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23-02-2011, 10:57 AM
Post: #6
RE: Organic LED full report

.doc  ORGANIC_LED.doc (Size: 792 KB / Downloads: 122)
ORGANIC LED
1. Abstract:

Organic Light Emitting Diode is a scalable nano level emerging technology in Flat Panel Displays and as a White Light Source with efficient features. This paper focuses on OLED structure, principle aspects, fabrication methodology and different techniques to replace current white light sources like Incandescent bulbs, Fluorescent tubes, and even display techniques like Liquid Crystal Displays, Plasma technologies. OLEDs can be fabricated using Polymers or by small molecules. OLED matrix displays offer high contrast, wide viewing angle and a broad temperature range at low power consumption. These are Cheaper, Sharper, Thinner, and Flexible. OLEDs have a potential of being white-light sources that are
• Bright, power-efficient and long lived, by emitting pleasing white light
• Ultra-thin, light weight, rugged, and conformable
• Inexpensive, portable
2. Introduction:
OLEDs are energy conversion devices (electricity-to-light) based on Electroluminescence. Electro-luminescence is light emission from a solid through which an electric current is passed. OLEDs are more energy-efficient than incandescent lamps. The luminous efficiency of light bulbs is about 13 - 20 lm/W but the latest experimental green emitting OLEDs already have luminous efficiency of 76 lm/W, though at low luminance. The development is on track for OLEDs to effectively compete even with fluorescent lamps, which have the luminous efficiency of 50 - 100 lm/W. One big advantage of OLEDs is the ability to tune the light emission to any desired color, and any shade of color or intensity, including white. Achieving the high Color Rendition Index (CRI) near 100 (the ability to simulate the most pleasing white color, sunlight), is already within the reach of OLEDs. Another advantage of OLEDs is that they are current-driven devices, where brightness can be varied over a very wide dynamic range and they operate uniformly, without flicker.
CRT is still continuing as top technology in displays to produce economically best displays. The first best look of it is its Cost. But the main problems with it are its bulkiness, Difficulties in Extending to Large area displays as per construction. Even though Liquid Crystal Displays have solved one of problem i.e. size, but it is not economical. So in this present scenario the need for a new technology with both these features combined leaded to invention of OLED.OLED which is a thin, flexible, Bright LED with self luminance which can be used as a display device. The main drawback of LCD display is its Less viewing angle and highly temperature depending which moves us towards a new technology. Thus OLED promises for faithful replacement of current technology with added flavors like Less Power Consumption and Self Luminance .Both Active matrix TFT’s and Passive matrix Technologies are used for display and addressing purposes for high speed display of moving pictures and faster response. Already some of the companies released Cell Phones and PDA’s with bright OLED technology for color full displays.
3. Working Principle & Structural Aspects:
Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are thin-film multi-layer devices consisting of a substrate foil, film or plate (rigid or flexible), an electrode layer, layers of active materials, a counter electrode layer, and a protective barrier layer At least one of the electrodes must be transparent to light.
The typical structure of the OLED device. The number of layers may vary, as described.
The OLEDs operate in the following manner: Voltage bias is applied on the electrodes, the voltages are low, from 2.5 to ~ 20 V, but the active layers are so thin (~10Å to 100nm) that the electric fields in the active layers are very high, of the order of 105 – 107 V/cm. These high, near-breakdown electric fields support injection of charges across the electrode / active layers interfaces. Holes are injected from the anode, which is typically transparent, and electrons are injected from the cathode. The injected charges migrate against each other in the opposite directions, and eventually meet and recombine. Recombination energy is released and the molecule or a polymer segment in which the recombination occurs, reaches an exited state. Excitons may migrate from molecule to molecule. Eventually, some molecules or a polymer segments release the energy as photons or heat. It is desirable that all the excess excitation energy is released as photons (light).
The materials that are used to bring the charges to the recombination sites are usually (but not always) poor photon emitters (most of the excitation energy is released as heat). Therefore, suitable dopants are added, which first transfer the energy from
the original excitons, and release the energy more efficiently as photons. In OLEDs, approximately 25% of the excisions are in the singlet states and 75% in the triplet states. Emission of photons from the singlet states (fluorescence), in most cases facilitated by fluorescent dopants, was believed to be the only applicable form of energy release, thus limiting the Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE) of OLEDs to the maximum of 25%.
Different Light Emitting Polymers for diff colors.
Triplet states in organic materials were considered useless, since the energy of triplets was believed to dissipate non-radiatively, as heat. This low ratio of singlet states to the triplet states and, consequently, low device efficiency, would make the application of OLEDs as sources of light extremely difficult. But by using phosphorescent dopants, the energy from all the triplet states could be harnessed as light (phosphorescence). The energy is transferred from the triplet excitons to the dopant molecules. However, not only excitons in the triplet states are utilized; these dopants, typically containing heavy atoms such as Ir or Pt, facilitate the forbidden "intersystem crossing" from the singlets to the triplet states.
The onset voltage, sometimes as low as 2.4 V is the voltage at which the current begins to flow and enough hole-electron pairs recombine to generate light visible by naked eye. The current and the corresponding light intensity increase with increasing the drive voltage. Two types of materials are needed to bring the charges to the recombination sites: hole transport polymers or small molecules, and electron transport polymers or molecules. The energy mismatch between the electrode and the charge transport layer may require another layer to be sandwiched in between, to facilitate charge injection and thus to reduce the operating voltage.
Energy levels across the simplest organic light emitting diode composed of a single organic layer between two injecting electrodes with a forward bias between anode and cathode. For high efficiency, the top metal electrode (cathode) must have the lowest possible work function.
Some add a "buffer" layer, which may serve the same purpose. Injection of holes is in most cases energetically easier than injection of electrons. This may result in the injection of excess of holes, which could drift to the cathode without meeting electrons. The excessive current would be wasteful and would heat the device. Usually, the electron transport layer acts as a hole blocker, but in some cases a hole-blocking layer is added between the electron and hole transport layers to prevent the escape of holes to the cathode. This has an additional benefit: the excess holes accumulate near the blocking layer and the resulting strong electric field across the cathode-electron transporter interface enhances injection of electrons to the system. This automatically balances the injection rates of both charge carriers, and maximizes recombination. In some cases, exciton blocking layers are added to prevent excitons to reach the electrodes and decay non-radiatively. In other cases, a separate emission layer is sandwiched between the electron transport and hole transport layer.
05-03-2011, 02:42 PM
Post: #7
RE: Organic LED full report

.doc  ORGANIC_LED.doc (Size: 793.5 KB / Downloads: 90)
1. Abstract:
Organic Light Emitting Diode is a scalable nano level emerging technology in Flat Panel Displays and as a White Light Source with efficient features. This paper focuses on OLED structure, principle aspects, fabrication methodology and different techniques to replace current white light sources like Incandescent bulbs, Fluorescent tubes, and even display techniques like Liquid Crystal Displays, Plasma technologies. OLEDs can be fabricated using Polymers or by small molecules. OLED matrix displays offer high contrast, wide viewing angle and a broad temperature range at low power consumption. These are Cheaper, Sharper, Thinner, and Flexible. OLEDs have a potential of being white-light sources that are
• Bright, power-efficient and long lived, by emitting pleasing white light
• Ultra-thin, light weight, rugged, and conformable
• Inexpensive, portable
2. Introduction:
OLEDs are energy conversion devices (electricity-to-light) based on Electroluminescence. Electro-luminescence is light emission from a solid through which an electric current is passed. OLEDs are more energy-efficient than incandescent lamps. The luminous efficiency of light bulbs is about 13 - 20 lm/W but the latest experimental green emitting OLEDs already have luminous efficiency of 76 lm/W, though at low luminance. The development is on track for OLEDs to effectively compete even with fluorescent lamps, which have the luminous efficiency of 50 - 100 lm/W. One big advantage of OLEDs is the ability to tune the light emission to any desired color, and any shade of color or intensity, including white. Achieving the high Color Rendition Index (CRI) near 100 (the ability to simulate the most pleasing white color, sunlight), is already within the reach of OLEDs. Another advantage of OLEDs is that they are current-driven devices, where brightness can be varied over a very wide dynamic range and they operate uniformly, without flicker.
CRT is still continuing as top technology in displays to produce economically best displays. The first best look of it is its Cost. But the main problems with it are its bulkiness, Difficulties in Extending to Large area displays as per construction. Even though Liquid Crystal Displays have solved one of problem i.e. size, but it is not economical. So in this present scenario the need for a new technology with both these features combined leaded to invention of OLED.OLED which is a thin, flexible, Bright LED with self luminance which can be used as a display device. The main drawback of LCD display is its Less viewing angle and highly temperature depending which moves us towards a new technology. Thus OLED promises for faithful replacement of current technology with added flavors like Less Power Consumption and Self Luminance .Both Active matrix TFT’s and Passive matrix Technologies are used for display and addressing purposes for high speed display of moving pictures and faster response. Already some of the companies released Cell Phones and PDA’s with bright OLED technology for color full displays.
3. Working Principle & Structural Aspects:
Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are thin-film multi-layer devices consisting of a substrate foil, film or plate (rigid or flexible), an electrode layer, layers of active materials, a counter electrode layer, and a protective barrier layer At least one of the electrodes must be transparent to light.
Fig.1. The typical structure of the OLED device. The number of layers may vary, as described.
The OLEDs operate in the following manner: Voltage bias is applied on the electrodes, the voltages are low, from 2.5 to ~ 20 V, but the active layers are so thin (~10Å to 100nm) that the electric fields in the active layers are very high, of the order of 105 – 107 V/cm. These high, near-breakdown electric fields support injection of charges across the electrode / active layers interfaces. Holes are injected from the anode, which is typically transparent, and electrons are injected from the cathode. The injected charges migrate against each other in the opposite directions, and eventually meet and recombine. Recombination energy is released and the molecule or a polymer segment in which the recombination occurs, reaches an exited state. Excitons may migrate from molecule to molecule. Eventually, some molecules or a polymer segments release the energy as photons or heat. It is desirable that all the excess excitation energy is released as photons (light).
The materials that are used to bring the charges to the recombination sites are usually (but not always) poor photon emitters (most of the excitation energy is released as heat). Therefore, suitable dopants are added, which first transfer the energy from
the original excitons, and release the energy more efficiently as photons. In OLEDs, approximately 25% of the excisions are in the singlet states and 75% in the triplet states. Emission of photons from the singlet states (fluorescence), in most cases facilitated by fluorescent dopants, was believed to be the only applicable form of energy release, thus limiting the Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE) of OLEDs to the maximum of 25%.
Triplet states in organic materials were considered useless, since the energy of triplets was believed to dissipate non-radiatively, as heat. This low ratio of singlet states to the triplet states and, consequently, low device efficiency, would make the application of OLEDs as sources of light extremely difficult. But by using phosphorescent dopants, the energy from all the triplet states could be harnessed as light (phosphorescence). The energy is transferred from the triplet excitons to the dopant molecules. However, not only excitons in the triplet states are utilized; these dopants, typically containing heavy atoms such as Ir or Pt, facilitate the forbidden "intersystem crossing" from the singlets to the triplet states.
The onset voltage, sometimes as low as 2.4 V is the voltage at which the current begins to flow and enough hole-electron pairs recombine to generate light visible by naked eye. The current and the corresponding light intensity increase with increasing the drive voltage. Two types of materials are needed to bring the charges to the recombination sites: hole transport polymers or small molecules, and electron transport polymers or molecules. The energy mismatch between the electrode and the charge transport layer may require another layer to be sandwiched in between, to facilitate charge injection and thus to reduce the operating voltage.
07-03-2011, 02:39 PM
Post: #8
RE: Organic LED full report
PRESENTED BY:
Chirag Chatterjee


.pptx  _OLED_.pptx (Size: 1.15 MB / Downloads: 79)
Organic LED
OLED ..whereabouts..

Definition: Organic light emitting diodes are optoelectronic devices in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emits light in response to an electric current.
First comprehensive research on polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. H. Burroughes e. at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge
 LCD
 LCD ..drawbacks..
 OLED ..working..
 Simplified structure:
 Energy diagram:
 OLED ..fabrication..
 OLED ..display device..
 OLED ..advantages..
 OLED ..advantages..
 10 times brighter than HD LCD
 Extremely high contrast
 No viewing angle effect
TOLED
FOLED
Foldable OLED:

 Fabricated on flexible substrate
 Foldable or roll able displays
 Ultra light
 SOLED
OLED ..commercial techs..
Super Amoled:
 Integration of Touch sensor with Amoled matrix
 Thinner than Amoled
 Less reflection of ambient light
 Better outdoor display
OLED ..disadvantage..
 Low lifespan
 Water damage
 Power binding
 Cost inefficiency
09-05-2011, 04:50 PM
Post: #9
RE: Organic LED full report

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1. INTRODUCTION

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are optoelectronic devices based on small molecules or polymers that emit light when an electric current flows through them. simple OLED consists of a fluorescent organic layer sandwiched between two metal electrodes.Under application of an electric field, electrons and holes are injected from the two electrodes into the organic layer, where they meet and recombine to produce light. They have been developed for applications in flat panel displays that provide visual imagery that is easy to read, vibrant in colors and less consuming of power.

OLEDs are light weight, durable, power efficient and ideal for portable applications. OLEDs have fewer process steps and also use both fewer and low-cost materials than LCD displays. OLEDs can replace the current technology in many applications due to following performance advantages over LCDs.
• Greater brightness
• Faster response time for full motion video
• Fuller viewing angles
• Lighter weight
• Greater environmental durability
• More power efficiency
• Broader operating temperature ranges
• Greater cost-effectivenes


LIMITATIONS OF LCD- EVOLUTION OF OLED

Most of the limitations of LCD technology come from the fact that LCD is a non-emissive Display device. This means that they do not emit light on their own. Thus, an LCD Operates on the basis of either passing or blocking light that is produced by an external light Source (usually from a backside lighting system or reflecting ambient light). Applying an electric field across an LCD cell controls its transparency or reflectivity. A cell blocking (absorbing) light will thus be seen as black and a cell passing (reflecting) light will be seen as white. For a color displays, there are color filters added in front of each of the cells and a single pixel is represented by three cells, each responsible for the basic colors: red, green and blue.

The basic physical structure of a LCD cell is shown in Figure.The liquid crystal (LC) material is sandwiched between two polarizers and two glass plates (or between one glass plate and one Thin Film Transistor (TFT) layers). The polarizers are integral to the working of the cell. Note that the LC material is inherently a transparent material, but it has a property where its optical axis can be rotated by applying an electric field across the material. When the LC material optical axis is made to align with the two polarizers’ axis, light will pass through the second polarizer. On the other hand, if the optical axis is rotated 90 degrees, light will be polarized by the first polarizer, rotated by the LC material and blocked by the second polarizer.



Note that the polarizers and the LC material absorb light. On a typical monochrome LCD display the polarizers alone absorb 50% of the incident light. On an active matrix display TFT layer, the light throughput may be as low as 5% of the incident light. Such low light output efficiency requires with a LC based displays to have a powerful backside or ambient light illumination to achieve sufficient brightness. This causes LCD’s to be bulky and power hungry.The LC cells are in fact relatively thin and their operation relatively power efficient. It is the backside light that takes up most space as well as power. In fact with the advent of low power microprocessors, the LCD module is the primary cause of short battery life in notebook computers.

Moreover, the optical properties of the LC material and the polarizer also causes what is known as the viewing angle effect. The effect is such that when a user is not directly in front of the display, the image can disappear or sometime seem to invert (dark images become light and light images become dark).

With these disadvantages of a LC based display in mind, there has been a lot of research to find an alternative. In recent years, a large effort has been concentrated on Organic Light Emitting Device (OLED) based displays. OLED-based displays have the potential of being lighter, thinner, brighter and much more power-efficient than LC based displays. Moreover, OLED-based displays do not suffer from the viewing angle effect. Organic Optoelectronics has been an active field of research for nearly two decades. In this time device structures and materials have been optimized, yielding a robust technology. In fact, OLEDs have already been incorporated into several consumer electronic products. However, there are basic properties of organic molecules, especially their instability in air, that hamper the commercialization of the technology for high quality displays.


ORGANIC LED STRUCTURE AND OPERATION

An Organic LED is a light emitting device whose p-n junction is made from an organic compound such as: Alq3 (Aluminum tris (8-hydroxyquinoline)) and diamine (TPD). A typical structure of an OLED cell and the molecular structure of some typical organic materials used are shown in Figure

Fig. 2 Typical structure of an Organic LED and the Molecular Structure of Alq3 & TPd

For an Organic LED, the organic layer corresponding to the p-type material is called the hole-transport layer (HTL) and similarly the layer corresponding to the n-type material is called the electron-transport layer (ETL). In Figure 2, Alq3 is the ETL and TPD is the HTL.

Similar to doped silicon, when ETL and HTL materials are placed to create a junction, the energy bands equilibrates to maintain continuity across the structure. When a potential difference is applied across the structure, a drift current flows through the structure. The injected carries recombination at the junction consists of both thermal and optical recombination, which emits photons.
Figure 3 shows the optical recombination from the energy band perspective. Note that LUMO is a short form for Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital, which corresponds to the conduction band in the energy diagram of doped silicon, and HOMO is a short form for Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital, which corresponds to the valence band in the energy diagram of doped silicon.


Since an OLED emits light through a recombination process, it does not suffer from the viewing angle limitation like an LC based device. Note that for any device to become a viable candidate for use in flat panel displays it has to be able to demonstrate high brightness, good power efficiency, good color saturation and sufficient lifetime. Reasonable lower limits specifications for any candidate device should include the following: brightness of ~ 100cd/m 2 , operating voltage of 5-15V and a continuous lifetime of at least 10,000h.

OLEDs with brightness of up to 140,000 cd/m 2 , power efficiencies of up to
40 lm/W , and low operating voltages from 3-10V have been reported. Saturated-color OLEDs have been demonstrated, spanning almost the entire visible spectrum. Moreover, the thickness of an OLED structure, which typically is less than a micrometer, allows for mechanical flexibility, leading to the development of bendable displays indicating the potential development of rolled or foldable displays. Furthermore, the recent development of vapor phase deposition techniques for the OLED manufacturing process may well result in low-cost large-scale production of OLED based flat panel displays as opposed to LC based displays that require extra processes such as layer alignment and tilt angle adjustment.

OLED lifetime exceeding 50,000 h [7] has been reported. Note however, this lifetime number applies to any singular OLED structure. The number does not capture the fact that each. OLED pixel’s electrical characteristics in a display consisting of array of pixels may vary differently than the characteristic of its neighboring pixel. Although all the pixel in the array may have upto 6yrs lifetime display consisting of pixels with differing characteristics will lose its brightness and pixel to pixel accuracy if no adjustments are made to compensate for this variation. OLED-based displays are not so popular among consumer mobile computing device as LC based displays. There are challenges in OLED based flat panel display design which are not found in LC based design. OLED pixel in an array may not have uniform electrical characteristic since OLED are organic devices whose electrical properties are easily effected by the environment and its pattern of usage. In OLED power efficiency degrades with time and use. All pixel have different identical pattern of usage. This causes each pixel to have different colors.

I-V characteristic variation

The I-V characteristics of OLED is also varying with time. Several factors contribute to the I-V characteristic variation. The first and foremost is temperature. As shown in Figure , the I-V characteristic depends quite strongly on the operating temperature. The I-V characteristic variation pose a challenge to the control of OLED based displays as the I-V operating points have to be shifted depending on the operating temperature. Besides temperature, the I-V characteristic also depends strongly on the type of anode/cathode used in the device as well as the thickness of the organic active Electro Luminescence (EL) layer. In particular Figure shows the I-V characteristic variation with the thickness of the organic layer.





Direct Optical Feedback


The electrical feedback signal, which will represent the light output intensity level, is then used to control the driving signal so that the output optical power consistently represents the input reference signal. Figure shows the block diagram for this idea. The idea has the potential to succeed since the sensor can be designed to have a much more reliable and consistent characteristic compared to the OLED.

The goal of the thesis is to create a working 5x5 pixels OLED display, which maintains uniform grayscale reliability despite the varying characteristics of the individual pixels. The final demonstration system includes the 5x5 pixels OLED based displays together with the addressing, the feedback and the driving circuitry implemented using discrete components.

A Feedback Loop Shared by a Column of Pixels

There are several considerations to be made for the feedback loop implementation. Since the demonstration system is geared to building a model for the later integrated implementation, there are many more aspects to be considered. Ideally the discrete demonstration implementation should: use the simplest circuits possible, use as small number of devices as possible, be low power so that the power efficiency potential of OLED-based displays can be achieved and scalable to a much larger number of pixels.

The simplest implementation of the feedback loop of the display system will be to have a loop for every single pixel. However, this is expensive in term of the number of components, which translates to space and complexity if the design is used in an integrated version. Moreover, a continuous running feedback loop around every pixel will also tend to be expensive in terms of Power since the feedback circuitry is also consuming power.

On the other hand, a display design based on a single feedback loop per pixel can be expanded easily to large number of pixels, as every pixel and its control loop is then simply an exact copy of another. Moreover, in the integrated implementation, the light sensor as shown in Figure will be implemented using a simple silicon p-n junction. The close spatial proximity of the sensor to the feedback loop will make the sensing more accurate. As a result each pixel will have less error and more consistent output.

Another possibility is to have a small number of feedback loops, each reusable by a group of pixels using some addressing mechanism. This alternative has the potential of being lower in Power consumption and in the number of devices.



However, with this scheme there are extra requirements on the feedback loop since each of the pixels only has access to the feedback loop for a limited of time within each cycle. In other word, the feedback loop must have a faster step response (larger bandwidth). Furthermore, the Pixel design also has to include a relatively accurate sample and hold circuit so that it can reliably store a driving signal set by the shared feedback loop and maintain it through out a full cycle of refresh time. The basic schematic for this shared feedback loop is shown in Figure.


In this thesis project, a single feedback loop shared by a single column of pixels is chosen as the method to drive the display because a single feedback loop per pixel turns out to be prohibitively expensive in terms of real estate and pixel complexity. Moreover, the driving circuitry in the feedback loop can use the conventional display driver circuitry since a loop per-column topology means that the display is refreshed in a row by row fashion similar to the active matrix topology in the commercially available LC based display. This also means that the same buffering and data format used in any active matrix display can be used to drive the proposed OLED based display. In the demonstration system, a single feedback loop for each column of 5 Pixel is built, together with the sample and hold as well as the addressing circuitry.

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23-07-2012, 11:52 AM
Post: #10
RE: Organic LED full report
to get information about the topic "led" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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