aims to control all vehicles by on-board computers.
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