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05-04-2010, 07:34 PM
Post: #1
nanorobotics full report

.doc  NANOROBOTICS.doc (Size: 605.5 KB / Downloads: 962)
SEMINAR REPORT ON NANOROBOTS

By:
POTHANA RAGHURAM KUMAR
06F01A0536
B.Tech (CSE)
ABSTRACT
In todayâ„¢s fast world, man is in a situation where he has to compete against machines. Due to this stress of a mechanical life, the human body is subjected to various levels of trauma. The organ most affected is the heart. Heart attacks are becoming so common now a day. The percentage of people affected is increasing by the day. This heart attack is mainly caused due to improper diet with excessive cholesterols and lack of proper exercise to burn calories, which leads to blocks in the arteries. The present method of treatment- the bypass surgery or the angioplasty, though effective, may be considered outdated in todayâ„¢s technological age. Nanorobots are tiny nanoscale devices that may be used to perform a variety of tasks very accurately and in lesser time. Nanotechnology is the cutting edge of future technology and is vastly directed towards medical applications. This paper throws light on one possible application of these nanorobots in the human body, where they may be employed to remove heart blocks more effectively and accurately, in lesser time causing no pain what so ever. This nanotechnology will be the driver for the future technologies of todayâ„¢s shrinking world.
INTRODUCTION
Heart blocks are becoming one of the major diseases among the people of todayâ„¢s world. With a variety of reasons for occurrence, ranging from lack of exercise to smoking and drinking, this has emerged as the most wide spread disease ever. These heart blocks are caused due to a variety of reasons. Current diagnostic measures include a lot of painful processes like the Angiogram. The treatment for the block is also extremely dangerous, time consuming and painful. Angioplasty, though having a high success rate, is still old fashioned.
Todayâ„¢s technology promises a lot more than the insertion of a thin tube into your blood vessels. Nanorobots can be effectively used in this process of curing heart blocks. This paper discusses the causes of heart blocks, the current process of diagnosis and therapy. Later this paper throws light on the novel idea of curing these heart blocks using nanorobots- a technology just a few years away from implementation. This paper views the problem on a purely theoretical and imaginative approach.
CHOLESTEROLS
Our body fluids, mainly blood have a biochemical compound known as cholesterol. These cholesterols are chemical compounds of glycerol and unsaturated acid.
The cholesterols found in the human body can be classified into two types.
They are,
. Low density lipids (LDL)
. High density lipids (HDL)
These cholesterols flow through the blood and are essential for the normal functioning of the body to a certain extent. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance (lipid). It is both produced in the liver and consumed by eating animal products such as meat, eggs or dairy products. The body needs cholesterol,
and manufactures all the cholesterol needed by various organ systems. In fact, the body naturally produces up to four times more cholesterol than what normally would be taken in through diet. The body uses cholesterol to:
. Assist in the manufacture of hormones or vitamin D
. Break down carbohydrates and proteins
. Help form a protective coating around nerves
. Build cell walls and to produce bile(the word cholesterol is Greek for
bile solids).
Cholesterol is carried through the bloodstream by lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are proteins that wrap around both cholesterol and other fatty materials and transport them through the bloodstream. The HDLâ„¢s are basically harmless as they highly stable and are disposed off by the body effectively. These HDLâ„¢s are basically stable and hence do not stick to the walls of the blood vessels. Actually , these HDLâ„¢s help to carry the bad cholesterols from the blood stream to the liver from where it gets disposed. These contain more of protein , and less fat. On the other hand, the LDLâ„¢s contain more fat and less protein. The LDLâ„¢s are a bit difficult to get rid of. These LDLâ„¢s or Ëœbad cholesterolsâ„¢ as they are commonly known, get accumulated on the walls of the blood vessels. This happens because these LDLâ„¢s are highly unstable. So they get disintegrated and rather than being disposed off by the liver, they get accumulated along the walls of the arteries. It is natural that the blood vessels continually contract and expand in order to accommodate the variations in the blood pressure, arising due to various reasons. But when the LDLâ„¢s flow through the blood, they get accumulated on the walls of the blood vessels. These LDLâ„¢s on accumulation make the blood vessels loose their elastic property. As a result the blood vessels will no longer be able to keep up with the pressure variations of the blood.
Hence the pressure fluctuations in the blood are carried over to the heart and hence the heart is subjected to constantly varying stress which weakens it.
ANGIOGRAM
The LDLâ„¢s on further deposition form a lump and close in on the diameter of the blood vessel. So as the concentration increases the diameter of the blood vessel decreases. Hence blood transportation to or from the heart is hindered. The intensity of this problem is measured by a method known as Angiogram..
Here a small tube of diameter of about a few micrometers with a catheter at the end is used. This is introduced into the veins at the thigh and up to the pericardium. This catheter injects a radioactive fluid into the blood stream, the flow of which is monitored by a continuous X-ray. When this fluid flows through the block, there will be a contraction in the thickness of the fluid line monitored through the X-ray. This contraction indicates the location of the block. Once the block has been located, it is removed by a method known as Angioplasty.
ANGIOPLASTY
In this method the end of the catheter has a deflated balloon. This balloon is positioned under the block and it is inflated, so that the block bursts, and is carried away through the blood stream. In order to prevent the recursion of the block, the blocked area iscoveredwithaone-wayinflatablemetalcylinder,
that is attached on the outside of the balloon. As the balloon is inflated, the cylinder attains shape, and gets locked on attaining maximum expansibility. This method is known as Ëœballoon angioplastyâ„¢.
NANOROBOTS
Nanorobots are nanodevices that may be of about 3 to 5 micrometers in size. The individual parts used to make these nanorobots may be of 1 to 100 nm in size. These nanorobots are mainly made up of carbon, and may be given a coating of diamond. The diamond coat is given because diamond is the most inert and tough material ever known. These nanorobots can be used for a variety of purposes.
In this paper, to treat heart blocks we use three kinds of nanorobots.
Nanorobots with nanosensors to locate the block. These robots will need four
kinds of nanosensors.
1. Pressure sensors
2. Acoustic sensors
3. Chemo sensors
4. Smart sensors
Nanorobots equipped with nanolasers to severe the block after confirmation.
Nanorobots that have the ability to fill the burnt gaps with fresh flawless cells synthesized by the robots themselves in order to prevent the recurrence of the block. This process is known as Ëœmolecular synthesisâ„¢.
THE ACTUAL PROCESS
The three types of nanorobots needed for the process, are suspended in a liquid matrix and injected into blood vessels of the patient. Immediately the acoustic sensors in the sensor robots get activated and begin navigating the army of robots through the blood stream to the pericardium. Simultaneously, the smart sensors present in the sensor robots, get activated and form a closed ad-hoc network connecting all the robots. This is very essential in order to guide all the nanorobots to the desired location.
The sensor robots perform the most sophisticated type of diagnosis known, i.e. diagnosis from the inside of the human body. These sensors , on reaching the periphery
of the heart, scan the pericardial vessels, for blocks and locate the spot exactly. The pressure sensors mounted on the sensor robots, scan the blood vessels for variations in the blood pressure. This will act as the first confirmation. This scanning for pressure variations is necessary, as in the region of the block, there will be a constriction of the blood vessel and hence a rise in the blood pressure compared to that existing in the Size of nanorobots when compared to that of the red blood cells nearby areas. These sensors will generate a report of the potential areas of heart block, based on the pressure mapping of the blood vessels.
The second confirmation comes from the chemo sensors. These sensors scan the region they traverse, for the chemical composition of the cholesterols. That is, these sensors differentiate the cholesterol compounds accumulated on the walls of the blood vessels, from the actual composition of the tissues of the blood vessels. In this way, the block can be identified accurately.
All these information are transmitted through the ad- hoc network formed by all the smart sensors and can be constantly viewed by the doctors monitoring the entire process. After successful location of the block, the second type of nanorobots, those equipped with nanolasers, come into picture. These lasers, like the robots themselves, can be powered by the body itself, by means of the kinetic energy of the flowing blood, pressure of the blood flow, etc. thus, these lasers can be powered by the most ingenious ways imaginable. These laser robots on activation based on the information flow through the network, effectively burn down the block.
Since the operation is held on a nanoscale, the outcome is highly accurate. Moreover , there is literally zero damage to the surrounding healthy tissues. The final leg of the operation is the responsibility of the molecular synthesizers. These nanorobots, take the required biochemical substances from the blood or the surrounding tissues, and synthesis the cells of the blood vessels in order to seal the area of the block. These cells are placed in the affected region and as a result, we have a whole new region of the blood vessel that is completely free from the threat of another block. Sensor robots that navigate the other robots through the blood stream.
ADVANTAGES
. The process is very fast.
. Since the scale of opeartion is very small, the results are very accurate.
. The process is less painful unlike angioplasty, where the patient takes months to recover from the physical trauma of the operation.
. The process is technologically very advanced and reliable.
. The patient is not subjected to harmful rays unlike angioplasty where he is placed below a continuous X-ray during diagnosis.
. The chance of any aftereffects or recurrences are completely eliminated.
DISADVANTAGES
. Nanorobots, the technology as such, may be very costly.
. The technology may take several years to be implemented practically.
. The technology may lead to further technological problems like the introduction of artificial reconstruction and artificial intelligence which will result in the robots going out of control of humans.
CONCLUSION
Nanotechnology is truly a vast field of research and study, bound only by the limits of human imagination. Even though this may seem to most of them like a fairy tale, the days of implementation of these devices are not far off. The machines needed to fabricate these nanorobots are yet to be visualized.
Hence these nanorobots are still out of production although having passed the drawing board stage long back. The human mind will one day make this extremely interesting vision, a reality. This field however at present, in its infancy stages, just like aviation was, during the early 1900â„¢s. Let us hope that this technology also will one day, become as successful and dominating like aviation today.
REFERENCES
. Electronics for you “ November 2004.
. http://www.wikipedia.com\cholesterols
. http://www.howstuffworks.com

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14-04-2010, 11:56 PM
Post: #2
RE: nanorobotics full report

.doc  NANOROBOTS.doc (Size: 785.5 KB / Downloads: 463)

TOPIC: NANOROBOTS


Presented BY;
KAVYA SHREE
POORNIMA
SIDDAGANGA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY-TUMKUR

SYNOPSIS:
1. Introduction to How Nanorobots Will Work
2. Take Two Bots and Call Me in the Morning
3. Nanorobot Navigation
4. Powering the Nanorobot
5. Nanorobot Locomotion
6. Teeny, Tiny Tools
7. Nanorobots: Today and Tomorrow
8. Lots More Information
DEFINATION OF NANOROBOTS.
A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9 meter. Nanorobots have potential applications in the assembly and maintenance of sophisticated systems. Nanorobots might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices, machines, or circuits, a process known as molecular manufacturing. Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-replication.
Nanorobots are of special interest to researchers in the medical industry. This has given rise to the field of nanomedicine. It has been suggested that a fleet of nanorobots might serve as antibodies or antiviral agents in patients with compromised immune systems, or in diseases that do not respond to more conventional measures. There are numerous other potential medical applications, including repair of damaged tissue, unblocking of arteries affected by plaques, and perhaps the construction of complete replacement body organs.
A major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability. In theory, they can remain operational for years, decades, or centuries. Nanoscale systems can also operate much faster than their larger counterparts because displacements are smaller; this allows mechanical and electrical events to occur in less time at a given speed.
Nanorobotics theory
Since nanorobots would be microscopic in size, it would probably be necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform macroscopic tasks. These nanorobot swarms, both those which are incapable of replication (as in utility fog) and those which are capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment (as in grey goo and its less common variants) are found in many science fiction stories, such as the Borg nanoprobes in Star Trek, nanogenes in the popular television show Doctor Who episode "The Empty Child", nanites in "I, Robot", "Stargate SG1" and , or nanobots in Red Dwarf. The T-1000 in Terminator 2: Judgment Day may be another example of a nanorobot swarm. The word "nanobot" (also "nanite", "nanogene", or "nanoant") is often used to indicate this fictional context and is an informal or even pejorative term to refer to the engineering concept of nanorobots. The word nanorobot is the correct technical term in the nonfictional context of serious engineering studies.
Some proponents of nanorobotics, in reaction to the grey goo scare scenarios that they earlier helped to propagate, hold the view that nanorobots capable of replication outside of a restricted factory environment do not form a necessary part of a purported productive nanotechnology, and that the process of self-replication, if it were ever to be developed, could be made inherently safe. They further assert that free-foraging replicators are in fact absent from their current plans for developing and using molecular manufacturing.
In such plans, future medical nanotechnology has been posited to employ nanorobots injected into the patient to perform treatment on a cellular level. Such nanorobots intended for use in medicine are posited to be non-replicating, as replication would needlessly increase device complexity, reduce reliability, and interfere with the medical mission. Instead, medical nanorobots are posited to be manufactured in hypothetical, carefully controlled nanofactories in which nanoscale machines would be solidly integrated into a supposed desktop-scale machine that would build macroscopic products.
The most detailed discussions of nanorobotics, including specific design issues such as sensing, power communication, navigation, manipulation, locomotion, and onboard computation, have been presented in the medical context of nanomedicine by Robert Freitas. Although much of these discussions remain at the level of unbuildable generality and do not approach the level of detailed engineering, the Nanofactory Collaboration[1], founded by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in 2000, is a focused ongoing effort involving 23 researchers from 10 organizations and 4 countries that is developing a practical research agenda[2] specifically aimed at developing positionally-controlled diamond mechanosynthesis and a diamondoid nanofactory that would be capable of building diamondoid medical nanorobots.
As a secondary meaning, "nanorobotics" is also sometimes used to refer to attempts to miniaturize robots or machines to any size, including the development of robots the size of insects or smaller.
Nanorobot
A nanoscale robot. "Autonomous" nanorobots have their own nanoscale computers built in, while "insect" nanorobots are deployed in groups and are controlled by a central computer.
Fixing One Cell at a Time
By 2020, scientists at Rutgers University believe that nanorobots will be injected into the bloodstream and administer a drug directly to an infected cell. This nanorobot has a carbon nanotube body, a biomolecular motor that propels it and peptide limbs to orient itself. Because it is composed of biological elements such as DNA and proteins, it will be easily removed from the body. For more information, see http://bionano.rutgers.edu/Mavroidis_Final_Report.pdf. (Image courtesy of the Bio-Nano Robotics team at Rutgers University: Constantinos Mavroidis, Martin L. Yarmush, Atul Dubey, Angela Thornton, Kevin Nikitczuk, Silvina Tomassone, Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos and Bernie Yurke.)
.How nanorobot works.
Imagine going to the doctor to get treatment for a persistent fever. Instead of giving you a pill or a shot, the doctor refers you to a special medical team which implants a tiny robot into your bloodstream. The robot detects the cause of your fever, travels to the appropriate system and provides a dose of medication directly to the infected area.
Properly realized, nanorobots will be able to treat a host of diseases and conditions. While their size means they can only carry very small payloads of medicine or equipment, many doctors and engineers believe the precise application of these tools will be more effective than more traditional methods. For example, a doctor might deliver a powerful antibiotic to a patient through a syringe to help his immune system. The antibiotic becomes diluted while it travels through the patient's bloodstream, causing only some of it makes it to the point of infection. However, a nanorobot -- or team of nanorobots -- could travel to the point of infection directly and deliver a small dose of medication. The patient would potentially suffer fewer side effects from the medication.
Several engineers, scientists and doctors believe that nanorobot applications are practically unlimited. Some of the most likely uses include:
¢ Treating arteriosclerosis: Arteriosclerosis refers to a condition where plaque builds along the walls of arteries. Nanorobots could conceivably treat the condition by cutting away the plaque, which would then enter the bloodstream.
Robot Image Gallery
The robot in this illustration swims through the arteries and veins using a pair of tail appendages.
See more robot images.Surprisingly, we're not that far off from seeing devices like this actually used in medical procedures. They're called nanorobots and engineering teams around the world are working to 0design robots that will eventually be used to treat everything from hemophilia to cancer
As you can imagine, the challenges facing engineers are daunting. A viable nanorobot has to be small and agile enough to navigate through the human circulatory system, an incredibly complex network of veins and arteries. The robot must also have the capacity to carry medication or miniature tools. Assuming the nanorobot isn't meant to stay in the patient forever, it also has to be able to make its way out of the host.
In this article, we'll learn about the potential applications of nanorobots, the various ways nanorobots will navigate and move through our bodies, the tools they will use to heal patients, the progress teams around the world have made so far and what theorists see in the future.
Treating arteriosclerosis: Arteriosclerosis refers to a condition where plaque builds along the walls of arteries. Nanorobots could conceivably treat the condition by cutting away the plaque, which would then enter the bloodstream.
Nanorobots may treat conditions like arteriosclerosis by physically chipping away the plaque along artery walls
Breaking up kidney stones: Kidney stones can be intensely painful -- the larger the stone the more difficult it is to pass. Doctors break up large kidney stones using ultrasonic frequencies, but it's not always effective. A nanorobot could break up a kidney stones using a small laser.
Nanorobots might carry small ultrasonic signal generators to deliver frequencies directly to kidney stones.
¢ Breaking up blood clots: Blood clots can cause complications ranging from muscle death to a stroke. Nanorobots could travel to a clot and break it up. This application is one of the most dangerous uses for nanorobots -- the robot must be able to remove the blockage without losing small pieces in the bloodstream, which could then travel elsewhere in the body and cause more problems. The robot must also be small enough so that it doesn't block the flow of blood itself.
¢ Fighting cancer: Doctors hope to use nanorobots to treat cancer patients. The robots could either attack tumors directly using lasers, microwaves or ultrasonic signals or they could be part of a chemotherapy treatment, delivering medication directly to the cancer site. Doctors believe that by delivering small but precise doses of medication to the patient, side effects will be minimized without a loss in the medication's effectiveness.
¢ Helping the body clot: One particular kind of nanorobot is the clottocyte, or artificial platelet. The clottocyte carries a small mesh net that dissolves into a sticky membrane upon contact with blood plasma. According to Robert A. Freitas, Jr., the man who designed the clottocyte, clotting could be up to 1,000 times faster than the body's natural clotting mechanism [source: Freitas]. Doctors could use clottocytes to treat hemophiliacs or patients with serious open wounds.
¢ Parasite Removal: Nanorobots could wage micro-war on bacteria and small parasitic organisms inside a patient. It might take several nanorobots working together to destroy all the parasites.
¢ Gout: Gout is a condition where the kidneys lose the ability to remove waste from the breakdown of fats from the bloodstream. This waste sometimes crystallizes at points near joints like the knees and ankles. People who suffer from gout experience intense pain at these joints. A nanorobot could break up the crystalline structures at the joints, providing relief from the symptoms, though it wouldn't be able to reverse the condition permanently.
¢ Breaking up kidney stones: Kidney stones can be intensely painful -- the larger the stone the more difficult it is to pass. Doctors break up large kidney stones using ultrasonic frequencies, but it's not always effective. A nanorobot could break up a kidney stones using a small laser
Nanorobot Navigation
There are three main considerations scientists need to focus on when looking at nanorobots moving through the body -- navigation, power and how the nanorobot will move through blood vessels. Nanotechnologists are looking at different options for each of these considerations, each of which has positive and negative aspects. Most options can be divided into one of two categories: external systems and onboard systems.
External navigation systems might use a variety of different methods to pilot the nanorobot to the right location. One of these methods is to use ultrasonic signals to detect the nanorobot's location and direct it to the right destination. Doctors would beam ultrasonic signals into the patient's body. The signals would either pass through the body, reflect back to the source of the signals, or both. The nanorobot could emit pulses of ultrasonic signals, which doctors could detect using special equipment with ultrasonic sensors. Doctors could keep track of the nanorobot's location and maneuver it to the right part of the patient's body.
Photo courtesy NASA
Some scientists plan to control
and power nanorobots
using MRI devices like this one.
Using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device, doctors could locate and track a nanorobot by detecting its magnetic field. Doctors and engineers at the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal demonstrated how they could detect, track, control and even propel a nanorobot using MRI. They tested their findings by maneuvering a small magnetic particle through a pig's arteries using specialized software on an MRI machine. Because many hospitals have MRI machines, this might become the industry standard -- hospitals won't have to invest in expensive, unproven technologies.
Doctors might also track nanorobots by injecting a radioactive dye into the patient's bloodstream. They would then use a fluoroscope or similar device to detect the radioactive dye as it moves through the circulatory system. Complex three-dimensional images would indicate where the nanorobot is located. Alternatively, the nanorobot could emit the radioactive dye, creating a pathway behind it as it moves through the body.
Other methods of detecting the nanorobot include using X-rays, radio waves, microwaves or heat. Right now, our technology using these methods on nano-sized objects is limited, so it's much more likely that future systems will rely more on other methods.
Onboard systems, or internal sensors, might also play a large role in navigation. A nanorobot with chemical sensors could detect and follow the trail of specific chemicals to reach the right location. A spectroscopic sensor would allow the nanorobot to take samples of surrounding tissue, analyze them and follow a path of the right combination of chemicals.
Hard as it may be to imagine, nanorobots might include a miniature television camera. An operator at a console will be able to steer the device while watching a live video feed, navigating it through the body manually. Camera systems are fairly complex, so it might be a few years before nanotechnologists can create a reliable system that can fit inside a tiny robot.
In the next section, we'll look at nanorobot power systems.
Powering the Nanorobot
Just like the navigation systems, nanotechnologists are considering both external and internal power sources. Some designs rely on the nanorobot using the patient's own body as a way of generating power. Other designs include a small power source on board the robot itself. Finally, some designs use forces outside the patient's body to power the robot.
Nanorobots could get power directly from the bloodstream. A nanorobot with mounted electrodes could form a battery using the electrolytes found in blood. Another option is to create chemical reactions with blood to burn it for energy. The nanorobot would hold a small supply of chemicals that would become a fuel source when combined with blood.
A nanorobot could use the patient's body heat to create power, but there would need to be a gradient of temperatures to manage it. Power generation would be a result of the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck effect occurs when two conductors made of different metals are joined at two points that are kept at two different temperatures. The metal conductors become a thermocouple, meaning that they generate voltage when the junctures are at different temperatures. Since it's difficult to rely on temperature gradients within the body, it's unlikely we'll see many nanorobots use body heat for power.
While it might be possible to create batteries small enough to fit inside a nanorobot, they aren't generally seen as a viable power source. The problem is that batteries supply a relatively small amount of power related to their size and weight, so a very small battery would only provide a fraction of the power a nanorobot would need. A more likely candidate is a capacitor, which has a slightly better power-to-weight ratio.
© Photographer: Newstocker I Agency: Dreamstime.com
Engineers are working on building smaller capacitors that will power technology like nanorobots.
Another possibility for nanorobot power is to use a nuclear power source. The thought of a tiny robot powered by nuclear energy gives some people the willies, but keep in mind the amount of material is small and, according to some experts, easy to shield [source: Rubinstein]. Still, public opinions regarding nuclear power make this possibility unlikely at best.
External power sources include systems where the nanorobot is either tethered to the outside world or is controlled without a physical tether. Tethered systems would need a wire between the nanorobot and the power source. The wire would need to be strong, but it would also need to move effortlessly through the human body without causing damage. A physical tether could supply power either by electricity or optically. Optical systems use light through fiber optics, which would then need to be converted into electricity on board the robot.
Nanorobot Locomotion
Assuming the nanorobot isn't tethered or designed to float passively through the bloodstream, it will need a means of propulsion to get around the body. Because it may have to travel against the flow of blood, the propulsion system has to be relatively strong for its size. Another important consideration is the safety of the patient -- the system must be able to move the nanorobot around without causing damage to the host.
Some scientists are looking at the world of microscopic organisms for inspiration. Paramecium move through their environment using tiny tail-like limbs called cilia. By vibrating the cilia, the paramecium can swim in any direction. Similar to cilia are flagella, which are longer tail structures. Organisms whip flagella around in different ways to move around.
Nanorobot designers sometimes look at microscopic organisms for propulsion inspiration, like the flagellum on this e-coli cell.
Scientists in Israel created microrobot, a robot only a few millimeters in length, which uses small appendages to grip and crawl through blood vessels. The scientists manipulate the arms by creating magnetic fields outside the patient's body. The magnetic fields cause the robot's arms to vibrate, pushing it further through the blood vessels. The scientists point out that because all of the energy for the nanorobot comes from an external source, there's no need for an internal power source. They hope the relatively simple design will make it easy to build even smaller robots.
Other devices sound even more exotic. One would use capacitors to generate magnetic fields that would pull conductive fluids through one end of an electromagnetic pump and shoot it out the back end. The nanorobot would move around like a jet airplane. Miniaturized jet pumps could even use blood plasma to push the nanorobot forward, though, unlike the electromagnetic pump, there would need to be moving parts.
Another potential way nanorobots could move around is by using a vibrating membrane. By alternately tightening and relaxing tension on a membrane, a nanorobot could generate small amounts of thrust. On the nanoscale, this thrust could be significant enough to act as a viable source of motion.
In the next section, we'll look at the tools nanorobots might carry to fulfill their medical missions
Teeny, Tiny Tools
Photo courtesy Garrigan.net
Nanorobot tools will have to
be small enough to manipulate
cells like these red blood cells.
Current microrobots are only a few millimeters long and about a millimeter in diameter. Compared to the nanoscale, that's enormous -- a nanometer is only one-billionth of a meter, while a millimeter is one-thousandth of a meter. Future nanorobots will be so small, you'll only be able to see them with the help of a microscope. Nanorobot tools will need to be even smaller. Here are a few of the items you might find in a nanorobot's toolkit:
Medicine cavity -- a hollow section inside the nanorobot might hold small doses of medicine or chemicals. The robot could release medication directly to the site of injury or infection. Nanorobots could also carry the chemicals used in chemotherapy to treat cancer directly at the site. Although the amount of medication is relatively miniscule, applying it directly to the cancerous tissue may be more effective than traditional chemotherapy, which relies on the body's circulatory system to carry the chemicals throughout the patient's body.
Probes, knives and chisels -- to remove blockages and plaque, a nanorobot will need something to grab and break down material. They might also need a device to crush clots into very small pieces. If a partial clot breaks free and enters the bloodstream, it may cause more problems further down the circulatory system.
Microwave emitters and ultrasonic signal generators -- to destroy cancerous cells, doctors need methods that will kill a cell without rupturing it. A ruptured cancer cell might release chemicals that could cause the cancer to spread further. By using fine-tuned microwaves or ultrasonic signals, a nanorobot could break the chemical bonds in the cancerous cell, killing it without breaking the cell wall. Alternatively, the robot could emit microwaves or ultrasonic signals in order to heat the cancerous cell enough to destroy it.
Electrodes -- two electrodes protruding from the nanorobot could kill cancer cells by generating an electric current, heating the cell up until it dies.
Lasers -- tiny, powerful lasers could burn away harmful material like arterial plaque, cancerous cells or blood clots. The lasers would literally vaporize the tissue.
The two biggest challenges and concerns scientists have regarding these small tools are making them effective and making them safe. For instance, creating a small laser powerful enough to vaporize cancerous cells is a big challenge, but designing it so that the nanorobot doesn't harm surrounding healthy tissue makes the task even more difficult. While many scientific teams have developed nanorobots small enough to enter the bloodstream, that's only the first step to making nanorobots a real medical application.
In the next section, we'll learn about where nanorobot technology is today and where it might be in the future.
Nanorobots: Today and Tomorrow
Teams around the world are working on creating the first practical medical nanorobot. Robots ranging from a millimeter in diameter to a relatively hefty two centimeters long already exist, though they are all still in the testing phase of development and haven't been used on people. We're probably several years away from seeing nanorobots enter the medical market. Today's microrobots are just prototypes that lack the ability to perform medical tasks.
Yoshikazu Tsuno/AFP/Getty Images
Although this 2-centimeter-long robot
is an impressive achievement,
future robots will be hundreds
of times smaller.
In the future, nanorobots could revolutionize medicine. Doctors could treat everything from heart disease to cancer using tiny robots the size of bacteria, a scale much smaller than today's robots. Robots might work alone or in teams to eradicate disease and treat other conditions. Some believe that semiautonomous nanorobots are right around the corner -- doctors would implant robots able to patrol a human's body, reacting to any problems that pop up. Unlike acute treatment, these robots would stay in the patient's body forever.
Another potential future application of nanorobot technology is to re-engineer our bodies to become resistant to disease, increase our strength or even improve our intelligence. Dr. Richard Thompson, a former professor of ethics, has written about the ethical implications of nanotechnology. He says the most important tool is communication, and that it's pivotal for communities, medical organizations and the government to talk about nanotechnology now, while the industry is still in its infancy.
Will we one day have thousands of microscopic robots rushing around in our veins, making corrections and healing our cuts, bruises and illnesses? With nanotechnology, it seems like anything is possible.
Nanorobotics Control
Initial uses of nanorobots to health care are likely to emerge within the next ten years with potentially broad biomedical applications. The ongoing developments of molecular-scale electronics, sensors and motors are expected to enable microscopic robots with dimensions comparable to bacteria.
Recent developments in the field of biomolecular computing have demonstrated positively the feasibility of processing logic tasks with bio-computers, which is a promising first step to enable future nanoprocessors with increasing complexity. Studies in the sense of building biosensors and nano-kinetic devices, which is required to enable nanorobots operation and locomotion, have also been advanced recently.
Moreover, classical objections related to the actual feasibility of nanotechnology, such as quantum mechanics, thermal motions and friction, have been considered and resolved, and discussions about the manufacturing of nanodevices are growing up.
Developing nanoscale robots presents difficult fabrication and control challenges. A practical approach within advanced graphics simulations is presented for the problem of nanorobots automation and its application for medicine. The approaches described in our papers focus mainly on nanorobot control design for assembly manipulation and the use of evolutionary agents as a suitable way to enable the robustness of the proposed model. Also, the presented papers summarize distinct aspects of some techniques required to achieve a successful nano-planning system design and its 3D-simulation visualization in real time. The control design and the development of complex nanosystems with high performance can be well analysed and addressed via simulation to help pave the way for future use of nanorobots in biomedical engineering problems.

NANOROBOTICS
A new approach within advanced graphics simulations is presented for the problem of nano-assembly automation and its application for medicine. The problem under study concentrates its main focus on nanorobot control design for molecular manipulation and the use of evolutionary agents as a suitable way to enable the robustness on the proposed model. Thereby the presented works summarize as well distinct aspects of some techniques required to achieve successful integrated system design and 3D simulation visualization in real time.
________________________________________


________________________________________
Initial uses of nanorobots to health care are likely to emerge within the next ten years with potentially broad biomedical applications. The ongoing developments of molecular-scale electronics, sensors and motors are expected to enable microscopic robots with dimensions comparable to bacteria. Recent developments on the field of biomolecular computing has demonstrated positively the feasibility of processing logic tasks by bio-computers, which is a promising first step to enable future nanoprocessors with increasingly complexity. Studies in the sense of building biosensors and nano-kinetic devices, which is required to enable nanorobots operation and locomotion, has been advanced recently too. Moreover, classical objections related to the real feasibility of nanotechnology, such as quantum mechanics, thermal motions and friction, has been considered and resolved and discussions about the manufacturing of nanodevises is growing up. Developing nanoscale robots presents difficult fabrication and control challenges. The control design and the development of complex integrated nanosystems with high performance can be well analysed and addressed via simulation to help pave the way for future use of nanorobots in biomedical engineering problems.

________________________________________

Humanizing Nanocomputers
Apart from this, scientists aim to use nanotechnology to create nanorobots that will serve as antibodies that can be programmed. This will help to protect humans against pathogenic bacteria and viruses that keep mutating rendering many remedies ineffective against new strains. Nanorobots would overcome this problem by reprogramming selectively to destroy the new pathogens. Nanorobots are predicted to be part of the future of human medicine.
AI + Nano Technology = Nano Robots
Nano Robots are small robots that are injected to the bloodstream. Dont be scared. They arent anything scary. These nano sized robots run across and through your blood stream and look for foriegn bodies inside a human system.
Nanotechnology:
comprises any technological developments that is done on the nanometre scale, which is usually 0.1-100nm. (One nanometer equals one thousandth of a micrometer or one millionth of a millimeter.) The term sometimes applies to any microscopic technology.
Nanorobots Inside Our Bodies?
Brazilian researcher, Adriano Cavalcanti, and his colleagues. Cavalcanti is working in nanorobotics, an emerging field in medicine which states that nanorobots soon will travel inside our bodies, digging for information, finding defects or delivering drugs.
If their designs can be realized, nanorobots might one day detect and break apart kidney stones, clear plaque from blood vessels, or ferry drugs to tumor cells.
Here, a nanorobot delivers a molecule to the organ inlet ” represented by the white cylinder. (Credit: Adriano Cavalcanti)
This screenshot shows the molecular identification by collisions contact. (Credit: Adriano Cavalcanti)
And on this diagram, you can see the workflow of a nanorobot gathering information and biomolecules. (Credit: Adriano Cavalcanti)
A better tomorrow?
Though this might seem to be very effective it is going to be more harmful than helpful. What if intellegence could be programed?
Scientists envision medical nanorobots capable of traveling through the human bloodstream to target disease-causing agents.
NANOROBOT HAS ITS APPLICATIONIN MANY FIELD:
1>IN MEDICLE FIELD
2>IN MONITERING OCENS
Virtual 3D nanorobots could lead to real cancer-fighting technology
Nanorobots search for organ-inlets demanding protein injection. Image credit: Adriano Cavalcanti, et al.
From eliminating the side effects of chemotherapy to treating Alzheimerâ„¢s disease, the potential medical applications of nanorobots are vast and ambitious. In the past decade, researchers have made many improvements on the different systems required for developing practical nanorobots, such as sensors, energy supply, and data transmission.
But there is still a great deal of work to do before tiny molecular machines can begin traveling through our arteries for diagnosing or treating our ailments. To try to pick up the pace, a group of researchers has recently developed an innovative approach to help in the research and development of nanorobots “ virtual reality.
Adriano Cavalcanti, Bijan Shirinzadeh, Robert Freitas, Jr., and Tad Hogg, representing institutions in Melbourne, Australia, and the U.S., have published their simulation procedure in a recent issue of Nanotechnology. Just as 3D simulations previously helped engineers greatly accelerate developmental research in the semiconductor industry, Cavalcanti and colleagues hope that virtual nanorobots, virtual biomolecules and virtual arteries will accelerate the progress of nanorobot development.
The software NCD (nanorobot control design) is a system implemented to serve as a test bed for nanorobot 3D prototyping, Cavalcanti, CEO of the Center for Automation in Nanobiotech and researcher at Monash University in Melbourne, told PhysOrg.com. It is an advanced nanomechatronics simulator that provides physical and numerical information for nanorobot task-based modeling. Serving as a fast development platform for medical nanorobots investigation, the NCD simulations show how to interact and control a nanorobot inside the body.
In a demonstration of the real-time simulation, the nanorobots had the task of searching for proteins in a dynamic virtual environment, and identifying and bringing those proteins to a specific organ-inlet for drug delivery. The researchers analyzed how the nanorobots used different strategies to achieve this goal. For instance, the nanorobots could employ different sensory capabilities such as chemical and temperature sensors, as well as random movement.
For the nanorobots, one of the most difficult parts was maneuvering close enough to a biomolecule to be able to sense that biomolecule, while accounting for many different forces and moving bodies. Unlike on the macroscale, viscosity dominates movement in arteries, affecting the nanorobotsâ„¢ traveling as it encounters obstacles and proteins moving passively through the fluid.
To demonstrate the system, the researchers tested several cases where the nanorobots used different strategies to detect proteins, and in vessels with varying diameters. As expected, their results showed that nanorobots have a better chance of finding a target in smaller vessels. Also, the use of both chemical and thermal biosensors greatly improved the nanorobotsâ„¢ efficiency compared with random motion.
In addition to sensing, the simulation will hopefully provide interactive tools for many challenging aspects of nanorobot design, such as control methods, manufacturing approaches, actuator (motor) design, and more. The researchers are currently using the simulation for tests in laparoscopic surgery, diabetes, cancer, brain aneurysms, cardiology, military biohazard defense, and drug delivery. The development is highly collaborative, with advances depending on future improvements in nanoelectronics, new materials, and genomics research.
One of the major factors for successfully developing nanorobots is to bring together professionals with interdisciplinary views of science and technologies, Cavalcanti said. It is necessary to keep your eyes open for chemistry, materials engineering, electronics, computing, physics, mechanics, photonics, pharmaceutics, and medicine technologies. Our work is advancing progressively because we have experts from different backgrounds participating. We all pursue a common interest in working together to build medical nanorobots.
With all these disciplines moving ahead, a precise simulation system can help researchers understand the performance requirements for practical nanorobots, even before the technologies exist.
Some existing components, like sensors, motors, actuators and antennas, are already available as nanodevices, said Cavalcanti. Then you have to take the next step: those components should be integrated as embedded parts assembled into a nanorobot.
He explained that the biggest motivator for innovation comes from economic and strategic interests. Due to the wide variety of applications, nanorobots will almost certainly offer economic incentives.
In the case of nanorobots, you have huge potential for commercialization, with enormous chances of profit for the medical and pharmaceutical sectors, Cavalcanti said. Among other applications in medicine, nanororobots also represent an important strategic technology for military defense against biohazard contamination, which should help to protect against different sorts of pandemic outbreaks.
Due to these motivations, Cavalcanti hopes that working nanorobots will be here in the not-too-distant future.
If you consider the velocity that miniaturization is moving, from micro to nanoelectronics, then you can easily understand the feasibility to have medical nanorobots integrated as a nanoelectronic molecular machine before 2015, he predicted, adding that nanorobots, like all medical technologies, would still need to undergo safety testing, which would push back the date for mass production and commercialization
NANOROBOTS TO MONITOR THE OCEANS
Nanotechnology is built on a foundation of physics, chemistry, biology and computer science, and involves the manipulation at the atomic scale, where one nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanometric building blocks can be used to develop a molecule-sized electronic switch or a miniaturized version of the entire logic system of a computer. Nanotechnology has already moved away from computer science and applications include the marine environment as indicators and identifiers of pathogenic microorganisms.
An article on the Small Times website (Scientists want to send nanobots to search and destroy brown tide, by Richard Acello, 22 January 2002), provides a few additional details on the project announced on the 10th January 2002 by the Laboratory for Molecular Robotics at the University of Southern California School of Engineering. A research grant worth $1.5 million from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) will be used to create swarms of microscopic robots. These are envisaged to monitor potentially dangerous microorganisms in the ocean, which are responsible for millions of dollars worth of damage to the aquaculture and fisheries industries every year. Other threats to human and marine life include urban runoff, sewage spills, and other pathogens. With the development of nanobots, the team at USC aims to cull these threats.
The nanobots are made of gold and silver colloid balls, as small as two nanometers. A computer-controlled atomic force microscope is used to slide gold balls onto slides of mica or silicon. In this way, antibodies can be attached to the sharp silicon tip of the microscope probe. Interaction with a sample relies on the same mechanism of interaction and binding between any antibody and its corresponding antigen. This can be done at room temperature and in water, a process which takes at most a few hours. Identification of pathogens in the traditional way could take days.
One of the main problems which still needs to be solved is the issue of mobility. The nanobots will have to be able to swim or propel themselves through the water. One idea is to develop flagellar motion, similar to that used by bacteria and some protozoans.
A paper titled The Gray Goo Problem by Robert A. Freitas Jr., takes a rather negative approach to nanotechnology. The global undersea carbon storage exceeds 1x1016kg and is found as CH4 clathrates. The carbon dissolved in sea water as CO2 exceeds 3.8x1016kg. These can be combined to form solid carbon and water.
Researchers are investigating the use of nanorobots in this chemical mechanism, thereby reducing the levels of CO2 (greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere. However, if these nanorobots are not strictly confined to the sea floor, a worst-case scenario is envisaged, whereby the natural cell/device ratio could increase by many orders of magnitude, requiring a more diligent census effort. Another idea to counteract this effect is the use of census-taking nanorobots to identify, disable, knapsack or destroy the gray plankton devices.

Researchers are investigating the use of nanorobots in this chemical mechanism, thereby reducing the levels of CO2 (greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere. However, if these nanorobots are not strictly confined to the sea floor, a worst-case scenario is envisaged, whereby the natural cell/device ratio could increase by many orders of magnitude, requiring a more diligent census effort. Another idea to counteract this effect is the use of census-taking nanorobots to identify, disable, knapsack or destroy the gray plankton devices.
As yet, the nature of the experimental robots requires them to be tested in largely controlled environments, in laboratory tanks. In a few years, they will be ready to test in the ocean. Eventually, nanobots could be deployed in the human body as artificial immune systems for people with impaired immune systems.

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23-09-2010, 11:05 PM
Post: #3
RE: nanorobotics full report
plz mail me very detailed seminar reports on nanorobotics...............
for my thesis in MCA
email: krati119[at]gmail.com
Thank You
24-09-2010, 02:11 PM
Post: #4
Tongue Design of NANOROBOT in Human Body

.doc  Design of NANOROBOT in Human Body.doc (Size: 3.01 MB / Downloads: 307)
ABSTRACT



Imagine there’s no need to go to the doctor, not even to the pharmaceutical shop. No more health problems now, not even an opportunistic cold. This dream will soon come true because of a wizard by the new technology called nanotechnology & the miracle is NANOROBOT.
This paper depicts on case study of NANOROBOTS IN HUMAN BODY which comes from NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY, the science which deals with production of ‘new’ materials and devices from precise placement used in biology.
The Nanorobots hold promise for a strong presence in medicine to come. Nanorobots lie in the heart of many proposed solutions of nanomedicine, which includes serving as antibodies in weak immune systems, curing diseases, unresponsive to conventional methods, repairing damaged tissue, unblocking arteries affected by plaque, construction of replacement body organs and more.
It proves essential when damage to the human body is highly selective, subtle or time critical. Their characteristics provide faster medical treatment, versatility, reliability, sensitive response threshold, minimum side effects, non-toxic and verification of progress and precision.
Nanorobots will patrol in body through blood vessels killing the pathogens & remove or repair the damaged cells thereby improving your immunity and life expectancy too.

A. What is NANOTECHNOLOGY?
The Nanotechnology is the science which deals with the production of ‘new’ materials and devices from the precise placement. It causes direct manipulation of atoms or molecules and the development of products or substances that take advantage of and use the novel properties of materials less than few nm in size. The nanotechnology working in the field of biotechnology is termed as Nano-Biotechnology.

B. Where it can be used?
Scientists are more interested to make use of nanotechnology in the field of medicine. This may be because, the basic unit of life i.e. DNA and other proteins are also of nanosize. One of the most challenging things on this line for researchers is to develop a nano object which will enter the body, patrol through the body, kill the pathogens, remove or repair the damaged cells and keep internal environment as required. This object is nothing but “Nanorobot”.
Other fields of interest for nanotechnology is –
o Biochips
o Biofluidic devices
o Nanomachines
o Intelligent drug delivery system
o other nano bio devices & many more……………………..



To know more about nanorobotics ,please follow the link:
http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&source=...h8jQgcMHZg

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04-10-2010, 05:30 PM
Post: #5
RE: nanorobotics full report
Introduction

The application of nanorobots for agricultural purposes and monitoring water and soil qualities may result in impressive impact towards environmental control and decreasing the damages caused by pollution to many different natural species. Applications of nanorobots are expected to provide remarkable possibilities. Over the past 15 years, insight was gained into the hydraulic conductivity of fractured and karstic rocks by introducing particles of different size, charge, and chemical composition into a flow field and monitoring the breakthrough of these particles in space and time. From this information, it is possible to infer the hydraulic aperture of the smallest throats in a flow path. Therefore, this concept can be extended to porous media using nanorobots .
A computational approach is described for the investigation of nanorobots manufacturing design , which aims to enable better tools for hydraulic conductivity interpretation. A total market for nanotechnology-based environmental applications in 2005 was evaluated in $374.9 million, and by 2010 this market will have reached more than $6.1 billion . Advantages of using nanorobots for environmental tasks are quite clear: more control in measuring microorganisms, better detection of pollutants, and improved control of water temperature, just to quoting some positive aspects.
The nanorobots hardware feasibility may be observed as the result of most recent advances in a broad range of manufacturing techniques. Inside the miniaturization trends, it is reasonable to even quote some examples such as VLSI chips, including here Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) based on current technology , which could be observed as one possible way for manufacturing embedded control computation on molecular machines in near future . Meanwhile these manufacturing methodologies may advance progressively, the use of computational nanomechatronics and virtual reality could help in the process of transducers investigation. Thus, this work aims to outline the ways to Fig. 1: Schematic view of nanorobot’s sensor identification. manufacture nanorobots system on chip to prepare its use for upcoming applications which may concern agricultural, industrial and environmental issues.

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http://www.nanorobotdesign.com/papers/manufacturing.pdf
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