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21-09-2008, 11:59 PM
Post: #1
MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
Basically multi-channel sensor used for biomedical
* When swallowed it travel the GI tract, detect
abnormalities and transmit data.

* Used for real time measurement of parameters
like temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved
oxygen

* The sensors are fabricated using electron beam
and photolithographic pattern integration

CAPSULE
* Outer casing is made with chemically resistant polyether-terketone
* PCB chip carrier act as a common platform and is made from fiber
* Sensors are attached to the chip carrier using 10 pin polyamide ribbon connector and flat cable plug
* Sensor chips are connected to the both sides of the PCB

* The unit is powered by two STD, 1.55V Silver Oxide cells with a capacity of 175mAh

* The capsule is machined as two separate screw fitting compartment

* The sensor chips are exposed to the ambient environment through access ports and are sealed by 2 stainless steel clamps

* The complete prototype is 16 * 55 mm and weighs 13.5g including batteries

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08-01-2009, 04:23 PM
Post: #2
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
please send more info regarding this topic.
25-01-2009, 10:22 PM
Post: #3
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
ABSTRACT
Considering oscillator circuits are implemented in almost every electronic product today, these fundamental circuits can be thought of as the foundation for many devices. Oscillator circuits provide clean and dependable signals to drive other devices, so as to provide a reference or clock signal in the form of a square wave, triangle wave, or sine wave. For example, oscillators are used to operate key functionality in metal detectors, radios, and stun guns.
In order to design a collector-coupled BJT oscillator, also known as a relaxation oscillator, a sufficient amount of calculation and simulation time is required. Using PSpice to simulate the collector-coupled BJT oscillator, transient analysis and frequency response curves can be used to determine key signal parameters, such as amplitude, frequency, total harmonic distortion (THD), and DC offset voltage. After simulation, practical implementation can be used to attain these same parameters to determine the......

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24-03-2009, 09:41 PM
Post: #4
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
this topic is interesting .. please send me some more information..please
28-03-2009, 04:32 AM
Post: #5
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
See Its IEEE Seminar Report
Now I dont have IEEE Acees
Any Way i will Give You The Link Addres
if you Have IEEE Acces Please Upload Here The Seminar Report For Helping Others

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login....ision=-203




A novel microelectronic "pill" has been developed for in situ studies of the gastro-intestinal tract, combining microsensors and integrated circuits with system-level integration technology. The measurement parameters include real-time remote recording of temperature, pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. The unit comprises an outer biocompatible capsule encasing four microsensors, a control chip, a discrete component radio transmitter, and two silver oxide cells (the latter providing an operating time of 40 h at the rated power consumption of 12.1 mW). The sensors were fabricated on two separate silicon chips located at the front end of the capsule. The robust nature of the pill makes it adaptable for use in a variety of environments related to biomedical and industrial applications.

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12-09-2009, 01:13 AM
Post: #6
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
Our Body is a sensitive system.
Many times even doctors arenâ„¢t able to interpret the disease. Thus it become too late to cure it.
To remove this problem scientists discovered electronic capsule in 1972.
Use of discrete & relatively large componentâ„¢s, poor reliability, short lifetimes & low sensitivity makes it outdated.
To overcome all these problems Professor Jon Cooper and Dr Erik Johanessen from Glasgow University , U.K has led to the development of a modern microelectronic pill.
When Microelectronic pill is swallowed, then it will travel through the Gastro Intestinal Tract & simultaneously perform multiparameter in situ physiological analysis
After completing its mission it will come out of the body by normal bowel movement
The pill is 16mm in diameter & 55mm long weighing around 5 gram
It records parameters like temperature, pH, Conductivity, & Dissolved Oxygen in real time.
PARTS CONTROL CHIP RADIO TRANSMITTER 2 SILVER OXIDE CELLS BIOCOMPATIBLE CAPSULE ENCASING MICROSENSOR SILICON DIODE 3 ELECTRODE ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL DIRECT CONTACT GOLD ELECTRODE ION-SELECTIVE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (ISFET)
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF MICRO ELECTRONIC CAPSULE

It measures the body core temperature.
Also compensates with the temperature induced signal changes in other sensors.
It also identifies local changes associated with TISSUE INFLAMMATION & ULCERS.
SILICON DIODE
The ISFET measures pH.
It can reveal pathological conditions associated with abnormal pH levels
These abnormalities include :
Pancreatic disease
Hypertension
Inflammatory bowel disease
The activity of fermenting bacteria
The level of acid excretion
Reflux of oesophagus
Effect of GI specific drugs on target
organs.
ION-SELECTIVE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (ISFET)
The pair of direct contact Gold electrodes measures conductivity, by measuring the contents of water & salt absorption, bile secretion & the breakdown of organic components into charged colloids etc. in the GI tract.
Since the gold has best conductivity among all the elements, Therefore it gives true value of conductivity as measured.
DIRECT CONTACT GOLD ELECTRODE
The three electrode electrochemical cell detects the level of dissolved oxygen in solution.
It measures the oxygen gradient from the proximal to the distal GI Tract
It investigates :
Growth of aerobic or bacterial infection
Formation of radicals causing cellular injury & pathophysiological conditions like inflammation & Gastric ulceration.
It develops 1 st generation enzymes linked with amperometric biosensors.
3 ELECTRODE ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL
ARRANGEMENT MICRO ELECTRONIC PILL CHIP - 1 CHIP - 2 CONTROL CHIP

The ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) is the control unit that connects together other components of the micro system.
It contains an analogue signal “conditioning module operating the sensors, 10-bit analogue to digital (ADC) & digital to analogue (DAC) converters, & digital data processing module
The temperature circuitry bias the diode at constant current so that change in temperature reflects a corresponding change in in diode voltage.
The pH ISFET sensor is biased as a simple source at constant current with the source voltage changing with threshold voltage & pH.
The conductivity circuit operates at D.C. It measures the resistance across the electrode pair as an inverse function of solution conductivity.
An incorporated potentiostat circuit operates the O 2 sensor with a 10 bit DAC controlling the working electrode potential w.r.t the reference
Analogue signals are sequenced through a multiplexer before being digitized by ADC.
ASIC & sensors consume 5.3 mW power corresponding to 1.7 mA of current.
CONTROL CHIP
Size of transmitter = 8 × 5 × 3 mm
Modulation Scheme = Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Data Transfer Rate = 1 kbps
Frequency = 40.01 MHz at 20 °C
Bandwidth of the signal generated 10 KHz
It consumes 6.8 mW power at 2.2 mA of current.
RADIO TRANSMITTOR
OBSERVATIONS ON RECIEVER COMPUTER
2 SR44 Ag 2 O batteries are used.
Operating Time > 40 hours.
Power Consumption = 12.1 mW
Corresponding current consumption = 3.9mA
Supply Voltage = 3.1 V
2 SILVER OXIDE BATTERIES
RANGE :
Temperature from 0 to 70 ° C
pH from 1 to 13
Dissolved Oxygen up to 8.2 mg per liter
Conductivity above 0.05 mScm -1
Full scale dynamic Range analogue signal = 2.8 V
ACCURACY :
pH channel is around 0.2 unit above the real value
Oxygen Sensor is ±0.4 mgL.
Temperature & Conductivity is within ±1%.
RANGE & ACCURACY
It is being beneficially used for disease detection & abnormalities in human body. There fore it is also called as MAGIC PILL FOR HEALTH CARE
Adaptable for use in corrosive & quiescent environment
It can be used in industries in evaluation of water quality, Pollution Detection, fermentation process control & inspection of pipelines.
Micro Electronic Pill utilizes a PROGRAMMABLE STANDBY MODE , So Power consumption is very less.
It has very small size, hence it is very easy for practical usage
High sensitivity, Good reliability & Life times.
Very long life of the cells(40 hours), Less Power, Current & Voltage requirement (12.1 mW, 3.9 mA, 3.1 V)
Less transmission length & hence has zero noise interference.
ADVANTAGES
It cannot perform ultrasound & impedance tomography.
Cannot detect radiation abnormalities
Cannot perform radiation treatment associated with cancer & chronic inflammation.
Micro Electronic Pills are expensive & are not available in many countries.
Still its size is not digestible to small babies


read this
use this link to download presentation http://www.slideshare.net/confirm/MjI4OD...-slideshow
http://ubimon.doc.ic.ac.uk/bsn/public/Jon_Cooper.pdf
http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~aa/JohTanWan02.pdf

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20-06-2010, 01:52 AM
Post: #7
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS

.pptx  micro electronic capsule.pptx (Size: 2.57 MB / Downloads: 474)

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18-07-2010, 05:54 PM
Post: #8
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
i would like to do a seminar on microelectronic pills.could you please help me?
25-11-2010, 08:48 AM
Post: #9
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
INTRODUCTION
THE invention of the transistor enabled the first radiotelemetry capsules, which utilized simple circuits for in vivotelemetric studies of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. These units could only transmit from a single sensor channel,and were difficult to assemble due to the use of discretecomponents. The measurement parameters consisted ofeither temperature, pH or pressure, and the first attemptsof conducting real-time noninvasive physiological measure-ments suffered from poor reliability, low sensitivity, and shortlifetimes of the devices. The first successful pH gut profileswere achieved in 1972, with subsequent improvements in sensitivity and lifetime .Single-channel radiotelemetrycapsules have since been applied for the detection of diseaseand abnormalities in the GI tract where restricted accessprevents the use of traditional endoscopy .Most radiotelemetry capsules utilize laboratory type sensorssuch as glass pH electrodes, resistance thermometers ,ormoving inductive coils as pressure transducers. The rel-atively large size of these sensors limits the functional com-plexity of the pill for a given size of capsule. Adapting existingsemiconductor fabrication technologies to sensor development has enabled the production of highly functional unitsfor data collection, while the exploitation of integrated circuitryfor sensor control, signal conditioning, and wireless transmis-sion has extended the concept of single-channel ra-diotelemetry to remote distributed sensing from microelectronicpills. Our current research on sensor integration and onboard dataprocessing has, therefore, focused on the development of mi-crosystems capable of performing simultaneous multiparameterphysiological analysis. The technology has a range of applica-tions in the detection of disease and abnormalities in medicalresearch. The overall aim has been to deliver enhanced func-tionality, reduced size and power consumption, through system-level integration on a common integrated circuit platform com-prising sensors, analog and digital signal processing, and signaltransmission. In this paper, we present a novel analytical microsystemwhich incorporates a four-channel microsensor array forreal-time determination of temperature, pH, conductivity andoxygen. The sensors were fabricated using electron beam andphotolithographic pattern integration, and were controlledby an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), whichsampled the data with 10-bit resolution prior to communicationoff chip as a single interleaved data stream. An integrated radiotransmitter sends the signal to a local receiver (base station),prior to data acquisition on a computer. Real-time wireless datatransmission is presented from a modelin vitro experimentalsetup, for the first time. Details of the sensors are provided in more detail later, butincluded: a silicon diode to measure the body core temper-ature, while also compensating for temperature induced signalchanges in the other sensors; an ion-selective field effect tran-sistor, ISFET, to measure pH; a pair of direct contact goldelectrodes to measure conductivity; and a three-electrode elec-trochemical cell ,to detect the level of dissolved oxygenin solution. All of these measurements will, in the future, beused to performin vivo physiological analysis of the GI-tract For example, temperature sensors will not only be used to mea-sure changes in the body core temperature, but may also iden-tify local changes associated with tissue inflammation and ul-cers. Likewise, the pH sensor may be used for the determina-tion of the presence of pathological conditions associated withabnormal pH levels, particularly those associated with pancre-atic disease and hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease, theactivity of fermenting bacteria, the level of acid excretion, re-flux to the oesophagus, and the effect of GI specific drugs ontarget organs. The conductivity sensor will be used to monitorthe contents of the GI tract by measuring water and salt absorp-tion, bile secretion and the breakdown of organic componentsinto charged colloids. Finally, the oxygen sensor will measurethe oxygen gradient from the proximal to the distal GI tract. Thiswill, in future enable a variety of syndromes to be investigatedincluding the growth of aerobic bacteria or bacterial infectionconcomitant with low oxygen tension, as well as the role ofoxygen in the formation of radicals causing cellular injury andpathophysiological conditions (inflammation and gastric ulcer-ation). The implementation of a generic oxygen sensor will alsoenable the development of first generation enzyme linked am-perometric biosensors, thus greatly extending the range of futureapplications to include, e.g., glucose and lactate sensing, as wellas immunosensing protocols.

full report added by some one in http://www.scribd.com/doc/37141450/Microelectronic-Pill
upload any raw file to download from scribd

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17-01-2011, 02:54 PM
Post: #10
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
thanks for providing requisite information
18-02-2011, 10:54 AM
Post: #11
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
pls send me microelectronics pills ppt presentation slides
26-03-2011, 02:21 PM
Post: #12
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS

.docx  MICRO ELECTRONIC PILL.docx (Size: 49.18 KB / Downloads: 155)
MICRO ELECTRONIC PILL
A “Microelectronic pill” is a basically a multichannel sensor used for remote biomedical measurements using micro technology. This has been developed for the internal study and detection of diseases and abnormalities in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract where restricted access prevents the use of traditional endoscope. The measurement parameters for detection include real – time remote recording of temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in the GI tract.
Microelectronic pill consists of 4 sensors (2) which are mounted on two silicon chips (Chip 1 & 2), a control chip (5), a radio transmitter (STD- type 1-7, type2-crystal type-10) & silver oxide batteries (8). 1-access channel, 3-capsule, 4- rubber ring, 6-PCB chip carrier.
1) Sensor chip 1:
An array consisting of both temperature sensor & pH sensor platforms were cut from the wafer & attached onto 100-µm- thick glass cover slip cured on a hot plate. The plate acts as a temporary carrier to assist handling of the device during level 1 of lithography when the electric connections tracks, electrodes bonding pads are defined. Bonding pads provide electrical contact to the external electronic circuit.
Lithography [2] was the first fundamentally new printing technology since the invention of relief printing in the fifteenth century. It is a mechanical Plano graphic process in which the printing and non-printing areas of the plate are all at the same level, as opposed to intaglio and relief processes in which the design is cut into the printing block. Lithography is based on the chemical repellence of oil and water. Designs are drawn or painted with greasy ink or crayons on specially prepared limestone. The stone is moistened with water, which the stone accepts in areas not covered by the crayon. Oily ink, applied with a roller, adheres only to the drawing and is repelled by the wet parts of the stone. Pressing paper against the inked drawing then makes the print
Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor; this type of electrode contains a transistor coated with a chemically sensitive material to measure pH in solution and moist surfaces. As the potential at the chemically active surface changes with the pH, the current induced through the transistor varies. A temperature diode simultaneously monitors the temperature at the sensing surface. The pH meter to a temperature compensated pH reading correlates the change in current and temperature.
2.) Sensor chip2:
Level 1 pattern was defined in 0.9 µm UV3 resist by electron beam lithography. It contains three-electrode electrochemical oxygen sensor & NiCr resistance thermometer.
Oxygen sensor detection principle:
26-04-2011, 02:48 PM
Post: #13
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS

.docx  finals.docx (Size: 822.15 KB / Downloads: 202)
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

The invention of the transistor enabled the first radio telemetry capsules, which utilized simple circuits for in vivo telemetric studies of the gastro-intestinal tract. These units could only transmit from a single sensor channel, and were difficult to assemble due to the use of discrete components. The measurement parameters consisted of temperature, pH or pressure, and the first attempts of conducting real-time noninvasive physiological measurements suffered from poor reliability, low sensitivity, and short lifetimes of the devices. The first successful pH gut profiles were achieved in 1972, with subsequent improvements in sensitivity and lifetime. Single-channel radio telemetry capsules have since been applied for the detection of disease and abnormalities in the GI tract where restricted access prevents the use of traditional endoscopy.
Most radio telemetry capsules utilize laboratory type sensors such as glass pH electrodes, resistance thermometers, or moving inductive coils as pressure transducers. The relatively large size of these sensors limits the functional complexity of the pill for a given size of capsule. Adapting existing semiconductor fabrication technologies to sensor development has enabled the production of highly functional units for data collection, while the exploitation of integrated circuitry for sensor control, signal conditioning, and wireless transmission, and has extended the concept of single-channel radio telemetry to remote distributed sensing from microelectronic pills.
Our current research on sensor integration and onboard data processing has, therefore, focused on the development of Microsystems capable of performing simultaneous multiparameter physiological analysis. The technology has a range of applications in the detection of disease and abnormalities in medical research. The overall aim has been to deliver enhanced functionality, reduced size and power consumption, through system-level integration on a common integrated circuit platform comprising sensors, analog and digital signal processing, and signal transmission.
In this report, we present a novel analytical micro system which incorporates a four-channel micro sensor array for real-time determination of temperature, pH, conductivity and oxygen. The sensors were fabricated using electron beam and photolithographic pattern integration, and were controlled by an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), which sampled the data with 10-bit resolution prior to communication off chip as a single interleaved data stream. An integrated radio transmitter sends the signal to a local receiver (base station), prior to data acquisition on a computer. Real-time wireless data transmission is presented from a model in vitro experimental setup, for the first time.
Details of the sensors are provided in more detail later, but included: a silicon diode to measure the body core temperature, while also compensating for temperature induced signal changes in the other sensors; an ion-selective field effect transistor, ISFET, to measure pH; a pair of direct contact gold electrodes to measure conductivity; and a three-electrode electrochemical cell, to detect the level of dissolved oxygen in solution. All of these measurements will, in the future, be used to perform in vivo physiological analysis of the GI-tract.
For example, temperature sensors will not only be used to mea-sure changes in the body core temperature, but may also identify local changes associated with tissue inflammation and ulcers. Likewise, the pH sensor may be used for the determination of the presence of pathological conditions associated with abnormal pH levels, particularly those associated with pancreatic disease and hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease, the activity of fermenting bacteria, the level of acid excretion, re-flux to the oesophagus, and the effect of GI specific drugs on target organs. The conductivity sensor will be used to monitor the contents of the GI tract by measuring water and salt absorption, bile secretion and the breakdown of organic components into charged colloids. Finally, the oxygen sensor will measure the oxygen gradient from the proximal to the distal GI tract. This will, in future enable a variety of syndromes to be investigated including the growth of aerobic bacteria or bacterial infection concomitant with low oxygen tension, as well as the role of oxygen in the formation of radicals causing cellular injury and path physiological conditions (inflammation and gastric ulceration). The implementation of a generic oxygen sensor will also enable the development of first generation enzyme linked amperometric biosensors, thus greatly extending the range of future applications to include, e.g., glucose and lactate sensing, as well as immune sensing protocols.
Chapter 2
MICROELECTRONIC PILL DESIGN AND FABRICATION
2.1. ISFET

This new line of pH meters and probes, based on ISFET (Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor) sensor technology, includes four pH meters and 10 pH probes. The pH meters are designed for ease-of-use and feature an interactive graphics LCD display with on-board Help and Auto-Read functions. All meters constantly monitor and display probe status and an estimation of its remaining life. The advanced meters have real-time clocks for time/date stamping, calibration alerts and high/low pH alarms. Titan Bench top pH meters operate on AC or battery power and offer a host of sophisticated features, including programmable user alarms and data logging. Argus Portable meters are rugged, waterproof and operate on a long-life rechargeable battery. Each meter is available in simple or advanced versions and is supported by a variety of probes covering almost every application. The portable Argus uses an inductive (contact-less) battery charging system and IR data transfer eliminating the need for battery replacement or open contact points. This design ensures a completely watertight (IP67) rating.
Three new series of ISFET probes include the Red-Line general purpose series for routine applications, the Hot-Line series for testing to 105°C and in aggressive samples, and the Stream-Line series that are temperature and chemically resistant, and employ a flow-type reference junction to maximize performance in difficult samples.
2.2. pH value
pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at 25 °C (77 °F). Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. pH measurements are in important in medicine, biology, chemistry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering and many other applications.
In a solution pH approximates but is not equal to p[H], the negative logarithm (base 10) of the molar concentration of dissolved hydronium ions (H3O+); a low pH indicates a high concentration of hydronium ions, while a high pH indicates a low concentration. Crudely, this negative of the logarithm matches the number of places behind the decimal point, so for example 0.1 molar hydrochloric acid should be near pH 1 and 0.0001 molar HCl should be near pH 4 (the base 10 logarithms of 0.1 and 0.0001 being −1, and −4, respectively). Pure (de-ionized) water is neutral, and can be considered either a very weak acid or a very weak base (center of the 0 to 14 pH scale), giving it a pH of 7 (at 25 °C (77 °F)), or 0.0000001 M H+.[1] For an aqueous solution to have a higher pH, a base must be dissolved in it, which binds away many of these rare hydrogen ions. Hydrogen ions in water can be written simply as H+ or as hydronium (H3O+) or higher species (e.g. H9O4+) to account for solvation, but all describe the same entity. Most of the Earth's freshwater surface bodies are slightly acidic due to the abundance and absorption of carbon dioxide;[2] in fact, for millennia in the past most fresh water bodies have long existed at a slightly acidic pH level.
2.3. Sensors
The sensors were fabricated on two silicon chips located at the front end of the capsule. Chip 1 comprises the silicon diode temperature sensor, the pH ISFET sensor and a two electrode conductivity sensor. Chip 2 comprises the oxygen sensor and an optional nickel-chromium (NiCr) resistance thermometer. The silicon platform of Chip 1 was based on a research product from Ecole Superieure D’In-genieurs en Electro technique et Electronique with predefined n-channels in the p-type bulk silicon forming the basis for the diode and the ISFET. A total of 542 of such de-vices were batch fabricated onto a single 4-in wafer. In contrast, Chip 2was batch fabricated as a 9X9 array on a 380-m-thick single crystalline 3n Silicon wafer with <100>lattice orientation, precoated with 300 nm Si3N4, silicon nitride. One wafer yielded 80,5X5 mm2 sensors (the center of the wafer was used for alignment markers)
2.3.1. Sensor Chip 1
An array of 4X2 combined temperature and pH sensor platforms were cut from the wafer and attached on to a 100-m-thick glass cover slip using S1818 photo resist cured on a hotplate. The cover slip acted as temporary carrier to assist handling of the device during the first level of lithography (Level 1) when the electric connection tracks, the electrodes and the bonding pads were defined. The pattern was defined in S1818 resist by photolithography prior to thermal evaporation of 200 nm gold (including an adhesion layer of 15 nm titanium and 15 nm palladium). An additional layer of gold (40 nm) was sputtered to improve the adhesion of the electroplated silver used in the reference electrode. Liftoff in acetone detached the chip array from the cover slip. Individual sensors were then diced prior to their re-attachment in pairs on a 100-m-thick cover slip by epoxy resin. The left-hand-side (LHS) unit comprised the diode, while the right-hand-side (RHS) unit comprised the ISFET. The 15X600 m (LXW) floating gate of the ISFET was precovered with a 50-nm-thick proton sensitive layer of Si3N4 for pH detection. Photo curable polyimide de-fined the 10-nL electrolyte chamber for the pH sensor (above the gate) and the open reservoir above the conductivity sensor (Level 2).
2.3.1.1. Photolithography
Fig 2.1:Microfabricaton
Photolithography (or "optical lithography") is a process used in microfabrication to selectively remove parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photo mask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon, the material underneath the photo resist. In complex integrated circuits, for example a modern CMOS, a wafer will go through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times.
Photolithography shares some fundamental principles with photography in that the pattern in the etching resist is created by exposing it to light, either directly (without using a mask) or with a projected image using an optical mask. This procedure is comparable to a high precision version of the method used to make printed circuit boards. Subsequent stages in the process have more in common with etching than to lithographic printing. It is used because it can create extremely small patterns (down to a few tens of nanometers in size), it affords exact control over the shape and size of the objects it creates, and because it can create patterns over an entire surface cost-effectively. Its main disadvantages are that it requires a flat substrate to start with, it is not very effective at creating shapes that are not flat, and it can require extremely clean operating conditions.
23-02-2012, 10:36 AM
Post: #14
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
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04-08-2012, 05:06 PM
Post: #15
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
please send information about micro electronic pill.....
30-09-2012, 08:29 PM
Post: #16
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
plz, send the absract of elecronic pills.
01-10-2012, 12:27 PM
Post: #17
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
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20-11-2012, 02:33 PM
Post: #18
Video RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
what is the purpose why electronic pills invented?
Blush[/php]]
03-12-2012, 12:03 PM
Post: #19
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
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21-01-2014, 09:42 PM
Post: #20
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
how will the digested pill detect the abnormalities

reply fast and anybody can give a brief and clear xplanation about dis topic...
its urgent
21-04-2015, 10:33 AM
Post: #21
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
how micro electronic pills are used...???
22-04-2015, 07:58 AM
Post: #22
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
pls tell me that micro electonic pill is affected or not inside the body...???
22-04-2015, 08:07 AM
Post: #23
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
pls answer of my question
22-04-2015, 09:47 AM
Post: #24
RE: MICROELECTRONIC PILLS
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