RE: OBSTACLE DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE ROBOT
||OBSTACLE DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE ROBOT
OBSTACLE DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE ROBOT.doc (Size: 2.37 MB / Downloads: 45)
Obstacle detection and avoidance robots are intelligent robots which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments by finding and overcoming obstacles in their way without continuous human guidance.
In robotics, obstacle avoidance is the task of satisfying some control objective subject to non-intersection or non-collision position constraints. Normally obstacle avoidance is considered to be distinct from path planning in that one is usually implemented as a reactive control law while the other involves the pre-computation of an obstacle-free path which a controller will then guide a robot along. A practical real-time system for passive obstacle detection and avoidance is presented.
An embedded system is a system which is going to do a predefined specified task is the embedded system and is even defined as combination of both software and hardware
A general-purpose definition of embedded systems is that they are devices used to control, monitor or assist the operation of equipment, machinery or plant. "Embedded" reflects the fact that they are an integral part of the system. In many cases their embeddedness may be such that their presence is far from obvious to the casual observer and even the more technically skilled might need to examine the operation of a piece of equipment for some time before being able to conclude that an embedded control system was involved in its functioning. At the other extreme a general-purpose computer may be used to control the operation of a large complex processing plant, and its presence will be obvious.
Embedded systems compared with commercial systems:
The Year 2000 problem in embedded systems differs from the problem in commercial / database / transaction processing systems (often referred to as IT systems) in a number of ways. Firstly the user's problem may much lie much deeper than packages or applications software. It may lie in and be inseparable from systems and operating software and from hardware, i.e. in the platform on which the application software is based. When users of IT systems have hardware or operating software problems they can and should be made the concern of the computer supplier: typically, this is not the case with microprocessors and devices based on them .
Power supply is a supply of electrical power. There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronic circuits and other devices. A power supply can broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function.
The transformer is 230v AC supply. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC. We are using steps down transformer because to step down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC(i.e;230v to15). This transformer fed into rectifier. In bridge rectifier there are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC and it is most important and it produces full-wave with varying DC so that we go for smoothing capacitor it smooth the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple.
Here we are using AT89S52 controller. This is used to control all the operations of a circuit to get the accurate result. The micro controller we use is of the 40 pins and of 4 ports. Each port consists of the 8 pins. Generally the controller works on the transistor transistor logic.
H-Bridge is used as a driver circuit for motors. To move the robot in four different directions we definitely need H-bridge as a interfacing circuit between controller and motors.
Motor are used for the movement of the robot. Here we use the dc motor as it has the principle of the speed controlling.
The obstacle senor is used avoiding the robot from the clash to any external devices (or) that is like walls, any obstacle which comes in its way. Here we are using the IR communications .the transmitter and the receiver parts. The transmitter produces the IR rays and they are received by the receiver section.
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit micro controller with 8Kbytes of in-system programmable flash memory. The device is manufactured Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 micro controller. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable flash one monolithic http; the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful micro controller, which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to any cost effective solution to any embedded control applications to any embedded control applications.
The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt Or hardware reset.