RE: Military Radars
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Topic: - MILITARY RADARS
RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is basically a means of gathering information
about distant objects by transmitting electromagnetic waves at them and analyzing the
echoes. Radar has been employed on the ground, in air, on the sea and in space. Radar
navigation, meteorology and mapping etc. The development of the radar technology took
place during the World War II in which it was used for detecting the approaching aircraft
and then later for many other purposes which finally led to the development of advanced
military radars being used these days. Military radars have a highly specialized design to
be highly mobile and easily transportable, by air as well as ground.
In this paper we will discuss about the advanced features and benefits of
militaryradars,system configuration of a typical military radar, operating the radar, system
functions,various terminal equipments used along with their functions and some of
the important parts of the radar such as transmitter, receiver,
antenna, AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) etc.
Military radar should be an early warning, altering along with weapon control functions.
It is specially designed to be highly mobile and should be such that it can be deployed within minutes.
Military radar minimizes mutual interference of tasks of both air defenders and friendly air space users. This will result in an increased effectiveness of the combined combat
operations. The command and control capabilities of the radar in combination with an
effective ground based air defence provide maximum operational effectiveness with a
safe, efficient and flexible use of the air space. The increased operational effectiveness is
obtained by combining the advantages of centralized air defence management with
decentralized air defence control.
FEATURES ADVANCED AND BENEFITS
Typical military radar has the following advanced features and benefits: -
All-weather day and night capability.
Multiple target handling and engagement capability.
Short and fast reaction time between target detection and ready to fire moment.
Easy to operate and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under
Highly mobile system, to be used in all kind of terrain
Flexible weapon integration, and unlimited number of single air defence weapons can
be provided with target data.
High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and accurate tracking.
The identification of the targets as friend or hostile is supported by IFF, which is an
integral part of the system.
During the short time when the targets are exposed accurate data must be obtained. A
high antenna rotational speed assures early target detection and a high data update rate
required for track accuracy.
The radar can use linear (horizontal) polarization in clear weather. During rains, to
improve the suppression of rain clutter, provision exists to change to circular polarization
at the touch of the button from the display console.
THE SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
A typical military radar system can be split up into three parts:
The radargroup consists of antenna, mast unit, remote control, high tension unit, LO/AFC
(Local Oscillator/Automatic Frequency Control) unit, radar transmitter, radar receiver,
video processor, waveguide drier and IFF interrogator.
The transmitter and receiver forms the active part of the system. The integrated radar/IFF
antenna is fitted on the collapsible mast, mounted on the container. The container is
connected by cable to the operator/control shelter.
Shelter contains display unit, processor unit, TV monitor, colour PPI (Plan Position
indicator), IFF control unit, air conditioner, battery charger with battery, Radio set with
antenna for data link, radio set with antenna for voice transmission i.e. communication,
filter box for radios.
3) Motor generator
The motor generator supplies the power to the whole radar system.
SETS OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT
These are the sets of lightweight man portable units, which can be easily be stacked
together and consists of: -
1) TDR (Target Data Receiver)
The TDR is either connected to a VHF-FM radio receiver or to a LCA to receive
transmitted target data. The TDR itself is intelligent, it performs parallax correction,
threat evaluation and it displays the result in a threat sequence, enabling the weapon
commander to make the correct decision.
2) Radio Receiver or LCA (Line Connection Adapter)
A radio receiver or LCA (with standard 2 wire telephone line) can be used to receive
target data. In principle any VHF-FM radio receiver can be used as a part of the terminal
equipment set. In case line connection is applied, no radio receiver is required. An LCA
nnects the 2-wire telephone line to the TDR cable