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07-04-2009, 10:47 PM
Post: #1
New Techniques Of Waste Water Management
Water is a vitalizing force for sustaining life on earth. About 1/3rd of worldâ„¢s population depend on groundwater sources for survival. The individual requirements of water are 135 liters per day, equivalent to 49,275 liters per annum. With steady increasing population and increase in demand for water, the management for water has become a topic of serious concern. There are various techniques of wastewater management which improve the quality of water and which can be used for many purposes. . Decentralized water management is one such solution. With limited water sources in ground and limited space for disposal of waste water, the colleges and connected hostels find the problem of wastewater dumping and unavailability of safe drinking water. Setting up of treatment plants in and around the areas of institutions can control the problem of water scarcity. Many companies have made research and have succeeded in discovering more innovative methods and technologies for wastewater treatment.

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28-05-2010, 08:13 PM
Post: #2
RE: New Techniques Of Waste Water Management
modern Wastewater Treatment Methods
& Disposal techniques

Satisfactory disposal of wastewater, whether by surface, subsurface methods or dilution, is dependent on its treatment prior to disposal. Relatively simple wastewater treatment technologies can be designed to provide low cost sanitation and environmental protection while providing additional benefits from the reuse of water.Adequate treatment is necessary to prevent contamination of receiving waters to a degree which might interfere with their best or intended use.
The whole process consists of consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Generally the steps may involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location, and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes.

Physical, Chemical and BiologicalWastewater Treatment Methods:
Chemical:
-Neutralization
-Chlorination
-Coagulation
-Ozonation
-Adsorption
-Ion Exchange

Physical:
Sedimentation (Clarification)
-Aeration
-Flotation and Skimming
-Equalization
-Screening
-Filtration
-Degassification

Biological:
Aerobic :
-Activated Sludge Treatment Methods
-Oxidation Ponds

Anaerobic :
-Anaerobic Digestion
-Lagoons

Preliminary Treatment:
preliminary treatment is used to protect pumping equipment and facilitate subsequent treatment processes. Screens -- rack, bar or fine, Grit chambers, Pre-aeration tanks etc are used.

Primary Treatment:
most of the settleable solids are separated or removed from the wastewater by the physical process of sedimentation. The main aim is this stage is to reduce the velocity of the wastewater sufficiently to permit solids to settle and floatable material to surface

Secondary Treatment:
Secondary treatment depends primarily upon aerobic organisms which biochemically decompose the organic solids to inorganic or stable organic solids. Trickling filters with secondary settling tanks, Activated sludge and modifications, Intermittent sand filters etc are used.

Chlorination:
It involves the application of chlorine to the wastewater. The purposes are:
Disinfection or destruction of pathogenic organisms, Prevention of wastewater decomposition etc.

For more details, refer these links:
http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/ENV149/methods.htm
http://www.oas.org/DSD/publications/Unit...#TopOfPage

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22-02-2011, 10:11 AM
Post: #3
RE: New Techniques Of Waste Water Management

.pptx  WATER MANAGEMENT-1.pptx (Size: 131 KB / Downloads: 355)
WATER MANAGEMENT
SEWAGE TREATMENT (DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT)

 process of removing contaminants from waste water and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic.
 Process of producing an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer).
SEWAGE TREATMENT INVOLVES THREE STAGES
 Primary treatment
 Secondary treatment
 Tertiary treatment
PRE-TREATMENT
 Removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw waste water.
 The waste may damage or clog the pumps and skimmers of primary treatment clarifiers (trash, tree limbs, leaves, etc.)
SCREENING
sewage water is screened to remove all large objects carried in the sewage stream.
GRIT REMOVAL
 Grit channel or chamber where the velocity of the incoming wastewater is adjusted to allow the settlement of sand, grit, stones, and broken glass.
 Grit removal is desirable for larger plants
FAT AND GREASE REMOVAL
 Fat and grease is removed by passing the sewage through a small tank where skimmers collect the fat floating on the surface.
 Air blowers in the base of the tank may also be used to help recover the fat as a froth.
PRIMARY TREATMENT
 Sewage flows through large tanks, commonly called "primary clarifiers" or "primary sedimentation tanks."
 Grease and oil from the floating material can sometimes be recovered for saponification.
 sedimentation tank may remove from 60 to 65 percent of suspended solids, and from 30 to 35 percent of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from the sewage.
SECONDARY TREATMENT
 To substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage which are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent.
 The majority of municipal plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes.
 The bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants and bind much of the less soluble fractions into flock.
SECONDARY TREATMENT
Fixed-film or attached growth systems
 include trickling filters and rotating biological contactors.
Suspended-growth systems
 include activated sludge, where the biomass is mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than fixed-film systems that treat the same amount of water
04-04-2011, 09:38 AM
Post: #4
RE: New Techniques Of Waste Water Management

.ppt  wwmgt_1.ppt (Size: 3.99 MB / Downloads: 441)
Introduction to Wastewater Management
Wastewater Segment Objectives

1. Understand why and how to identify potential threats to source water from wastewater, especially onsite septic systems
2. Understand the mechanics of wastewater treatment and how septic systems can threaten ground and surface water supplies
3. Gain familiarity with a range of technical and management options for addressing threats from wastewater contamination
4. Gain familiarity with local and technical resources, including RCAP
5. Understand the major categories of project planning activities
6. Appreciate the importance of viewing water supply protection and water resource management from a watershed, regional or multijurisdictional perspective
7. Understand the importance of recording data in a retrievable, useable and shareable format
8. Gain familiarity with techniques for identifying and attracting stakeholders to the planning process, re: application of social marketing
Wastewater Segment Overview
1. Introduction
2. Protecting Drinking Water from Wastewater Contamination
3. Introduction to Wastewater Treatment
4. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Overview
5. Advanced Treatment
6. Problem Characterization / Moving to Action
7. Maintenance and Management
8. Exercises
Additional Tools
1. Sample Residential Wastewater Surveys
2. Sample Wastewater Survey Report Spreadsheet
3. EPA FRD-10 Onsite Systems PP
4. Onsite Regulations Matrix
5. Primacy Agency Spreadsheet
6. CCE Homeowner Recordkeeping Guide
7. RCAP Solutions Articles
Training Tips
• Know your audience
• Ice breakers
• Use a scribe
• Use pictures and diagrams
• Don’t get too busy with slides
• Verbally present material slightly differently than is shown on slide
• Ask questions of the audience often
• Use multiple examples and interactive exercises to make it “real”
• Don’t use big words or acronyms without defining
Training Tips
• More about the audience
• Presentations are guidance
• Pick and choose
• Make it locally relevant
• Add local and other case studies
More about the audience
• Septic Professionals
• Licensed Operators
• Elected Officials
• Homeowners Associations
• Homeowners and Landowners
• Special Interest and Civic Groups
• Watershed Groups
• Non-Community Water Systems
Acknowledgements
• Anish Jantrania, VA Dept. of Health
• Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment (CIDWT)
• NESC
• NY Onsite Wastewater Treatment Training Network (OTN)
• RCAP Solutions
• Skaneateles Lake Onsite Demonstration Project
• US EPA
05-04-2011, 09:55 AM
Post: #5
RE: New Techniques Of Waste Water Management

.docx  Waste water reuse technology.docx (Size: 208.63 KB / Downloads: 196)
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1 WHY REUSE WATER?

Sustainable water management is an important goal and a key element of sustainable urban development. Government authorities and the land development industry are increasingly seeking to use alternative sources, such as water reuse, to conserve drinking water supplies and minimize wastewater.
Water reuse must be considered in the context of the specific development and management of the entire water cycle. A Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) strategy is the starting point for developments’ water management planning. Within such a strategy, reusing water may be deemed appropriate for a particular site after considering all other water streams and their interactions.
Water reuse describes the treatment of wastewater to a standard where it can be used within our community. Throughout the document the term “reused water” is used to describe recycled water, greywater reuse (wastewater from the household excluding toilet water), sewer mining or reclaimed effluent. References to particular water streams will be made where required. Reused water is used on a ‘fit-for-purpose’ basis – that is, of an appropriate quality for the intended use.
1.2 SUSTAINABLE AND INTEGRATED WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT
The conventional urban water cycle consists of a large-scale centralized water supply and disposal system. Water is collected from catchments, treated and piped to customers. After use, wastewater flows through a second set of pipes (sewers) to sewage treatment plants. The treated water is then discharged to creeks, rivers, bays or oceans. Sustainable development aims to minimize water use and dependence on natural resources and maximize reuse within the built environment. In Figure 1, the dotted red line separates the natural and built environments. The general approach is to minimize water and pollutants crossing the boundary, and maximizing water reuse within the boundary. This can be achieved by:
• reducing drinking water demand (through demand management)
• using available water sources for the most appropriate purposes (‘fit-for-purpose’)
• identifying and maximzsing alternative water sources
• minimizing the impact of urban storm water on the receiving aquatic ecosystem.
2. SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Conventional evaluation of treatment technologies compared technical viability and cost-effectiveness. But a simple cost-benefit analysis does not adequately assess the breadth of issues for water reuse. Site characteristics, an integrated water management perspective and ‘externalities’ such as downstream infrastructure interactions and the impact on the natural environment must be taken into account. The identification of water reuse as an alternative water source will occur before the evaluation of water treatment technologies. Typically a Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) strategy is formulated to identify structural (eg. water treatment, storage and distribution infrastructure) and nonstructural (eg. policies, pricing, demand management) solutions for the provision of urban water services within the urban design. An integrated water cycle management strategy will then identify the opportunities for water reuse following which an evaluation and selection of appropriate water treatment technologies is undertaken.
The viability and suitability of technologies within an ecologically sustainable framework depend on criteria including:
• water end use and demand profile
• water quality and quantity
• available space for treatment and storage
• infrastructure near the site e.g. trunk sewers, proximity to local centralised treatment facility
• interaction with the environment e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, land capability, receiving waterbodies.
• social considerations e.g. community receptiveness to alternative water sources
• economic considerations
• climatic conditions
• operating and maintenance
• ongoing ownership of the treatment system
13-05-2011, 11:35 AM
Post: #6
RE: New Techniques Of Waste Water Management

.ppt  6-Primary_Treatment_Main.ppt (Size: 1.14 MB / Downloads: 205)
Primary Treatment of Wastewater
Equalizatio

Smooth out fluctuations in flow rate
Results in more consistent treatment
Flow Measurement
Flow rate information needed for efficient operation, chemical addition, etc
Equalization
Objective
Decrease fluctuations in flow rate, to provide more consistent treatment
Accomplished by storing excess wastewater during high flow periods
Excess wastewater is released during low flow periods
Pumping
Sometimes needed to lift the water to a higher elevation than the discharge point of the main trunk sewer line.
After pumping, the plant is designed to operate under gravity flow to the point of discharge at the receiving stream.
A Screw Pump
Flow Measurement
Objective
Measure flow rate to facilitate plant operation
Several operations need flow rate data for good operation
Chlorination
pH adjustment
Also required for NPDES reports
Design of Influent Channel
Objective
Design a combination of circular sewer and rectangular channels to deliver wastewater to the head works of the treatment plant
Apply open channel flow hydraulics – applying Manning’s equation considering:
Minimum velocity to reduce solids deposition in the channel
Hydraulic grade, slope of channel invert to provide scour of solids
Channel dimensions that match or transition the influent circular sewer with a rectangular channel
Primary Treatment
- Designed to remove settleable solids and
reduce the organic load (BOD) on the secondary units.
Primary treatment includes
- Bar screen
- Comminutor
- Grit chamber
- Primary clarifier
Bar Screen Vendor-Provided Equipment
Purpose: to remove large objects (sticks, cans, etc) which may cause flow obstructions.
Depending on the size of the plant, bar screens are either hand or mechanically cleaned.
Hand cleaned: used primarily at small plants.
Figure (a) Manually cleaned bar rack (from Peavy, Rowe, and Tchobanoglous, 1985, p. 218)
Bar Screen Mechanically Cleaned
More frequently used because labor and overflowing are greatly reduced.
A by-pass channel with a hand cleaned bar screen must also be provided. A second mechanically cleaned bar screen can also be provided.
The purpose of the by-pass channel is to provide treatment in case of a mechanical failure.
Screens are either front or back cleaned.
Bar Screen
Mechanical Bar Screen General Design Criteria
Bar Width: 1/4 to 5/8 in
Spacing: 5/8 to 3 in
Depth: 1 to 1.5 inches
Slope: 30 – 45o from the vertical.
(from Peavy, Rowe, and Tchobanoglous, 1985, p. 219)
Mechanical Bar Screen General Design Criteria
Approach velocity – 1.25 fps @ minimum flow (as determined by the Manning Eqn.), the purpose in controlling the approach velocity is to prevent deposition of grit in the channel.
Velocity through the screen - < 3 fps, to prevent excessive headloss and to prevent forcing of screenings through the openings.
Quantities of screenings – 0.5-5 ft3/ MG, average 2 ft3/MG
Mechanical Bar Screen General Design Criteria
Disposal of screenings – landfill or incineration
Density: 80% moisture (60 pcf) right off the screen, dry (12 pcf)
hL = 0.5 – 2.5 ft (max)
hL=(Vs2-vc2)/(2g * 0.7)
Vs= velocity through the bars
vc= approach velocity in the upstream channel
Comminutors Vendor-Provided Equipment
Purpose: to chop solids between 1/4 - 3/8 inch to prevent pumps from being clogged.
Comminutors are installed directly into the influent channel.
Since comminutors come in a standard size, it is not unusual to select the comminutor first, then size the channel.
Comminutors should be provided with a
by-pass channel and a hand cleaned bar screen.
(from Peavy, Rowe, and Tchobanoglous, 1985, p. 220)
Grit Chambers
Purpose: to remove inorganic material referred to as grit. Grit includes sand, eggshells, bone chips, coffee grounds, etc.
Grit is removed to prevent abrasion of pumps and to reduce deposits in pipe lines, channels, and digesters.
Grit Chamber General Design Criteria
Specific gravity of grit: 2.65
Diameter of grit: 0.22 mm
Settling velocity: 0.075 fps
Equivalent overflow rate: 48,400 gpd/ft2
Grit Chamber General Design Criteria
Quantity of girt: 1/3 to 24 ft3/MG
Ave = 4 ft3 /MG
Disposal of grit: land fill or incineration (Grit must be washed before disposal)
Grit chamber storage:
Small plant: provide storage below the design invert depending on the quantity and frequency of removal.
Large plant: continuous removal, the conveyor hopper is designed based on the size of the equipment.
Grit Chambers Types
Square Clarifier (Detritus Tank)
Aerated Tanks
Grit Chamber Square Clarifier (Detritus Tank)
Detritus tanks are designed so that the horizontal velocity is 1.0 fps at maximum flow. This means that at low flow, the velocity is less than 1.0 fps, and therefore, organic material will accumulate.
Organics are removed by counter current washing as the grit moves up an incline for disposal.
(from Tchobanoglous and Burton, 1991, p. 456)
Grit Chamber Square Clarifier (Detritus Tank)
Basic Design Criteria
Vs = 0.075 fps @ Average Flow
td < 1 min
Overflow rate: 48,400 gpd/ft2
Vh: 0.75-1.25 fps (keeps organics in suspension)
Grit Chamber Aerated Grit Chamber
Upon discovering that grit accumulated in the bottom of activated sludge aeration basins, it has became common practice to use aerated grit chambers.
Aeration also provides pretreatment of the waste by removing odors and inducing flocculation of the organic material making primary clarification more effective.
(from Tchobanoglous and Burton, 1991, p. 461)
Aerated Grit Chamber Benefits of Pre-aeration
By providing preaeration, primary treatment is improved through:
Grit removal
Flocculation
Odor Control
Grease Separation
Design the detention time and aeration rate to control all four
Aerated Grit Chamber General Design Criteria
Rate of aeration: 5 cfm/ft length (provide for variable rates of aeration which is adjusted according to the flow and efficiency of grit removal).
Width to Depth Ratio: a critical factor in providing an effective spiral-rolling action in the grit chamber
WBig Grin = 1 – 2.2 : 1
Depth = 10 – 15 ft (starting point: set depth first)
Length:Width Ratio = 3:1, final dimensions are adjusted so that the detention time is 3-10 minutes.
Primary Clarifier
Purpose: to remove settleable organics and floating scum (grease and oils).
Efficiencies:
Suspended solids 50 – 65%
BOD 30 – 35%
Primary clarifiers are either circular or rectangular. They are very similar to sedimentation basins used in water treatment except that scum removal is always provided in addition to sludge collection.
A Circular Primary Sedimentation Tank
An Empty Primary Clarifier
An Operating Primary Clarifier
Oil Skimmer in a Primary Clarifier
Primary Clarifiers Design Criteria
Type II Settling Clarifier: during settling organic solids come in contact with each other and aggregate increasing the particle size and settling rate. Aggregation increases with time, therefore detention time is important.
Td: 90 – 150 min at average flow (Avg 2 hr)
Overflow rate: 600 – 1,200 gpd/ft2
Weir loading rate: 10,000 – 15,000 gpd/ft.
Aerial View Housatonic Wastewater Plant, Milford, CT (Avg. Flow Rate = 8 MGD)
Aerial View of Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Plant, Washington D.C. (avg. flow rate = 309 Million gals/day)
Sludge Quantities
Quantity of sludge collected in the primary clarifier depends on:
Specific gravity of the dry solids
% moisture
Efficiency of settling
The following relationship is used to determine the specific gravity of the sludge (mixture of solids and ter):
S = Sp. Gr. of sludge
Ss = Sp. Gr. of dry solids
Sw = Sp. Gr. of water (1.0)
Ps = % solids (sludge)
Pw = % water (sludge)
Sludge Quantities
The volume of sludge can be determined from the following relationship:
S = specific gravity of sludge
V = sludge volume, gals
Ws = dry weight of solids, lb
= specific weight of water (62.4 lb / ft3)
(from Peavy, Rowe, and Tchobanoglous, 1985, p. 228)
(from Peavy, Rowe, and Tchobanoglous, 1985, p. 228)
Primary Treatment Efficiency
BOD = 30 – 35% SS = 50 – 65%
Wastewater entering secondary treatment
Strong: BOD = 260–280 mg/L
SS= 120–175 mg/L
Medium: BOD= 145–155 mg/L
SS= 80–110 mg/L
Weak: BOD= 70–80 mg/L
SS= 35–50 mg/L
Forms of BOD: (a) Colloidal
(b) Soluble/Dissolved
28-07-2011, 01:14 AM
Post: #7
RE: New Techniques Of Waste Water Management
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09-02-2012, 10:59 AM
Post: #8
RE: New Techniques Of Waste Water Management
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