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Tags: NUCLEAR, ENERGY, nuclear energy, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, nuclear reactor, nuclear family, nuclear bombnuclear physics, nuclear fuel complex, nuclear power plants in india, nuclear energy in india, nuclear energy ppt, nuclear energy generation, nuclear energy advantages and disadvantages, nuclear energy for peace, nuclear energy definition, nuclear energy advantagesnuclear energy wiki,
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04-10-2010, 12:31 PM
Post: #1
Thumbs Up NUCLEAR ENERGY

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This article is presented by:
RISHI KUMAR
what is nuclear energy?


The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.

Atomic energy: the energy released by a nuclear reaction

How nuclear energy is produced
Two reactions from which nuclear energy is produced in nuclear reactor:-
1. nuclear fission
2.nuclear fusion

What is nuclear fission?

Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts and producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays) and nuclear energy.

Mainly U235, 239Pu are used in nuclear fission

Nuclear fusion
In nuclear fusion reaction two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus and release energy.

And the power generated by nuclear fusion reactions refers to nuclear power.

Nuclear energy in india

India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MWe nuclear capacity on line by 2020. It aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050.
Because India is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons program, it has been for 34 years largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which has hampered its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009.
Due to these trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
From 2009, foreign technology and fuel are expected to boost India's nuclear power plans considerably.
India has a vision of becoming a world leader in nuclear technology due to its expertise in fast reactors and thorium fuel cycle.

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15-10-2010, 03:39 PM
Post: #2
RE: NUCLEAR ENERGY

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NUCLEAR ENERGY
or
Mass and energy


Einstein suggested that mass and energy are related by E=mc2 (c = 3.0 x 108 m/s)
E: energy, m: mass, c: speed of light
Converting the mass of one penny could
provide the entire energy requirements for 700 people for one year
Power a space heater for 7000 years
That’s about $3 million worth of electricity
Because mass and energy are related the law of conservation of energy and law of conservation of mass can be combined into the Law of Conservation of Mass - Energy

An induced fission reaction. A slow-moving neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of a uranium-235 atom, which in turn splits into fast-moving lighter elements (fission products) and releases three free neutrons.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry,nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutronsand photons (in the form of gamma rays), as well. Fission of heavy elements is anexothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments (heating the bulk material where fission takes place). For fission to produce energy, the totalbinding energy of the resulting elements has to be lower than that of the starting element. Fission is a form of nuclear transmutationbecause the resulting fragments are not the same element as the original atom.
03-01-2011, 03:54 PM
Post: #3
RE: NUCLEAR ENERGY


ABSTRACT

This paper, related to nuclear power issue come across a wide range of area including politics. In this paper I tried to include the definition of nuclear power, uses in India. And also I tried to include some historical facts about this topic. In India we have around 19 power stations and there production rate of energy is also being included. For completing my term paper I visited a lot sites and blogs. And I had gone through many books regarding nuclear power and many news papers for collecting political issues.

INTRODUCTION

History Of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy was first discovered in 1934 by Enrico Fermi. The first nuclear bombs were built in 1945 as a result of the infamous Manhattan Project. The first plutonium bomb, code-named Trinity, was detonated on July 16, 1945 in New Mexico. On August 6th 1945 the first uranium bomb was detonated over Hiroshima. Three days later a plutonium bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. There is over 200,000 deaths associated with these detonations. Electricity wasn’t produced with nuclear energy until 1951.
In simple we can say that nuclear power is a source of power in which the molecules interact each other and a large amount of energy is produced.Its an simple definition of nuclear energy.
Nuclear power is produced by controlled (i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions. Commercial and utility plants currently use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity.
In 2009, 13–14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. Also, more than

150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built.

Thirty one countries operate nuclear power stations. France uses them as its primary source of electricity. Some nations have plans to start a nuclear power program. This includes OECD members, such as Poland, and developing countries, such as Bangladesh and Vietnam. China and India are pursuing an ambitious expansion of nuclear power.
The resources shows that United States Produces the max amount of energy from nuclear power ie,101,229MW and they uses around 20.2% of this energy for their electricity needing second place is France with 63,236MW,3rd is Japan(47,348MW).India lies in 14th Position in nuclear power. India produces only 4,560MW in which 2.2% of it is used in electricity.
Nuclear power production has got both advantage and disadvantage. This will be discussed in the remaing part of the term paper.

What do you mean by nuclear power?
Energy produced by nuclear fission of heavy atomic nuclei. About one-third of all electric power worldwide now comes from nuclear power plants. The navies of many countries include nuclear-powered warships; almost half of U.S. combat warships are nuclear-powered. Most commercial nuclear reactors are thermal reactors. Two types of light-water reactors in use throughout the world are the boiling-water reactor and the pressurized-water reactor. In the liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, fuel is utilized 60 times more effectively than in light-water reactors.
Nuclear Power Today
• Provides almost 20% of world’s electricity (8% in U.S.)
• 69% of U.S. non-carbon electricity generation
• More than 100 plants in U.S.
– None built since the 1970s
• 200+ plants in the Europe
– Leader is France
• About 80% of its power from nuclear
Nuclear Power in India
Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydro and renewable sources of electricity. As of 2010, India has 19 nuclear power plants in operation generating 4,560 MW while 4 other are under construction and are expected to generate an

additional 2,720 MW. India's nuclear power industry is undergoing rapid expansion with plans to increase nuclear power output to 63,000 MW by 2032. The country is involved in the development of nuclear fusion reactors through its participation in the ITER project and is a global leader in the development of thorium-based fast breeder reactors.
India's domestic uranium reserves are relatively small and the country is dependent on uranium imports to fuel its nuclear power industry. Since early 1990s, Russia has been a major supplier of nuclear fuel to India. Due to dwindling domestic uranium reserves, electricity generation from nuclear power in India declined by 12.83% from 2006 to 2008. Following a waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers Group in September 2008 which allowed it to commence international nuclear trade, India has signed bilateral deals on civilian nuclear energy technology cooperation with several other countries, including France, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. India has also uranium supply agreements with Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Argentina and Namibia
India now envisages to increase the contribution of nuclear power to overall electricity generation capacity from 4.2% to 9% within 25 years. In 2010, India's installed nuclear power generation capacity will increase to 6,000 MW As of 2009, India stands 9th in the world in terms of number of operational nuclear power reactors and is constructing 9 more, including two EPRs being constructed by France's Avera. Indigenous atomic reactors include TAPS-3, and -4, both of which are 540 MW reactors.] India's US$717 million fast breeder reactor project is expected to be operational by 2010.

Growth of Nuclear Power in India
India, being a non-signatory of the Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty has been subjected to a defacto nuclear embargo from members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)cartel. This has prevented India from obtaining commercial nuclear fuel, nuclear power plant components and services from the international market, thereby forcing India to develop its own fuel, components and services for nuclear power generation. The NSG embargo has had both negative and positive consequences for India's Nuclear Industry. On one hand, the NSG regime has constrained India from freely importing nuclear fuel at the volume and cost levels it would like to support the country's goals of expanding its nuclear power generation capacity to at least 20,000 MW by 2020. Also, by precluding India from taking advantage of the economies of scale and safety innovations of the global nuclear industry, the NSG regime has driven up the capital and operating costs and damaged the achievable safety potential of Indian nuclear power plants. On the other hand, the NSG embargo has forced the Indian government and bureaucracy to support and actively fund the development of Indian nuclear technologies and industrial capacities in all key areas required to create and maintain a domestic nuclear industry. This has resulted in the creation of a large pool of nuclear scientists, engineers and technicians that have developed new and unique innovations in the areas of Fast Breeder Reactors, Thermal Breeder Reactors, the Thorium fuel cycle, nuclear fuel reprocessing and Tritium extraction & production. Ironically, had the NSG sanctions not been in place, it would have been far more cost effective for India to import foreign nuclear power plants and nuclear fuels than to fund the development of Indian nuclear power generation technology, building of India's own nuclear reactors, and the development of domestic uranium mining, milling and refining capacity.
The Indian nuclear power industry is expected to undergo a significant expansion in the coming years thanks in part to the passing of The Indo-Nuclear deal. This agreement will allow India to carry out trade of nuclear fuel and technologies with other countries and significantly enhance its power generation capacity. when the agreement goes through, India is expected to generate an additional 25,000 MW of nuclear power by 2020, bringing total estimated nuclear power generation to 45,000 MW.
India has already been using imported enriched uranium and are currently under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, but it has developed various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle to support its reactors. Development of select technologies has been strongly affected by limited imports. Use of Heavy water reactors has been particularly attractive for the nation because it allows Uranium to be burnt with little to no enrichment capabilities. India has also done a great amount of work in the development of a Thorium centered fuel cycle While Uranium deposits in the nation are limited (see next paragraph) there are much greater reserves of Thorium and it could provide hundreds of times the energy with the same mass of fuel. The fact that Thorium can theoretically be utilized in heavy water reactors has tied the development of the two. A prototype reactor that would burn Uranium-Plutonium fuel while irradiating a Thorium blanket is under construction at the Madras.
Uranium used for the weapons program has been separate from the power program, using Uranium from indigenous reserves. This domestic reserve of 80,000 to 112,000 tons of uranium (approx 1% of global uranium reserves) is large enough to supply all of India's commercial and military reactors as well as supply all the needs of India's nuclear weapons arsenal. Currently, India's nuclear power reactors consume, at most, 478 metric tons of uranium per year. Even if India were quadruple its nuclear power output (and reactor base) to 20GW by 2020, nuclear power generation would only consume 2000 metric tons of uranium per annum. Based on India's known commercially viable reserves of 80,000 to 112,000 tons of uranium, this represents a 40 to 50 years uranium supply for India's nuclear power reactors (note with reprocessing and breeder reactor technology, this supply could be stretched out many times over). Furthermore, the uranium requirements of India's Nuclear Arsenal are only a fifteenth (1/15) of that required for power generation (approx. 32 tones), meaning that India's domestic fissile material supply is more than enough to meet all needs for it strategic nuclear arsenal. Therefore, India has sufficient uranium resources to meet its strategic and power requirements for the foreseeable future.
In India we have more than 19 power plants, from which India produces 4560MW of energy.
The places where we have power plants are as follows
 Kaigra(Karnataka)(600MW)
 Kakrapar(Gujarat)(440MW)
 Kalpakkam(TN)(440MW)
 Narora(UP)(440MW)
 Rawathbhata(Rajasthan)(1180MW)
 Tarapur(Maharashtra)(1400MW)
Under construction
• Kaigra(Karnataka)(200MW)
• Kundankulam(TN)(2000MW



Nuclear Power Corporation of India
The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is a govt-owned corporation of India based in Mumbai. One of the public sector undertaking it is wholly owned by the union govt and is responsible for the generation of nuclear power for electricity. NPCIL is administered by the Department of Atomic Energy(DAE), part of the Ministry of Science and Technology. NPCIL is the only power utility company in India which uses nuclear fuel sources.
NPCIL was created in September 1987 as public limited company under the Companies Act 1956, "with the objective of undertaking the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the atomic power stations for generation of electricity in pursuance of the schemes and programmers’ of the Government of India under the provision of the Atomic Energy Act 1962." All nuclear power plants operated by the company are certified for ISO-14001 (Environment Management System).
NPCIL is the sole body responsible for constructing and operating India's commercial nuclear power plants. As of 2010 the company had 19 nuclear reactor in operation at six locations, a total installed capacity of 4560 MW

Nuclear Power: Political Issues
India has to face a lot of problems to sign the nuclear energy treaty between India and US. First opposing came from the political parties in India. According them the treaty was a play by US to attack India. Secondly our environmentalist came to phase by the issue of environment. These opposition did not arise simply because of the merits and demerits involved in making such deal, but because of political compulsions of various players in the politics. Despite being affected by the political compulsions, each player is singing the national interest song. But it is interesting to see if anyone wants to support the deal, like Samajvadi Party (SP), begins to consult scientists as everyone knows that scientists and other exports are in favor of deal.
Biggest opposition came from allies of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government, the Left Front. Over last few years the Left run West Bengal has been going through various changes. It, for the sake of industrialization didn’t even care for the farmers of Nandi gram and Singoor. Their demonstrations were crushed by hook and crook and several concerns like Maoist hand and communal characters of movements were talked. They even rejected sentiments of likeminded thinkers from civil society, in the course of implementing their plans; those always looked capitalistic.
The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill 2010 has been passed by both Houses of the Parliament and now only awaits assent by the President of India. This will operationalise the India-USA civilian nuclear agreement and will open the floodgates for nuclear reactor companies to establish new facilities in India .
The debates in Parliament, in the media and within policy circles have been largely limited to the question of liability of suppliers and operators in case of nuclear accidents. These concerns, while valid, camouflage an urgently needed larger political debate on the adoption of nuclear fission as a large-scale source of energy for India . Risks at many stages in the process raise concerns about the feasibility of nuclear energy, imminent dangers from the construction of nuclear plants, the social and environmental impacts of uranium mining as well as issues of land acquisition and displacement.


WILL REGULATION SUFFICE?
• Nuclear power plants pose unlimited risk of accidents, with the potential to dwarf the worst industrial disaster to date: the 1984 Union Carbide Bhopal gas leak. There is no known solution to the problems of nuclear waste. Nuclear energy waste products such as plutonium 239 and leftover uranium 238 are highly radioactive and can remain toxic for tens of thousands to many millions of years. Latest advancements in technology are unable to neutralize these radioactive pollutants. India is already grappling with the issue of safe storage of radioactive waste from its existing 17 nuclear reactors. All the sites identified for the 60-odd new reactors in the pipeline are of high-density populations – unlike the sparsely populated Chernobyl in the former USSR, the site of the worst nuclear power plant accident in history – and hence the threat to human lives and society is immensely larger.
• Radioactive pollutants are released not just in the case of an accident but even during routine operation of nuclear (fission) power plants. Significant amounts of radioactive gases such as radon, radioactive noble gases and tritium are routinely ‘vented' or released into the atmosphere, posing grave radiation risks to nearby populations.
• The mining of uranium necessitates digging out rock, soil and debris that is hundreds of times the actual amount of uranium ore and tens of thousands of times the actual amount of uranium fuel, and that are also tainted with radioactive materials, which will continue to contaminate large areas around the mines for many millions of years. The documented adverse impacts on the health of children (including abnormally high number of birth defects in newborns) and adults around uranium mining areas are another major threat if nuclear power capacity increases. To cite only one example, health surveys done by medical experts near the Jadugoda uranium mining area show that mine workers and their families manifest significant increases in cancers and reproductive illnesses.
• Nuclear establishments are already covered by many layers of secrecy/ information barriers and it is also likely that the Indian government will put in place a regulatory framework that undermines transparency and democratic decision making ¬– one that covers nuclear establishments under various ‘safety' and ‘security' clauses, and prevents any form of information or democratic action, including actions by workers to protect their rights. This will become more opaque with the entry of foreign and domestic private operators.
• Despite having 17 nuclear reactors, India does not have a Nuclear Safety Commission that is independently constituted with powers to enforce information disclosure, frame safety rules, risk-assessment methodologies and protocols, issue periodic risk-assessment reports and conduct safety audits and put it all in the public domain. We demand the setting up of a Nuclear Safety Commission that should have powers to give safety directives, including shutdown of plants. It should include, besides credible independent experts, elected representatives of workers, scientists and professionals working in the industry and all other stakeholders of affected communities. It is not prudent for the government to issue licenses for new nuclear plants until such processes are put in place.

NOT A SOLUTION TO THE CLIMATE CRISIS
• The view pushed by lobby groups and some in the scientific community that nuclear energy is a clean fuel and offers India a viable solution to the climate crisis is false and mere propaganda. Nuclear (fission) energy is carbon intensive, as the entire chain starting from mining the available poor quality ores to fuel rod fabrication to the enormous embedded energies of the power plant construction involves a massive amount of carbon emissions under the present energy supply scenario.
• The Government of India (GoI) has a stated commitment to promoting renewable energy and climate change mitigation. The GoI should redirect the overt and covert subsidies to the nuclear industry (estimated at over Rs. 5,000 crores each year) to community-centered and decentralized renewable energy, thus neutralizing the false argument that renewable energy is much more expensive. If all subsidies and environmental costs are calculated, nuclear energy is far costlier than many other forms of energy such as solar which is climate friendly, abundantly available and poses little environmental and health risk.
We see the push for nuclear energy as yet another example of a development trajectory by which costs are transferred to the environment and local people, without their knowledge and full participation in the process of deciding development parameters: Yet another example of privatizing profits and socializing the risks and costs. Given all the issues raised, the very question of expansion of nuclear power merits further and transparent debate.
Uses Of Nuclear Power In India
Nuclear energy can be put to numerous productive uses. Nuclear powered generators produce electricity. Nuclear energy, in the form of radioisotopes, can be used in medicine, agriculture and industry. It can help in the preservation of food and the production of high yielding seeds. Recently vaccine for sheep has been developed with the help of nuclear energy.

In the days if energy crisis nuclear energy is a boon. Electricity can be produced even in those areas where there are no natural resources to generate electricity. The great generated by controlled nuclear reaction can be used to boil water and the steam thus produced can be used to drive turbines for producing electricity. India has one nuclear power station 420 megawatts capacity operating at Tarapur. Two power stations of similar capacity, one at at Rana Pratap Sagar in Rajasthan and another at Kalpakkam near Chennai are operational. A fourth station at Narora in Uttar Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Ganga is also operational. Atomic power, besides conserving fossil fuels such as oil and coal and reducing atmospheric pollution, has tremendous economic advantage over coal; because the problem of transport is obviated. The Tarapur station, for example needs only twenty two tons of fuel each year whereas a coal fixed station of similar capacity would need 1200.000 tons coal annually. Besides Uranium as fuel, nuclear power stations need heavy water as a moderator. The fast moving atomic particles have to be slowed down by allowing them to collide with heavy hydrogen atoms. Heavy water occurs in very small quantities in natural water and its artificial production is not only complicated but expensive also. The requirements, at present, are met by a plant with an annual capacity of fourteen tons at Nangal in Punjab. The plant makes use of the throw away water from the Nangal fertilizer. Three more plants are under construction at Kota in Rajasthan, Baroda in Gujarat of Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu. All of these, together, will produce around 240 tons of heavy water annually. A fifth plant at Talcher in Orissa is at the planning stage.

Radiation from radioactive substances like radium have for many years been used for the treatment of cancer. Cancerous cells are more sensitive to radiation than normal cells. The nuclear reactor has opened up vast new possibilities because numerous other elements can be made radioactive by ‘bombarding’ them in these reactors. Such substances can be of immense help in medicine, agriculture and industry. Radioisotopes are introduced into a system and their course is traced by means of radiation detecting equipment. The use of radioactive isotopes has helped in diagnosis and the prevention of diseases, in the development of agricultural methods, for greater production making fertilizers and efficient methods of insect and pest control, for detection of defects in machinery, better control of industrial processes and in oceanography. For example, radioactive iodine is the most widely used substance in medicine. The human thyroid gland in the neck selectively concentrates iodine from the blood for hormone synthesis. By using radioactive iodine the function of the thyroid gland can be accurately investigated. The method can also be employed for treating cancerous and other diseases of the gland. Cobalt-60 needles can also be implanted in body to treat cancer. A radiation alternated vaccine has immunized sheep from lungworm disease which used to take a huge toll of sheep. Moreover, young lambs treated with the vaccine have been found to yield more mutton and the wool. A vaccine manufacturing unit set up in Kashmir valley under United Nations Development Program assistance program will go into large scale production soon.

The scientists at Trombay have deposited radioactive sand in various harbours and have followed its movements on the seabed and thereby selected some possible sites for dredged silt. Radioisotopes can save a huge amount of money in the long run. United States of America saves nearly one hundred dollars millions through industrial applications of radioisotopes. The Trombay unit produces nearly three hundred and twenty different types of isotopes and many of them are exported to the United States and Western Europe.

Perishable food stuffs if exposed to radiation are found to remain fresh beyond their normal shelf life. Since canning was discovered radiation of food is a major break though in food preservations. This method of preserving food has many advantages over other methods like canning, drying and salting; it preserves flavor and texture of the food stuff. Moreover, small doses of radiation can be used to prevent sprouting and the consequent spoiling of onions and potatoes. Higher doses can be used to delay the ripening of the fruits like mangoes, bananas. In this manner the shelf-life of the fruits can be prolonged. Even fish can be used for disinfecting grains. This can be a tremendous gain to tropical countries like India where the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables is very short. A modern laboratory at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay is doing extensive work and semi-commercial food processing plants are still to be set up. Adverse climatic conditions, inadequate provisions for storage, and transport problems account for a heavy loss of agricultural and marine produce. Thus through food radiation we will be able to improve nutrition of our people and utilize our limited resources to the best advantage.

Radiation can also be used to bring about genetic changes in grain seeds. This in its turn will produce mutant strain, having different properties. Plants, thus grown, will mature earlier and become fruit bearing earlier. It will also be able to stand adverse conditions like bad weather, pests, etc. Trombay Irradiation Center has produced a new mutant paddy strain, which matures three weeks earlier and yields twenty percent more. They are carrying on research on groundnut nowadays. There is another center which studies the effects of radiation on growing plants.

Nuclear explosions can be helpful in building dams and mining. For building dams and mining deep under the earth nuclear explosion can help a lot. The explosions in which conventional material is used are neither effective nor economical. Obviously oil and natural gas exploration will be quicker and better with the help of nuclear devices. For releasing natural gas this device was used by the United States of America in 1967 in New Mexico. Atomic blasts can pulverize the ore, making the extraction of the metal from the low-yielding fields possible. Similarly the water retention capacity of the dry lands can be increased with the help of blasts.
India has vast potential for developing the natural resources and industry. Energy crisis which disturbed the economy of our country can be met only by harnessing the nuclear energy.

Harmful Effects of Nuclear Power
In the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the contaminated ecosystems of the Chernobyl site, as well as those situated within the 30 km radius of the power plant, are still under extensive studies and monitoring. Up to this date, the degree of radionuclide contamination pertaining to the radioactive Cs-137 is still being measured. Specific areas that had exceeded a certain measure of cu/km2 were considered as sources of long-term threat to human health. Hence, forestry and farming is prohibited in such areas. The radioactive Cs-137 is said to be capable of entering the soil and contaminating the underground water table.
Studies of the Chernobyl aftermath disclosed that there were high levels of radionuclide absorption which resulted in the loss of coniferous (pines, firs, spruce) trees, death in multitudes among mammals and other animals, as well as a decline in the reproductive capacity of animals located within 12 to 18 miles of the high radiation contaminated areas.
The presence of Cesium which is a metal element tagged as a “fountain atomic clock” from where the radioactive Cs-137 comes from is being monitored to ascertain the contamination of the soil in foods like wheat, wild berries, mushrooms, milk, as well as what comes from fowls.
In humans, the harmful effects of the nuclear power plant after the Chernobyl disaster resulted in the death of 50 employees who suffered from acute radiation illnesses and of nine children who developed radiation induced thyroid cancer within the first five years after the power plant accident.
The Harmful Long-Term Effects of Radiation Exposure
There is also the long-term effect of radiation exposure reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) in 2000. The report disclosed that 1,800 children residing in highly contaminated areas developed radiation induced thyroid cancer. Children referred to here were those who were younger than 18 years when the Chernobyl accident happened in 1986. Based on the same report, the numbers are expected to rise up to 12,500 by 2036.
The latest report released by UNSCEAR in 2009, stated that the current risks from cancer and hereditary defects among humans still stay the same. Ionizing radiation stays with the descendants of those who had been exposed to radiation. Ionizing radiation refers to the absorption of the gamma rays emitted by the nucleus. Gamma rays are found in manmade radioactive Cs-137 which is considered as a serious radiation hazard to the human body. Gamma rays have no charge or mass and can easily pass through the body, yet a fraction will always be absorbed or will penetrate into tissues. Hence, the effects of radiation will be passed on to offspring particularly to daughters, due to genomic instability. The latter refers to the instability of genetic materials caused by the destructive effects of chemical mutation. Brain tumor cases increased at a rate of 5.8 times in young children and by 10 times among newborn.
Even the “liquidators” or those men in protective suits who were tasked to do the clean-up at the Chernobyl site were not spared. Cleaning up involved the washing of the buildings, of the streets and the removal of the top soil as well as the burying of the contaminated equipment, up to the sarcophagus-like cementing of the entire 4th reactor block of the Chernobyl power plant. As an aftermath of these tasks, 24 died of high doses of radiation after four months, another 11 of the liquidators died in 1998 while a great majority of them have developed cancers, cataracts, leukemia and other cell mutations or genetic instability.
The Psychological Effects of the Chernobyl Accident
Chernobyl provided hundreds of jobs to the Ukrainians that its loss also reduced them to poverty because even their lands were no longer fit for farming. According to those who were tasked in providing assistance to the populace, the hardest tasks to handle were the psychological effects of the disaster. People lost jobs, land, and health. They broke social ties and were relocated. The fear of the effects of radiation caused terrible stress and trauma which was too much to bear along with their economic hardship.
The Importance of Post Monitoring the Harmful Effects of Nuclear Power Plants after the Disaster
In stark contrast to the amount of attention that Chernobyl received in 1986 in terms of post monitoring, a nuclear disaster known as the Three-Mile Island Accident also happened in the US in 1979. About 50% of the plant’s reactor core melted wherein 20 tons of uranium fuel was spread out on the containment floor. It took the plant officials more than a few hours before the incident was reported to the authorities while gas continued to escape and radiation had already reached the surrounding community. People still went about their ordinary business. Some of them sensed something was wrong because they tasted metal in their mouth.
After five days, all the mess had been cleaned up and people went back to their homes and to their lives. The plant officials informed the people that the average radiation they received was just equivalent to a chest X-ray. In fact, a doctor at Penn State University confirmed that there are no records of long-term effects regarding the harmful effects of the radiation. Despite the high incidence of cancer at the areas near the plant, life still went on as if nothing happened. No formal post-monitoring was ever documented although controversy surrounded the circumstances on why the husband and wife team assigned to do the task had to cut short their engagement.
After more than thirty years, the people near the Three-Mile Island nuclear power plant seemed to be contented with how life went on despite the high incidence of cancer in their area. At least they still had their jobs, their homes and their family whose members were dying of cancer. Nevertheless, the nuclear power plant is still providing jobs for their community. The Three-Mile Island nuclear power plant’s renewal of license to operate was granted in 2009 and will continue its operations up to 2034.
This is probably why the harmful effects of nuclear power plant accidents are not at all important as far as the pro-advocates of nuclear power plants are concerned. The promoters of nuclear power plants will probably handle future nuclear accidents in the same manner as the Three-Mile Accident. On the other hand, those who are against nuclear power plants, will have a hard time deciding whether to choose the Chernobyl way because it will only mean facing economic hardships.

Conclusion
This paper had helped me a lot to explore the detail Nuclear power plants by which I was able to realize the merits, demerits and future scope for nuclear power.

Reference made:
Google.com
Wikipedia.org
Scientificindia magazine
Etc



21-02-2011, 11:30 AM
Post: #4
RE: NUCLEAR ENERGY
Nuclear Energy in India
Description:

This report on "Nuclear Energy in India" presents the current nuclear energy scenario in the countryand its future growth potential, along with an impact analysis of the Indo-US nuclear deal. Thereport also profiles the nuclear power plants – currently operational and new plants plannedcoveringareas like technology deployed and involvement of foreign companies. The economics ofnuclear power generation in comparison to thermal power is also discussed briefly. The role ofIndian government in atomic energy, its organisation structure and regulatory aspects, are alsocovered in the report.Electricity consumption in India has more than doubled in the last decade, outpacing economicgrowth. Despite capacity additions, electricity demand continues to outstrip power generatingcapacity, compelling the central government to release the National Electricity Policy, enactElectricity Act, 2003 and spell Vision 2020.In addition, this report also highlights the importance of FBRs and thorium-based research, which ison the main agenda for the third phase of India’s nuclear power programme.The report is of immense help to suppliers of equipments, technology and service providers andconsultants for business development as well as for building business partnerships with Indiancompanies. It will also help Indian corporations and consultants which plan foray into this field inone or multiple parts of the value chain.Key Highlights- As of 2008, India has 17 nuclear power plants in operation generating 4,120MW. NuclearPower Corporation is the only one currently authorised by Government of India (GoI) toset up and run nuclear power plants.- Government aided institutions include: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, SahaInstitute of Nuclear Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Institute of Physics,Institute of Plasma Research and Institute of Mathematical Sciences- Uranium Corporation of India Limited invested Rs. 31 billion to open new mines and setup processing plants in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya- The US, Russia, France and Canada are the major countries which collaborated with Indiain nuclear related activitiesReasons to purchase- Spot Business Opportunities- Reveals the opportunities for Private Companies/PSUs- Know the FDI inflow in atomic energy industry also know the share of expected growth fromnuclear suppliers group- Understand the major countries which collaborated with India in nuclear related activities- Understand the activities related to various stages for commissioning nuclear power plant
13-12-2012, 11:32 AM
Post: #5
RE: NUCLEAR ENERGY
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