Important: Use custom search function to get better results from our thousands of pages

Use " " for compulsory search eg:"electronics seminar" , use -" " for filter something eg: "electronics seminar" -"/tag/" (used for exclude results from tag pages)
Tags: optical fiber commun, optical fiber communication books, optical fiber communication by john m senior free download, fiber optic communication technology, fiber optic communication system, fiber optic communication ppt, fiber optic communication pdf, fiber optic communication application, fiber optic communication tutorial, fiber optic communications technology, fiber optic communication book, fiber optic communication basics, fiber optic communication block diagram, fiber optic communication systems agrawal,
Ask More Info Of  A Seminar Ask More Info Of A Project Post Reply  Follow us on Twitter
19-03-2011, 04:57 PM
Post: #6
RE: optical fiber communication full report

.pptx  Presentation1.pptx (Size: 150.12 KB / Downloads: 159)
Introduction to Optical Fibers.
 Used to carry signals in the form of light over distances up to 50 km.
Fibers of glass
 Usually 120 micrometers in diameter
 No repeaters needed.
 Core – thin glass center of the fiber where light travels.
 Cladding – outer optical material surrounding the core
 Buffer Coating – plastic coating that protects the fiber.
Advantages of Optical Fibre
 Thinner
 Less Expensive
 Higher Carrying Capacity
 Less Signal Degradation& Digital Signals
 Light Signals
 Non-Flammable
 Light Weight
Type of Fibers
Optical fibers come in two types:

• Single-mode fibers – used to transmit one signal per fiber (used in telephone and cable TV). They have small cores(9 microns in diameter) and transmit infra-red light from laser.
• Multi-mode fibers – used to transmit many signals per fiber (used in computer networks). They have larger cores(62.5 microns in diameter) and transmit infra-red light from LED.
How Does Optical Fibre Transmit Light??
 Total Internal Reflection.
 When light travelling in a dense medium hits a boundary at a steep angle (larger than the "critical angle" for the boundary), the light will be completely reflected.
How are Optical Fibre’s made??
 Three Steps are Involved
-Making a Preform Glass Cylinder
-Drawing the Fibre’s from the preform
-Testing the Fibre
Testing of Optical Fiber
 TENSILE STRENGTH TEST
 Abrasion Test
 CRUNCH TEST (COMPRESSION TEST)
 Impact test
 REPEATED BENDING TEST
 TORSION TEST
 WATER PENETRATION TEST
Areas of Application
 Telecommunications
 Local Area Networks
 Cable TV
 CCTV
 Optical Fiber Sensors
24-03-2011, 11:38 AM
Post: #7
RE: optical fiber communication full report

.doc  OFC 1.doc (Size: 86 KB / Downloads: 148)
ABSTRACT
Communication is an important part of our daily life. The communication process involves information generation, transmission, reception and interpretation. As needs for various types of communication such as voice, images, video and data communications increase demands for large transmission capacity also increase. This need for large capacity has driven the rapid development light wave technology; a worldwide industry has developed. An optical or light wave communication system is a system that uses light waves as the carrier for transmission. An optical communication system mainly involves three parts. Transmitter, receiver and channel. In optical communication transmitters are light sources, receivers are light detectors and the channels are optical fibers. In optical communication the channel i.e, optical fibers plays an important role because it carries the data from transmitter to the receiver. Hence, here we shall discuss mainly about optical fibers.
Optical Fibers in Communications
1. Introduction

Optical fibers are arguably one of the world’s most influential scientific developments from the latter half of the 20th century. Normally we are unaware that we are using them, although many of us do frequently. The majority of telephone calls and internet traffic at some stage in their journey will be transmitted along an optical fiber. More indirectly, many of the systems that we either rely on or enjoy in everyday life such as banks, television and newspapers as (to name only a very limited selection) are themselves dependent on communication systems that are dependent on optical fibers.
There are various other uses of optical fibers which are irrelevant to this essay, although it is interesting developed to detect chemicals along pipelines (by using unprotected chemically sensitive fiber), detect plutonium smuggling, monitor strain in yacht masts, allow communication with CAT scan patients, construct gyroscopes with no moving parts, transmit images from telescopes, and possibly guide atoms (although this is very early in the stages of development).
In this essay I shall attempt to cover the many areas of importance in optical fiber design. Only some crucial areas such as fiber design will be covered in detail; others such as signal sources and detectors will be discussed more briefly.
I shall also give some indication of the systems currently in use commercially and some of the systems currently being developed.
2. Why Optical Fiber?
Why has the development of fibers been given so much attention by the scientific community when we have alternatives? The main reason is bandwidth – fibers can carry an extremely large amount of information. I shall discuss the advantages and disadvantages of fiber compared to the four other commonly used media.
Twisted Pair Cable is used for, and is still suitable for, simple telephone links (known as the local loop) from the consumer to the nearest telephone exchange. The bandwidth is low, but is adequate for carrying low quality analogue voice signals. Attenuation of the signal is not significant over the short distances such signals are carried. The main advantage of twisted pair cable is the very low cost.
Coaxial Cable can carry a much larger amount of data – especially by multiplexing (the process of transmitting several signals of different wavelengths along the same cable) analogue signals. Multiplexing however is also possible with fiber, and fiber provides significantly higher bandwidth. Digital signals can be transmitted, but the bandwidth is limited if signal quality is to be maintained. Again, fiber is more expensive for many applications where coaxial cable is still used.
3. Fundamentals Of Fibers
The fundamental principle that makes optical fibers possible is total internal reflection. This is described using the ray model of light
From Snell’s Law we find that refraction (as shown by the dashed line) can only occur when the angle theta1 (between the incident ray and the material boundary) is large enough. This implies that as the angle is reduced, there must be a point when the light ray is reflected, where theta1 = theta2 (note that this is only true when the refractive index of the initial medium is greater than that of the adjacent medium, as shown by the value of n on the diagram). The angle where this happens is known as the critical angle and is:
Cladding. The core is (according to the ray model) where the light rays travel and the cladding is a similar material of slightly lower refractive index to cause total internal reflection. Usually both sections are fabricated from silica (glass). The light within the fiber is then continuously totally internally reflected along the waveguide.
When light enters the fiber we must also consider refraction at the interface of the air and the fiber core. The difference in refractive index causes refraction of the ray as it enters the fiber, allowing rays to enter the fiber at an angle greater than the angle allowed within the fiber
This acceptance angle, theta, is a crucial parameter for fiber and system designers. More widely recognized is the parameter NA (Numerical Aperture) that is given by the following equation:
Also crucial to understanding fibers is the principle of modes. A more in-depth analysis of the propagation of light along an optical fiber requires the light to be treated as an electromagnetic wave (rather that as a ray). Unfortunately there is not room for such a mathematical treatment in this essay, but we should note that it leads to a quantisation of the ‘angles’ at which ‘rays’ can travel through the fiber.
Figure 3 – Modes
The solid line is the lowest order mode shown on figure 3. It is clear that according to the ray model the lowest order mode will travel down a given length of fiber quicker than the others. The electromagnetic field model predicts the opposite – that the highest order mode will travel quicker. However, the overall effect is still the same – if a signal is sent down the fiber as several modes then as it travels along the fibre the pulse will spread out (this process is known as modal dispersion); this can lead to the pulses merging and becoming indistinguishable.
One further classification of rays can be made; meridional rays pass through the fiber axis; skew rays (hybrid rays) constantly rotate without passing through the fiber axis.
One other significant point should be noted from the electromagnetic field model – the evanescent field. The model predicts that the EM field does not suddenly drop to zero at the core-cladding boundary – it instead decays as a negative exponential within the cladding (see figure 4). This is crucial for various technologies relating to fibers.
This method of signal transmission has benefits in terms of security – for the signal to be ‘tapped’ the fiber must be broken (since effectively no energy escapes from the fiber) and this can easily be detected (when no signal reaches the other end of the fiber!). This is one of the many advantages of the medium.
4.The Development of Fiber
I shall consider the development of fiber in several sections rather than giving a general discussion of fiber properties. Two types of material are used to manufacture fibers – glass and plastic. There are several properties of a material that dictate how useful it is as a fiber:
• Purity
• Refractive Index (wavelength-dependent)
• Attenuation (wavelength-dependent)
We must remember that there are many different types of fiber and applications for fiber. The different properties of fibers can be combined to provide a suitable fiber for a particular job – not all fibers will be applicable for every situation.
The purity of the fiber will be reflected in both its attenuation properties (consider the scattering effect of an impurity particle) and its refractive index. The original breakthrough in reducing fiber attenuation was achieved by purifying the glass used to make the fibers. There are other intrinsic and extrinsic factors which contribute to the attenuation, such as absorption by OH- ions, absorption of infra-red radiation leading to molecular vibrations, leakage from the core (can be caused by Rayleigh Scattering and fiber curvature) and leaky modes. Curvature is important in fiber specification; again a more detailed analysis of the propagation of light through fibers is required to fully explain this, but essentially a small amount of the light is radiated as the fiber bends. Leaky modes are modes slightly below the cut-off, but can be propagated for a short distance along the fiber; they can be initially avoided at the light source by restricting the angle at which light enters the fiber, but can be introduced along the fiber by microbending. Microbends are minute bends in the fiber which can be introduced during manufacture or cabling (see later for more detail on cabling); they can cause power to be transferred between modes, possibly to leaky modes and hence can result in power loss.
01-04-2011, 11:20 AM
Post: #8
Optical Fiber & OF Cables

.ppt  OFC_presentation.ppt (Size: 2.97 MB / Downloads: 153)
Optical Fiber & OF Cables
HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF
WHAT ARE OPTICAL FIBERS ?

Optical Fibers are thins long (km) strands of ultra pure glass (silica) or plastic that can to transmit light from one end to another without much attenuation or loss.
The glass used to make Optical Fibers is so pure that if the Pacific Ocean was filled with this glass then we would be able to see the ocean bottom form the surface….!!!!
This is to be believed as repeater distances on long haul routes for optical fibers vary from 50 to 150 km
Q.) And how deep is the Pacifica ocean?
Ans) At the deepest point called the Marina Trench, The pacific ocean is all of just 13km deep…..!!!!!
Working of Optical fibers?
The light source (LAZER) at the transmitting (Tx) end is modulated by the electrical signal and this modulated light energy is fed into the Optical Fiber.
At the receiving end (Rx) this light energy is made incident on photo-sensors which convert this light signal back to electrical signal.
Why Optical Fibers ?
bandwidth required increased exponentially.
Initially we used smoke signals, then horse riders for communicating. But these ways were way to slow and had very little bandwidth or data caring capacity.
Then came the telephone and telegraph that used copper wires for communication. But soon demand out striped the capacity and capability of copper wires and data transport got added to voice communication. Then came Coaxial copper cables, VHF and UHF Radios, Satellite but demand still outstripped the supply.
It was not until Optical Fibers came on the scene that large amount of communication bandwidth became economically and easily available to everyone.
As an example 50,000 voice / data circuit copper cable is massive in size and very expensive, while a single Optical Fiber, the diameter of human hair, can carry 5,00,000 circuits of voice and data. This capacity is increasing day by day as supporting electronics is developing. In itself the capacity of Optical Fibers is limitless.
ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
1. VERY HIGH INFORMATION CARRING CAPACITY.
2. LESS ATTENUATION (order of 0.2 db/km)
3. SMALL IN DIAMETER AND SIZE & LIGHT WEIGHT
4. LOW COST AS COMPARED TO COPPER (as glass is made from sand..the raw material used to make OF is free….)
5. GREATER SAFETY AND IMMUNE TO EMI & RFI, MOISTURE & COROSSION
6. FLEXIBLE AND EASY TO INSTALL IN TIGHT CONDUICTS
7. ZERO RESALE VALUE (so theft is less)
8. IS DILECTRIC IN NATURE SO CAN BE LAID IN ELECTICALLY SENSITIVE SURROUNDINGS
9. DIFFICULT TO TAP FIBERS, SO SECURE
10. NO CROSS TALK AND DISTURBANCES
DISADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
1. The terminating equipment is still costly as compared to copper equipment.
2. Of is delicate so has to be handled carefully.
3. Last mile is still not totally fiberised due to costly subscriber premises equipment.
4. Communication is not totally in optical domain, so repeated electric –optical – electrical conversion is needed.
5. Optical amplifiers, splitters, MUX-DEMUX are still in development stages.
6. Tapping is not possible. Specialized equipment is needed to tap a fiber.
7. Optical fiber splicing is a specialized technique and needs expertly trained manpower.
8. The splicing and testing equipments are very expensive as compared to copper equipments.
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FIBERS…
1. LONG DISTANCE COMMUNICATION BACKBONES
2. INTER-EXCHANGE JUNCTIONS
3. VIDEO TRANSMISSION
4. BROADBAND SERVICES
5. COMPUTER DATA COMMUNICATION (LAN, WAN etc..)
6. HIGHT EMI AREAS
7. MILITARY APPLICATION
VARIOUS TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER CABLES
1. OPGW Cable
2. ADSS type OF Cable
3. Self-Support AERIAL figure 8 type OF Cable
4. LASHED type OF Cable
5. UNDERGROUND / BURRIED type OF Cables
6. DUCT Type OF Cable
09-04-2011, 09:33 AM
Post: #9
RE: optical fiber communication full report
Submitted
Sana Rao
SIR TiSMAN PASHA


.ppt  Sana29.ppt (Size: 1.89 MB / Downloads: 91)
HISTORY
 Alexander Graham Bell patented an optical telephone system called the photo phone in 1880 .
That same year, William Wheeler invented a system of light pipes.
WHAT ARE OPTICAL FIBERS ?
 Optical Fibers are thins long (km) strands of ultra pure glass (silica) or plastic that can to transmit light from one end to an other.
 Basic Information
What is Optical Fiber Cable?
Optical cables used to transmit light signals over long distances.
It has basic three parts:
Core:
Cladding
Coating:
 Working of Optical fibers?
 TX
 RX
Principle of operation
 Dielectric (nonconducting ) that transmits light along its axis
 Total internal reflection.
 Refractive index
 Step-index fiber
 Graded-index fiber.
Optical Fiber Classification
Can be classified in a number of ways
 On the basis of manufacturing
 On the basis of profile
Types of Optical Fiber
There are two basic types of fiber:
 Multi Mode Optical Fiber:
Used to transmit many signals per fiber (Multi Mode generally are used for in computer networks, LAN applications)
 Single Mode Optical Fiber:
Used to transmit one signal per fiber (Single Mode generally are used for in telephones and cable TV applications)
Types of fiber optic cable of structures
 Glass Optical Fiber:
Glass fiber-optic cable has a Glass core and cladding.
 Plastic Optical Fiber (POF):
Plastic fiber-optic cable has a plastic core and cladding.
 Plastic Coated Silica Cable:
(PCS). PCS fiber-optic cable has a Glass core and Plastic cladding.
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FIBERS
 Telephone Systems
 Internet
 Video Feeds
 Medical Operations
 Home Theater Systems
 Optical fiber communication
 Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables .
 Over short distances.
USES
 Medical
 Defense/Government
 Data Storage
 Telecommunications
Fiber is laid and used for transmitting and receiving purposes
 Networking
Used to connect users and servers.
 Industrial/Commercial
 Broadcast/CATV
ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
 VERY HIGH INFORMATION CARRING CAPACITY.
 SMALL IN DIAMETER AND SIZE & LIGHT WEIGHT
 LOW COST AS COMPARED TO COPPER
 GREATER SAFETY
 ZERO RESALE VALUE
FIBER OPTIC CABLE ADVANTAGES OVER COPPER:
 • SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits
 • BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity
 • DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened.
 • RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables
 • MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain.
Disadvantages of Fiber Optic Cabling
 Adding additional nodes is difficult
 Cost of transmission equipment is Higher than copper
 Cost of installation is Higher than copper
 Difficult to Install
 Expensive over short distance (less 5 km)
 Requires highly skilled installers
12-04-2011, 10:15 AM
Post: #10
RE: optical fiber communication full report
PRESENTED BY:
ASHEESH KUMAR

INTRODUCTION
Modern fiber-optic communication systems generally include an optical transmitter to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber, a cable containing bundles of multiple optical fibers that is routed through underground conduits and buildings, multiple kinds of amplifiers, and an optical receiver to recover the signal as an electrical signal. The data transmitted is typically digital data generated by computers, telephone systems, and cable television companies.
The most commonly-used optical transmitters are semiconductor devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes. The difference between LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce incoherent light, while laser diodes produce coherent light. For use in optical communications, semiconductor optical transmitters must be designed to be compact, efficient, and reliable, while operating in an optimal wavelength range, and directly modulated at high frequencies. The main component of an optical receiver is a photodetector, which converts light into electricity using the photoelectric effect. The photodetector is typically a semiconductor-based photodiode. Several types of photodiodes include p-n photodiodes, a p-i-n photodiodes, and avalanche photodiodes. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors are also used due to their suitability for circuit integration in regenerators and wavelength-division multiplexers. An optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a buffer (a protective outer coating), in which the cladding guides the light along the core by using the method of total internal reflection. The core and the cladding (which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality silica glass, although they can both be made of plastic as well. Connecting two optical fibers is done by fusion splicing or mechanical splicing and requires special skills and interconnection technology due to the microscopic precision required to align the fiber cores.
APPLICATION
• Due to much lower attenuation and interference, optical fiber has large advantages over existing copper wire in long-distance and high-demand applications.
• Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals.
• Since 2000, the prices for fiber-optic communications have dropped considerably. The price for rolling out fiber to the home has currently become more cost-effective than that of rolling out a copper based network. Prices have dropped to $850 per subscriber in the US and lower in countries like The Netherlands, where digging costs are low.
Rating optical fiber communication full report Options
Share optical fiber communication full report To Your Friends :- Seminar Topics Bookmark
Post Reply 

Marked Categories : role of electromagnetic field in optical fibers, avalanche effect in diodes explanation ppt by john m senior, seminar topics based on optical fiber communications, optical fiber communication based seminar, latest seminar topics in optic fiber communication, optical fiber communication system, repor for optical fiber communication, optical fibre report, which type of material is used for making an optical fiber ppt, explain principle and working of optical fiber communication system with block diagram in ppt, optical fiber cable seminar report document, optical fiber cable report, optical fiber cable ppt report, seminar report on optical fiber cable,

[-]
Quick Reply
Message
Type your reply to this message here.


Image Verification
Image Verification
(case insensitive)
Please enter the text within the image on the left in to the text box below. This process is used to prevent automated posts.

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread: Author Replies: Views: Last Post
  OPERATING SYSTEM full report seminar ideas 4 1,300 04-10-2014 12:15 PM
Last Post: mkaasees
  Holographic data storage system (HDSS) Seminar Report seminar code 0 107 22-09-2014 11:12 AM
Last Post: seminar code
  Augmented Reality Seminar Report seminar code 0 123 12-09-2014 11:23 AM
Last Post: seminar code
  GSM Mobile Phone Based LED Scrolling Message Display System Seminar Report seminar code 0 135 10-09-2014 09:33 AM
Last Post: seminar code
  YIIFRAMEWORK ON SEMINAR REPORT seminar code 0 141 01-09-2014 11:56 AM
Last Post: seminar code
  NVIDIA TESLA SUPER PERSONAL COMPUTER SEMINAR REPORT seminar code 0 156 30-08-2014 01:08 PM
Last Post: seminar code
  GOOGLE PROJECT GLASSES SEMINAR REPORT seminar code 0 188 26-08-2014 12:21 PM
Last Post: seminar code
  GLOBAL COMMUNICATION MEDIA Report seminar flower 2 1,367 22-07-2014 11:21 AM
Last Post: mkaasees
  Introduction To Optical Fiber Communication mkaasees 0 230 17-06-2014 04:23 PM
Last Post: mkaasees
  SEMINAR REPORT ON E – VOTING seminar code 0 269 12-06-2014 02:30 PM
Last Post: seminar code
This Page May Contain What is optical fiber communication full report And Latest Information/News About optical fiber communication full report,If Not ...Use Search to get more info about optical fiber communication full report Or Ask Here

Options: