RE: MICROCONTROLLER BASED POWER THEFT IDENTIFICATION (Download Full Seminar Report)
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The present thesis, Microcontroller Based Power Theft Identifier, introduces the concept of preventing the illegal usage of the electrical power. Here, the radio communication principles are employed and also the technology of Microcontrollers is utilized to find out the user trying for pilferage of power i.e., by displaying the respective consumer meter number and address.
For the complete operation, the system can be sub-divided into two major sections, one is the transmitting section and the other is the receiving section. The transmitting section has to be incorporated at the consumer’s end and the receiver section has to be placed at the electrical sub-station.
In the transmitting section, two types of automatic power theft detection schemes are provided. In the first scheme, within the meter (inside the bottom cover), an electro-optical sensor is placed and it is configured to feed trigger signal for the timer circuit. Whenever light falls on it (when user tries to open the bottom cover), the output of the timer circuit energizes a relay which provides supply for modulating input section which differs from user to user. An F.M Transmitter is designed with a carrier of 100 MHz. Here, the modulating input is superimposed over the carrier and is transmitted. In the second scheme, a transmitter is connected to the bottom cover. If the user touches this bottom cover, due to electro-static charge associated with human body, the transistor gets turned on and energizes the relay, which provides supply for modulating input section.
In the receiving section, the signal received is demodulated, amplified and digitized (using ADC) and is fed to Microcontroller (8051). Microcontroller identifies the frequency and its associated user. Then it energizes an alarm and displays the address of the user.
The proposed project work aims on the design and development of energy theft prevention aspect. Thereby, energy pilferage can be reduced to a considerable extent. This project envisages the development of energy theft identification. Hence this project work is titled as “MICROCONTROLLER BASED POWER THEFT IDENTIFIER”.
Now-a-days the energy consumption and energy distribution has become a big subject for discussion because of huge energy pilferage. Hence the need has come to think in this line and a solution has to be emerged out. Thus this project work has been taken up which serves the purpose of energy monitoring so that the energy thief can be easily caught, thereby huge penalties can be imposed on energy thieves. By detecting the energy theft cases, people or electric consumers will become alert and thereby the energy theft can also be prevented.
This project work is basically related to Radio communication. As we know the modern communication plays a dominant role in the communication revolution, the proposed project work is aimed to use radio communication between energy consumer and centralized electric sub-station, where the energy theft monitoring is performed. Hence, this project work is divided into two units i.e. (1) energy theft detection at energy consumer’s place, (2) Centralized radio receiver, where the power theft information is received, decoded and monitored using Microcontroller.
The energy theft detection consists of energy theft detector, suitable tone generator and F.M Radio Transmitter. The frequency of tone generator differs from one energy consumer to the other. The frequencies are allocated according to the energy consumer’s identification code.
In this project work, for the demonstration purpose two analog energy meters are considered, one is equipped with light sensing circuit and the other one is equipped with touch sensitive circuit. Whenever, one tries for energy theft by opening the top cover of the energy meter, the light falls on the LDR which is arranged inside the meter, this in turn enables the relay which thereby enables the tone generator. The tone generator generates the tone signal as a modulating signal to the built in 100MHz F.M.Radio Transmitter. Thereby the F.M.Radio Transmitter transmits 100MHz Carrier signal super imposed with tone signal in the frequency modulation mode.
The centralized energy monitoring system receives the F.M signal with the help of F.M.Radio receiver. The received signal is demodulated and amplified with the help of transformer coupled amplifier. The detection is performed with the help of a versatile IC TEA 5591A. The advantage of this type of radio receiver is, it provides all the major functions required for modern FM designs of receivers.