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30-03-2012, 01:43 PM
Post: #1
MICROCONTROLLER BASED ECGAND BLOOD PRESSURE SIMULATOR
MICROCONTROLLER BASED ECGAND BLOOD PRESSURE SIMULATOR



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INTRODUCTION
The compact, easy, high precision Microcontroller Based ECG and Non-Invasive Blood
Pressure (NIBP) Simulator is easy to use and have multiple features to fit many different
applications. The simulator gives out a standard waveform that can be used for checking and
calibration of an ECG recorder, heart rate meter, QRS detector etc. utilizing gated measurement
for noise/artifact rejection. The normal sinus rhythm is simulated with a choice of selectable
rates and amplitudes along with Blood Pressure Waveform. The latest microcontroller with a
highly stable 12 MHz oscillator crystal and precision voltage reference provides the instrument’s
high accuracy.



ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG, abbreviated from the German Elektrokardiogramm)
is a graphic produced by an electrocardiograph, which records the electrical voltage in the
heart in the form of a continuous strip graph. It is the prime tool in cardiac electrophysiology,
and has a prime function in screening and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. The
electrocardiogram does not assess the contractility of the heart. The ECG has a wide array
of uses:
• Determine whether the heart is performing normally or arrhythmically.
• It can indicate acute or previous damage to heart muscle (heart attacks) or ischaemia
of heart muscle (angina).
• It can be used for detecting potassium, calcium, magnesium and other electrolyte
disturbances.
• It is useful for the detection of conduction abnormalities. (heart blocks and in bundle
branch blocks).
• It can be used for the monitoring of ischaemic heart disease during an stress test.
• It can provide information on the physical condition of the heart (eg: left ventricular
hypertrophy and mitral stenosis).



BLOOD PRESSURE WAVEFORM
As one of the physiological variables that can be quite readily measured, blood pressure
is considered a good indicator of status of cardiovascular system. When the left ventricle
pumps blood into the aorta, the aortic pressure rises. The maximum aortic pressure following
ejection of blood into the aorta is termed the systolic pressure (Psystolic). As the left ventricle
relaxes and refills, the pressure in the aorta falls.


CONCLUSION
The aim of the study was to design and develops an
ECG simulator intended for use in the testing, calibration,
maintenance of ECG monitoring equipments and as a
laboratory simulation device for student educational use.
The output of this simulator is both normal and abnormal
waveforms.
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