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24-01-2010, 10:20 PM
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Mobile Adhoc Network MANET full report

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Preface
A large class of routing protocols for MANETs, namely, reactive protocols, employs some form of caching to reduce the no. of route discoveries .the simplest form of caching is based on associating a timeout with each cache entry.
Such timer based cache scheme can increase the protocol efficiency. However the timeout is not well tuned, a sever performance degradation arises as entries are removed either too early or too late from the cache .
In this paper, we address the problem designing a proactive protocol scheme that does not rely on any timer-based mechanism. This scheme guarantees that valid cached routes are never removed while stale routes are removed aggressively .This proactive caching scheme has been embedded in the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) framework.
1: INTRODUCTION

The term MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network)refers to a multihop packet based wireless network composed of a set of mobile nodes that can communicate and move at the same time , without using any kind of fixed wired infrastructure. MNET are actually self organizing and adaptive networks that can be formed and deformed on-the-fly without the need of any centralized administration.
As for other packet data networks, one “to-one communication in a MANET is achieved by unicast routing each single packet. Routing in MANET is challenging due to the constraints existing on the transmission bandwidth battery power and CPU time and the requirement to cope with the frequent topological changes resulting from the mobility of the nodes. Nodes of a MANET cooperate in the task of routing packets to destination nodes since each node of the network is able to communicate only with those nodes located within its transmission radius R, while the source and destination nodes can be located at a distance much higher than R.
A first attempt to cope with the mobility is to use the specific techniques aimed to tailoring the conventional routing protocols to the mobile environment while preserving their nature. For this reason the protocol designed around such techniques are referred to as table-driven or proactive protocols. To guarantee that routing tables are up to date and reflect the actual network topology, nodes running a protocol continuously exchange route updates and re calculate paths to all possible destinations. The main advantage of the proactive protocols is that a route is immediately available when is needed for data transmissions. However if
The user traffic is not generated, and then resources are wasted due the proactive route update mechanism.
A different approach in the design of the routing protocol is to calculate a path only when it is necessary for data transmission. These types of protocols are called as the reactive protocols or on-demand routing protocols. A reactive protocol is characterized by a path discovery procedure and a maintenance procedure. Path discovery is based on a query “reply cycle that adopts flooding of queries. The destination is eventually reached by the query an at least one reply is generated. Path discovery procedure is called when there is a need for data transmission and the source does not the path to the destination. Discovered paths are maintained by the route maintance procedure until they are no longer in used.
The main advantage of the reactive protocol is that f data traffic is not generated by nodes, and then routing activity is totally absent. The main drawback is the network-wide path discovery required to obtain routing information. Since discovery is based on flooding, such a procedure is very costly. The main strategy to reduce the cost is to defer path discovery as much as possible so that non-optimal but available routes are preferred to the effort of finding the current best path. The natural solution is route caching.
Proactive and reactive approaches are merged in hybrid protocols that aim to combine he advantages of both approaches. The Zone routing protocol (ZRP) is a well example of a hybrid protocol. ZRP is based on the notion of the zone. Each node n is the center of a zone with radius of k hopes, denoted Zk(n).nodes at a distance greater than or equal to k from n belong to Zk(n). A reactive protocol is used by n to reach node outsides its zone .Practically k is set to value much smaller then the network diameter to get a fast convergence of proactive
Component of zone routing protocol. Again caching is useful in ZRP to reduce the path discoveries.
The simplest form of caching is based on timeouts associated with the cach entries. When an entry is cached a timer starts, when the timeout elapses, the entry is removed from the cache. Each time the entry is used, the timer restarts. Therefore the effectiveness of such a scheme depends upon the timeout value associated with a cached route. If the timeout is well tuned the protocol performance is increase; otherwise that will create a problem of removing the cache entry too early or too late from the cache.
So in this seminar report I propose a cache scheme which is based on the notion of a caching-zone whose center is a node called as the cach leader. The leader is responsible for advertising routes, detected during some route discovery, inside its caching zone.
The leader must grantee the correctness of the advertised routes. The leader monitors each advertised route proactively and it sends the control messages inside its caching zone as soon as a route becomes stale. In this report we present an implementation of this ZRP that is ZRP plus a proactive caching scheme and is known as C-ZRP.
2: An overview of the Zone Routing Protocol
ZRP is a hybrid routing protocol which aims to combine the advantages of both the proactive and the reactive approaches. Such a protocol is based on the notion of a routing zone or simply known as a zone. A zone Zk(n)
With radius k is define for each node n as the set of nodes at a distance at most k hopes from n
Zk (n) = {i: H (n, i) <= k},
Where H (I, j) is the distance in number of hops between node i and node j. The node n is called the central node of the routing zone, while a node b such that H (n, b) =k is called a peripheral node of n. while the other nodes are called as the internal nodes.
The protocolâ„¢s architecture is organized into four main components: the inter zone routing protocol (IARP), the interzone routing protocol (IERP), the bordercast protocol(BRP), and a layer-2 neighbor discovery / maintenance protocol (NDP).
For each node n the IAP provides routs proactively to nodes belonging to Zk(n). The value for k is usually small to the network diameter. The IARP can be implemented by any proactive protocol with the limitation that route updates have to be propagated up to a distance of k hops from the central node. IARP uses the NDP service to learn about a nodeâ„¢s neighbors. NDP notifies when a new link to a neighbor is established or an existing one is deleted.
For those nodes located at a distance k™ > k from the source node, ZRP invokes the IERP component to calculate an interzone path. An inter path from S to D is formed by a sequence of nodes B0 =S, B1, B2, B3, B4¦¦¦¦.Bm, Bm+1 =D, in which node Bi+1is a node within Bi™s routing zone. The path is calculated on demand using a form of selective flooding that exploits the underlying zone structure generated by IARP.
Specifically, flooding is based on sending query packets only to the peripheral nodes (also called border nodes) , using a special kind of multicast transmission dubbed bordercast. When a node receives the query packet for a target node D, it can either reply to the source- if D is a member of its routing zone - or bordercast the query packet to its peripheral nodes. Eventually, the query packet reaches a node having D as a member of its zone so that a reply control packet is generated and send back to the source. A route to D can be accumulated in the query packet during forwarding or - to reduce the query packet length - stored temporarily at nodes and accumulated in the reply control packet during the reply phase.
In ZRP, zones heavily overlap due to the lack of coordination among nodes. As a result, a node can be a member as well as a border node of many zones. Thus, the basic query mechanism can perform even worse than in standard flooding since a node can forward the same query packet many times, while the same zone can be queried more than once.
ZRP provides several solutions to deal with this problem of stopping and controlling redundant query threads, as well as to prevent the sending of redundant queries. Loop back termination (LT) is a mechanism which is able to detect if a query thread returns to a routing zone that it previously queried and to discard the thread accordingly. The Query detection scheme (QD1 and QD2) detect and discard a query thread I it queries a zone already queried by other threads. The QD2 mechanism extends this capability also to nodes that are in the transmission range of the query transmitting node. Early termination extends the capacity t terminate threads also to nodes internal to a zone. Finally selective bordercast prevents thread overlap by using a modified IARP that provides network topology information for an extended zone with a radius of 2k.
A routing pat only contains the border nodes that have to be traversed . Forwarding along border nodes is table driven since the distance between border nodes is k. Route maintenance is responsible for maintaing interzone path.
3: The C-ZRP PRORTOCOL
In this section , we first give an overview of the proactive caching scheme and of the C-ZRP behavior. Then the implementation of the protocol.

1. Overview of the proactive caching scheme
The proposed caching scheme is based on the notion of caching zone, cache leader, and active path.
The caching zone with radius k* for a cache leader n is defined as the set o0f nodes at a distance at most k* hops from n an active path is created as a result of the discover phase and it is composed of a set of nodes, hereafter referred to as active nodes forming a path from source node S to a destination node D. cache leader nodes are a subset of the active nodes.
The key consideration is to avoid the possibility that nodes can cache route information autonomously. Therefore a cache leader n is only the node which is authorized to advertise route information inside its caching zone which is written into caches. On receiving the advertising message, anode proactively maintains a path to n so that it can be used as the next hope node to any of the advertised routes. A cache leader is responsible for the validity of the advertised routes. Thus it monitors such routes and it forces each node in its caching zone to remove a route as soon as it becomes stale. So, the deletion policy is proactive
2. Implementation of the C-ZRP
In the following we provide a description of a possible implementation of C-ZRP. For simplicity the implementation assumes the following aspects as on the next page:
A. All active nodes act as cache leader nodes and vice versa.
B. Only paths to active nodes are advertised as external routes.
C. Caches are managed using explicit injection / deletion message.
D. k = k*.
When a node S executes a route request for a node D, an interzone path from S to D is identified. A node Bi belonging to an interzone path is an active node for caching scheme (an example of interzone path between S and D formed by nodes b, e, p and t is shown in figure.) Thus, an interzone path is an active path. An interzone path is stored according to a distributed next hop fashion, where next-hop node is an active node. Bi stores Bi +1, as the next hop active node for all the downstream nodes from Bi+2 to Bm+1 and Bi-1 is the next hop active node for all the upstream nodes from B0 to Bi-2. These two active nodes will be referred to as companion nodes (as an example the companion nodes of node B with respect to the interzone path from S to D).
All routing information concerning node belonging to an interzone path is advertised inside the caching zone of each member of the path, which thus acts as cache leader for those information. Such routes are then maintained proactively by the IARP. If a new node joins Biâ„¢s zone it acquires by means of IARP, all previously advertised routing information by Bi. Since a node may belong to more than one overlapping zone, it can acquire more than a single path to the same destination.
When a new node, say Bi+1 leaves Bi™s routing zone, not all the routing information gathered during the route request/reply is lost. Roughly, speaking two active paths from S to Bi-1 and from Bi+1 to D are still up. Hence, all the routing information concerning these sub-paths is still valid. However, nodes B0 ¦ Bi-1 (Bi-1 ¦ Bm+1) notify the nodes inside their own zones using a delete control message that the destination the Bi-1 ¦ Bm+1 (B0 ¦ Bi) are no longer reachable.
We remark that both delete and inject messages can be piggy backed on messages regularly exchanged by the proactive routing protocol. However, the use of explicit messages provides a faster reaction to topological changes.
3: Data structures
Each node X uses the following local data structures:
¢ Internal zone routing Table (IZT). An entry of IZT is a triple (d, n, #h), where d is the destination node, n is the next hop node (located in the X™s transmission range) and #h is the path cost in no. of hops.
¢ External zone routing table (EZT): A row of EZT is a triple (d, n, #z), where d is the destination node, n is the next hop active node (n belongs to the X™s transmission range) and #z is the path cost from X to d given as the no. of active nodes that have to be traversed. For example, in Fig.1 node b sets node c as next-hop active node for p with cost two (node c and p).
¢ Interzone path table (IZP): An interzone path corresponds to an entry in X™s IZP table provided that X is an active node and (XS, D). In this case let the path id be ID and X=Bi. The entry is the triple (ID, Bi-1, Bi+1).
¢ Reachable nodes (RN) list. This is a sequence of pairs (d, #z), where d is an active node belonging to an interzone path and #z is the cost of the path from X expressed as number of active nodes that must be transversed to reach d. A node X advertises RN to nodes belonging to Zk(X). RN includes the projection of EZT along the first and third components. For example, node b of Fig.1 will include the pairs (p, 2), (t, 3) and (D, 4) in RN.
¢ Unreachable nodes (UN) set. This set of nodes is used to advertise the destinations that become unreachable.
The following consistency relations are always guaranteed:
(d, n, -) EZT (n,-,-) IZT
(ID,a,b) IZP(a,-,-), (b,-,-) IZT
An example of EZT, IZT and IZP data structures is given in Fig.1
4: IERP and inter zone path management:
When a node S has a new message m t send to a node D, it first checks if either IZT or EZT have an entry for D. if this is in the case , it invokes the IERP for calculating a new path and a new route discovery triggered as in fig 2.
Interzone path creation:
A single inter zone path from S to D is created during a route / request cycle by allowing only the destination D to send a single for a given request. The path is tagged with a unique identifier Id, for example, obtained by using increasing sequence numbers generated by the requesting node. When S triggers a new route discovery for a node D, it bordercast a query message to all its border nodes. The message contains the identifier ID and a route accumulation vector AV [0] =S .let M be the number of active nodes (not including S and D.).
1. When a border node X! =D receives a query message, if the message s received for the first time and the redundant query filter rules are satisfied:
a: it adds its own identification into the accumulation vector as an
Example, if the node X corrospond to node Bj in the interzone path, then AV[j]=X.

b: if D belongs to X's routing zone then the latter unicast the
Query message to D. otherwise , it executes a bordercast.
2. When the destination node D receives a query message with an identifier ID for the first time:
a: It stores the tupple (AV[i],AV[M],M+1-i),for 0<=i<=M.
b: it prepares the list RN=(AV[i], M+1-i)], for 0<=i<=M.
c: it sets AV[M+1] =D.
d: it sends a reply message to AV[M], the message contains the AV vector accumulated in the querry message.
an example of path creation is shown in fig .2C
3. When a border node Bj receives a reply message:

a: if Bj != S then it stores the triple
(ID, AV[ j-1], AV[j+1])
In the IZP table, thus becoming an active node.
b: it stores the following tupple in EZT:
(AV[i], AV[j-1], j-1), for 0<= i <=j-2
(AV[i], AV[j+1], j-1), for j+2<= i <=m+1
c: it prepares RN = [(AV[j+i], ¦i¦)], for “j <= i <= M+1

d: if Bj != S, then it forward the reply message to the node AV[j-1] .
Fig 2b shows the state at node B2 after the reception of the reply message with AV=[S, B1, B2, B3, B4, D] that caused the execution of the following actions:
1: B2 becomes a member of an interzone path (it stores the triple (ID,
B1, B3) in IZP).
2: B2 adds the entries (S, B1, B2), (B4, B3, B2), (D, B3, 3) in the EZT.
3: B2 prepares the list of reachable nodes
RN = [(S, 2), (B1, 1), (B3, 1), (B4, 2), (D, 3)].
4: B2 forwards the reply to B1.
5: Interzone path deletion .

An interzone path is broken at node Bj when Bj-1 ( or Bj+1) is no longer in Bjâ„¢s routing zone. In this case the path is divided in two sub paths and the source node is notified with an error message an active node Bj executes the following actions:
1: delets the entry (-, Bj-1, -)or (-, Bj+1, -) from EZT.
2: checks the companion nodes Bj+1 or Bj-1 in the IZP table.
3: if the companion node is found , then it prepares the following list of
Unreachable nodes: N= [B0, B1, ¦¦, Bj-1] (UN=[Bj+1, Bj+2, ¦..,
Bm+1]) and sends a delete- path message , containing UN and the path
Identifier ID, to the companion node.
4: delets the entry (ID, Bj-1, Bj+1) from the IZP after the successful
Transmission of the message
When an active path is broken, the source node either receives the delete-path message from B1(if the link is broken between (Bj, Bj+1), with j>0) , or is able to detect the break autonomously via IARP. The source node thus triggers a new route discovery f required to send other packets, while the two subpaths (B0, B1, ¦¦, Bj-1 and Bj+1, Bj+2,¦¦..Bm+1) remains active.
Fig.2c shows the case when the link between B2 and B3 is broken. Two interzone subpaths, (S, B1, B2), (B3, B4, D)are generated. In the fig B2â„¢s EZT is also shown .
When an active node receives a delete-path message from one of its companion nodes X, it deletes the entries stored in the UN list from the EZT and forwards the message to the other companion node. If the receiving node has some another route to a node stored in UN , then it does not include such a node when forwarding UN.
6: Cache management
so far, we have discussed how a node Bj belonging to an interzone path from S to D acquires route information about all the other nodes of the interzone path. The node stores this information in the EZT data structures and creates the RN list. We now discuss how routes are managed inside the catching zones.
Injecting and maintaining external routes. In order to allow all the nodes of Bjâ„¢s routing zone to use the acquired information , Bj broadcast RN inside its zone. We call such a message the inject message.
On receiving an inject message carrying the reachable node list RN from a node X= Bj, a node Y creates a set of entries ( RN[i].d,X,RN[i].#z)into its own EZT, 0< i < ¦RN¦,where RN[i].d is the first component (destination node) of the ith pair of RN,RN[i].#z, the second component(i.e., the length ),and ¦RN¦ is the number of elements of RN. Fig .3a shows node b2 injecting the external routes to nodes S, B1, B3, B4, D into its zone. Note that y now has two routes to node Bj since such a node is in Y' routing zone.
Deleting external routes.When a node Bj either detects a path breakage or receives a Delete-path message, it broadcasts a delete message into its zone containing the list of unreachable nodes UN.
When an internal node receives a delete message it deletes all the matching entries from EZT. Fig.3b shows the delete mechanism on node Y.
7: IARP
The proactive component of C-ZRP (IARP) relies on a modified Distance Vector algorithm. The Neighbor discovery Protocol (NDP), notifies the IARP when a new link to a neighbor is established or an exiting one is deleted. When the IARP receives such an event, it sends an update route message to its neighbors. On receiving a route update message, a node calculates the new routing table and sends a new route update to its neighbors. IARP also advertises external routes by sending the triples stored into its own EZT. If the advertised next-hop node of a triple belongs to the routing zone of the receiving node, then such a node adds the entry into its EZT. Note that the next-hop node is not set to the sending node. The IARP uses the value k+1 as infinity. Finally, to guarantee the consistency relations, when a node n leaves X's routing zone, the IARP deletes: the entry (n,-,-) from IZT; all the entries (-,n,-) from EZT; all the entries (-,n,-) and (-,-,n) from IZP.
8: Forwarding a packet
When a node S needs to sent a message m to a destination node D, it checks the IZT table. If an entry (D,n,-) is found, then the message is send to n. Otherwise, S checks the EZT table for an entry (D,n,-). If such an entry exists, then S sends the message to n; otherwise, it triggers a new route discovery. Eventually, a node Y is selected as the next-hop node toward D and the message m is sent to it.
On receiving m, a node Y checks the destination m.dst. If m.dst = Y, then the message is delivered to the upper layer. Otherwise, Y forwards the message according
the following algorithm:
Forward (m,D);
if (D,n,-) ‚¬ IZT then
ucast(m) to n;
else if (D, n*, #Z) ‚¬ EZT then
/* choose the lowest #z if multiple matches*/
Let (n*, n, -) ‚¬ IZT;
Ucast (m) to n;
4: Performance results:
In this section, we present the protocol performance obtained by means of simulations. We observe ZRP for a fixed simulation period o 1,000 sec. Under the same traffic and mobility patterns and compare its behavior against the C-ZRP.
1:simulation model: each node moves in a 1,500 * 1,500 meter-square, square region according to a random way point model: the nodes alternates between a pause state and a moving state , i.e., it stays in a place for a fixed time interval, called the pause time (PT), and then it moves to a random destination point in the region at a constant speed V = 5 m / s. PT is given as a percentage of the simulation period and its value establishes the mobility degree.
Node movement and traffic generation are mutually independent. Traffic activity is modeled as Constant Bi Rate (CBR) sources. Only a subset of nodes (the sending subset) can generate the traffic directed to a fixed subset (the destination subset). The sending and destination subset are disjoint and are composed of of he same number of nodes.
For each node of the sending subset generates L = 512-byte packets at a rate message / second over a C = 2 Mbps channel. A packet is destined to a randomly selected node belonging to the destination subset. A unicast or broad cast message is successfully received by the target node, provided it is at a distance at most R = 250 m from the sending node. Data packets are sent on behalf of application are received Ta = 2 ms after its transmission. Similarly, the transmission time of the shorter routing message is Tr = 1 ms.
Parameter Symbol Values
Simulation Time 1000 sec
No. of Nodes N 100
Node Speed V 5 m/s
Pause Time PT 5,10,20,40,70,100 %
Transmission Radius R 250 m
Routing Zone Radius K 1 to 5 hops
Message Transmission Ratio 1,2,4,8,12,16 msg/s
No. Of Active Station A 5,25
Total Offered Load A
Message Length L 512 Bytes
Transmission Capacity C 2.0 Mbps
Application Packet Transmission Time Ta 2 ms
Routing Packet Transmission Time Tr 1 ms
TABLE 1 SIMULATION PARAMETER
2: Routing Table Hit Rate
Fig. shows the percentage of time a sending node S used a route to the destination D from its routing table, either IZT or EZT ( the routing table hit rate), as a function of PT for A=5 or A=25 and =1 messages /second.
As excepted, this value increases with PT . Infact the higher the value of PT, the lower the mobility, and thus the higher the time interval a route remains in the tables. In this way, the probability that the entry will be used to send a message to D increases. For PT =100% , the network is static and , thus, pass are learned ones , either via a route discovery or via an inject message. Since this information is always valid the hit rate approaches 100%.
3: No. of Discoveries
Table 2 list the total no. of route requests observe during a simulation when A=25 and =4 messages/sec. For PT=70% and 20%.

TABLE 2 REDUCTIONS IN DISOVERIES
Protocol Route requests
ZRP PT=70% 2709
C-ZRP PT=70% 330
ZRP PT=20% 6229
C-ZRP PT=20% 2199

Conclusions

Starting from the observation that guaranteeing the validity of cached paths at a node is critical to achieving good performance in reactive routing protocols, in this paper, we proposed a new cache mechanism, based on the notion of caching zone, which proactively removes stale information from the caches of all the nodes in a MANET.
The basic idea is to cache topology information associated with an active path and to use control message to remove stale information as soon as the path is broken. The caching scheme is therefore does not rely on any timeout associated with the cache entry, thus avoiding he burden of timeout estimation. Hence we advised a routing protocol, naming C-ZRP, by combining the zone based caching mechanism with the ZRP routing protocol. Finally we show the result after comparison of the C-ZRP and ZRP. In which we have shown that the number of the path discoveries is to much less than that of in the case of the ZRP.
REFERENCE:
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS
Vol. 52, No. 8. August 2003

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
08-05-2010, 01:35 PM
Post: #2
RE: Mobile Adhoc Network MANET full report
can anyone share me a report about MANET Routing.it has many protocol.thank you in advance

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15-09-2010, 09:47 AM
Post: #3
RE: Mobile Adhoc Network MANET full report
please read http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-a-...oc-network for getting Mobile Adhoc Network MANET more information and report

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07-10-2010, 05:55 PM
Post: #4
RE: Mobile Adhoc Network MANET full report

.pdf  ADHOC1.pdf (Size: 679.44 KB / Downloads: 690)
Mobile Adhoc Network MANET full report
INTRODUCTION


Andreas Tønnesen
andreto[at]olsr.org



The term MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network)refers to a multihop packet based wireless network composed of a set of mobile nodes that can communicate and move at the same time , without using any kind of fixed wired infrastructure. MNET are actually self organizing and adaptive networks that can be formed and deformed on-the-fly without the need of any centralized administration.
As for other packet data networks, one “to-one communication in a MANET is achieved by unicast routing each single packet. Routing in MANET is challenging due to the constraints existing on the transmission bandwidth battery power and CPU time and the requirement to cope with the frequent topological changes resulting from the mobility of the nodes. Nodes of a MANET cooperate in the task of routing packets to destination nodes since each node of the network is able to communicate only with those nodes located within its transmission radius R, while the source and destination nodes can be located at a distance much higher than R.
A first attempt to cope with the mobility is to use the specific techniques aimed to tailoring the conventional routing protocols to the mobile environment while preserving their nature. For this reason the protocol designed around such techniques are referred to as table-driven or proactive protocols. To guarantee that routing tables are up to date and reflect the actual network topology, nodes running a protocol continuously exchange route updates and re calculate paths to all possible destinations. The main advantage of the proactive protocols is that a route is immediately available when is needed for data transmissions. However if
The user traffic is not generated, and then resources are wasted due the proactive route update mechanism.
A different approach in the design of the routing protocol is to calculate a path only when it is necessary for data transmission. These types of protocols are called as the reactive protocols or on-demand routing protocols. A reactive protocol is characterized by a path discovery procedure and a maintenance procedure. Path discovery is based on a query “reply cycle that adopts flooding of queries. The destination is eventually reached by the query an at least one reply is generated. Path discovery procedure is called when there is a need for data transmission and the source does not the path to the destination. Discovered paths are maintained by the route maintance procedure until they are no longer in used.
The main advantage of the reactive protocol is that f data traffic is not generated by nodes, and then routing activity is totally absent. The main drawback is the network-wide path discovery required to obtain routing information. Since discovery is based on flooding, such a procedure is very costly. The main strategy to reduce the cost is to defer path discovery as much as possible so that non-optimal but available routes are preferred to the effort of finding the current best path. The natural solution is route caching.
Proactive and reactive approaches are merged in hybrid protocols that aim to combine he advantages of both approaches. The Zone routing protocol (ZRP) is a well example of a hybrid protocol. ZRP is based on the notion of the zone. Each node n is the center of a zone with radius of k hopes, denoted Zk(n).nodes at a distance greater than or equal to k from n belong to Zk(n). A reactive protocol is used by n to reach node outsides its zone .Practically k is set to value much smaller then the network diameter to get a fast convergence of proactive
Component of zone routing protocol. Again caching is useful in ZRP to reduce the path discoveries.
The simplest form of caching is based on timeouts associated with the cach entries. When an entry is cached a timer starts, when the timeout elapses, the entry is removed from the cache. Each time the entry is used, the timer restarts. Therefore the effectiveness of such a scheme depends upon the timeout value associated with a cached route. If the timeout is well tuned the protocol performance is increase; otherwise that will create a problem of removing the cache entry too early or too late from the cache.
So in this seminar report I propose a cache scheme which is based on the notion of a caching-zone whose center is a node called as the cach leader. The leader is responsible for advertising routes, detected during some route discovery, inside its caching zone.

Reference: http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-mo...z11fuHxKQL
09-10-2010, 12:01 PM
Post: #5
RE: Mobile Adhoc Network MANET full report

.pdf  Distance Awareness Scheduling for Single-Hop.pdf (Size: 549.45 KB / Downloads: 224)
This article is presented by:
Omar O. Aldawibi, Bayan S. Sharif and Charalampos C. Tsimenidis
School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
Newcastle University, NE1 7RU, UK


Distance Awareness Scheduling for Single-Hop
Underwater Ad-Hoc Network


ABSTRACT
Underwater acoustic networks (UAN) are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications, such as those used for exploration and maintenance in the offshore oil and gas industry, surveillance for homeland security, subsea mine counter measures, marine environmental assessment and diving activities. For UAN, efficient and effective media access control (MAC) is a very important requirement to address the challenges of dense network deployment and shared communication media. Several types of MAC protocols have been developed for radio networks; however, they are not directly adaptable to UAN due to the significant differences between terrestrial radio and underwater acoustic channels. In this paper, we propose a scheduling protocol according to distance awareness to combat propagation delays for ad hoc UAN. The network module and related assumptions are outlined, and a performance analysis, looking at packet transmission probability, maximum saturation throughput and average end to end delay, is also presented. Analytical and practical scenarios and simulations, including network topology, parameters and results, have been discussed.
INTRODUCTION
Underwater acoustic networks have become a powerful technique for aquatic applications, and have recently attracted a great deal of attention from the networking research community . Efficient and effective media access control (MAC) is very important due to dense network deployment and shared communication media. With it, better performance of underwater acoustic networks can be achieved . Different applications require different types of MAC protocols. Several types of MAC protocols have been developed for radio networks; however, they are not directly adaptable to UAN due to the significant differences between terrestrial radio and underwater acoustic channels. MAC protocols can be generally divided into two categories . contention-free protocols and contentionbased protocols. Contention-free protocols include TDMA, FDMA and CMDA, where communication channels are separated into time, frequency or code domains. FDMA is unsuitable for underwater channels because of limited available bandwidth. Furthermore, synchronization in TDMA and the near-far problem in CDMA are two other issues to consider. Consequently, a feasibility study of these protocols in underwater acoustic networks is not easy . Contention-based protocols include random access methods and collision avoidance .In random access the sender transmits the packet without coordination, so packet collision avoidance is totally probabilistic; while in the collision avoidance protocol, the sender and receiver capture the channel through control packets exchanged between them before the data packet has been transmitted . Protocols such as CSMA with collision avoidance based on RTS/CTS protocols are widely used. The performance of random access methods based on RTS/CTS approaches in underwater acoustic networks is determined by several factors. Some research has shown that RTS/CTS-based protocols outperform random access approaches in underwater acoustic networks in terms of energy efficiency. However, the use of a RTS/CTS-based protocol to eliminate packet collision completely results in large energy consumption due to the long propagation delay in underwater acoustic networks. In order to avoid collision completely, two conditions must be satisfied: 1) the duration of the RTS should be greater than the maximum propagation delay; and 2) the duration of CTS should be two times greater than the maximum propagation delay, plus the hardware transmit-toreceive transmission time. These two conditions are easy to apply in terrestrial radio networks. However, it is too expensive to apply them to ad hoc underwater acoustic networks due to the fact that large propagation delay makes the size of the control packets large
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