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02-04-2011, 03:13 PM
Post: #1
Organizational Behaviour

.ppt  simpy ob ppt.ppt (Size: 211.5 KB / Downloads: 127)
What Is Organizational Behaviour?
Concept of Organization…

• An organization is defined as collectives..that have been established for the pursuit of relatively specific objectives on a more or less continuous basis.
- Scott.
A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Management Functions
• Planning- why , what, how & when the actions should take place
• Organizing- process of dividing work into convenient tasks or duties.
• Staffing- selection, development, training & appraisal.
• Directing – Guiding & Leading.
• Controlling – Identification of deviations.
Organizational Behaviour
• . . . a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
Why Do We Study OB?
• To learn about yourself and how to deal with others
• You are part of an organization now, and will continue to be a part of various organizations
• Organizations are increasingly expecting individuals to be able to work in teams, at least some of the time
• Some of you may want to be managers or entrepreneurs
Role of OB
• Understanding Human Behavior: Individual, Interpersonal Level & Group Level.
• Controlling & Directing Human Behavior: Use of Power, leadership, Communication, Organizational Climate.
• Organizational Adaptation.
• Exhibit 1-1 Challenges Facing the Workplace
Today’s Challenges
• Challenges at the Individual Level
– Job Satisfaction
– Empowerment
– Behaving Ethically
• Challenges at the Group Level
– Working With Others
– Workforce Diversity
Today’s Challenges
• Challenges at the Organizational Level
– Productivity
– Developing Effective Employees
• Absenteeism
• Turnover
– Competition From the Global Environment
– Managing and Working in a Global Village
Opportunities/Challenges
• Cross Cultural Dynamics
• Workforce Diversity
• Increasing Workforce Aspirations.
• Increasing Quality Consciousness
• Newer Organizational Designs
Mergers & Acquisitions.
• Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
• Psychology
• Sociology
• Social Psychology
• Anthropology
• Political Science
Basic OB Model
Models of OB

• Autocratic Model: Managerial Orientation towards power , employees expected to follow orders, high dependence on boss.
• Custodial Model: Managerial Orientation towards the use of money to pay for the benefits of the employees, dependence on organization, no authority given for decision.
• Supportive Model :Depend on managerial leadership. The focus is primarily on participation & involvement of employees in managerial decision making.
• Collegial Model: extension of supportive model, main emphasis on Team Work.
Summary and Implications
• OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization.
• OB focuses on improving productivity, reducing absenteeism and turnover, and increasing employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
• OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behaviour.
29-08-2011, 04:33 PM
Post: #2
RE: Organizational Behaviour

.doc  obod_final.doc (Size: 385.5 KB / Downloads: 45)
INTRODUCTION
Managers of companies must satisfy workers demand and needs and should treat everybody in the organization equally. This will help the employees get motivated and they will work hard for the company. When a manger wants to change the behavior of the employees he or she is basically shaping the behavior. Shaping behavior can be defined as “Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.” One of the important ways of shaping employee’s behavior is by incorporating Reinforcement theory.
(GORDON, 2002)
Reinforcement Theory can be defined as “a theory that behaviour is a function of its consequences.” (GORDON, 2002)
Organization sometimes needs to undergo change. Change can be rewarding for some people and an unpleasant experience for others. Those who propose change are most likely to view it in positive terms but in many cases these are the people who are in top management who are not affected much by the change. The people who are affected most are the lower level employees in the organization. They resists because of group inertia, threats to expertise, threats to resource allocation, limited focus of change, economic threats, and job insecurity.
In this assignment, I have analyzed Reinforcement theory and various elements of it, which a manager can use to shape and reshape employee behavior to overcome the restraining forces of change and to increase organizational efficiency.
In this assignment various strategies and techniques to overcome the restraining forces of change have been elaborately discussed which would help the managers of the company to shape employee behavior so as to perform in a desired level. The purpose of this research is to find solutions of overcoming restraining forces of change by the employee. To accomplish the goal, various organizational behavior and organizational development theories, techniques and strategies are discussed and analyzed to give a final recommendation.
CHAPTER TWO
2.1.OVERVIEW

Managers of companies must be aware of the workers demand and needs and should take steps to meet them. These will help the employees to go the extra mile and they will work hard for the company. Managers give bonuses, perks and other incentives to motivate them. As learning also takes place in job, managers are worried about how they can teach his subordinates so that their behavior will help the organization in reaching its goals. When a manger wants to change the behavior of the employees he is just moulding the behavior. Shaping behavior can be defined as “Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.” The one of the important way of shaping employee’s behavior is by incorporating Reinforcement theory.
There are various changes, which occur in the organization in order to keep in pace with the dynamic world. Hence all the employees are not always fine with the changes. This leads a manger to use reinforcement theory. The managers give bonus, perks, etc. which act as rein forcers, and helps the employees to adapt to the environment easily. The reinforcement theory are used by encouraging desired behavior or discouraging desired behavior as in the case may be through the use of various rein forcers such as pay, increment, promotion, challenging work etc.
2.2. Reinforcement Theory
It can be defined as “a theory that states that behaviour is a function of its consequences.” Reinforcement theory can do two things. It can either change ones behavior by encouraging them or it can eliminate ones desired behavior by applying or removing rein forcers. Managers of a company to get a desired behavior from the employees in the organization can choose among various types of reinforcement like positive, negative, extinction or punishment reinforcement. (ROLLINSON, 2005)
The manager can shape and reshape an individual employee to overcome the various restraining forces by the following ways:
1. Positive Reinforcement:
This means giving rewards or gratifying employees if the manager is satisfied with his work. For.e.g. if a sales executive successfully sale a personal insurance then his manager encourages him by giving him bonus per sale or by praising him. This reward is been given only when the desired behavior, which is acceptable, by the employer occurs. In addition, the manager can selectively reinforce behaviors every time cheering the employee to act closer according to his wants (Managers). Companies like Procter and Gamble provides its sales representative with incentives every week to encourage them in meeting sales target. It refers to the presentation of the stimulus that increases the likelihood that a response will occur again.
2. Negative Reinforcement:
It states that by encouraging someone to avoid undesirable situation and consequences and removing someone from an objectionable and unwanted situation when the desired behavior occurs. For. e.g. a manager can keep an eye and examine the sales persons activities till they meet acceptable standard consistently. It also refers to an unpleasant stimulus when removed increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again.
19-04-2012, 01:38 PM
Post: #3
RE: Organizational Behaviour
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR


.doc  OB - Notes.doc (Size: 1.2 MB / Downloads: 30)

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR


Learning Objectives
After reading this lesson, you should be able to understand:

• The major environmental challenges and the paradigm shift that the management faces today
• The management perspective of organizational behaviour
• The historical background of modern organizational behaviour
• The modern approach to organizational behaviour

The knowledge and information explosion, global competition, total quality and diversity are some of the bitter realities that the managers are facing today. There are many solutions being offered to deal with these complex challenges. Yet the simple but most profound solution may be found in the words of Sam Walton, the richest person in the world and the founder of Wal-Mart. Sam was once asked the key to successful organizations and management. Sam quickly replied, "People are the key".
The term paradigm comes from the Greek word 'paradigma', which means ''model, pattern or example". First introduced over thirty years ago, by the philosophy and science historian Thomas Khun, the term "paradigm" is now used as, a broad model, a framework, a way of thinking, and a scheme for understanding reality. The impact of information technology, total quality and diversity mentioned earlier has led to a paradigm shift.

NEW PARADIGM

The organizational behaviour has a goal lo help the managers make a transition to the new paradigm. Some of the new paradigm characteristics include coverage of second-generation information technology and total quality management such as empowerment, reengineering and benchmarking, and learning organization for managing diversity of work. The new paradigm sets the stage for the study, understanding, and application of the time-tested micro-variables, dynamics and macro-variables. One must know why management needs a new perspective to meet the environmental challenges and to shift to a new paradigm.

A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR MANAGEMENT

Management is generally considered to have three major dimensions—technical, conceptual and human. The technical dimension consists of the manager's expertise in particular functional areas. They know the requirements of the jobs and have the functional knowledge to get the job done. But the practicing managers ignore the conceptual and human dimensions of their jobs.
Most managers think that their employees are lazy, and are interested only in money, and that if you could make them happy in terms of money, they would be productive. If such assumptions are accepted, the human problems that the management is facing are relatively easy to solve.
But human behaviour at work is much more complicated and diverse. The new perspective assumes that employees are extremely complex and that there is a need for theoretical understanding given by empirical research before applications can be made for managing people effectively.

MODERN APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

The modern approach to organizational behaviour is the search for the truth of why people behave the way they do. The organizational behaviour is a delicate and complex process. If one aims to manage an organization, it is necessary to understand its operation. Organization is the combination of science and people. While science and technology is predictable, the human behaviour in organization is rather unpredictable. This is because it arises from deep needs and value systems of people.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FOR MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Scientific Management Approach
Scientific management approach was developed by F.W. Taylor at the beginning of the 20th century. This theory supported the use of certain steps in scientifically studying each element of a job, selecting and training the best workers for the job arid making sure that the workers follow the prescribed method of doing the job. It provided a scientific rationale for job specialization and mass production. His assumption was that employees are motivated largely by money. To increase the output, Taylor advised managers to pay monetary incentives to efficient workers.
Yet, his theory was criticized by many employers and workers. Workers objected to the pressure of work as being harder and faster. Critics worried that the methods took the humanity out of labor, reducing workers to machines responding to management incentives. Therefore, Taylor's view is now considered inadequate and narrow due to the points given by the critics.

Bureaucratic Approach

While scientific management was focusing on the interaction between workers and the task, me researchers were studying how to structure the organization more effectively. Instead of trying to make each worker more efficient, classical organization theory sought the most effective overall organizational structure for workers and managers.

The theory's most prominent advocate, Max Weber, proposed a 'bureaucratic form' of structure, which he thought would work for all organizations. Weber's idea! bureaucracy was , logical, rational and efficient. He made the naive assumption that one structure would work best for all organizations.

Henry Ford, Henry Fayol and Frederick W. Taylor, the early management pioneers, recognized the behavioral side of management. However, they did not emphasize the human dimensions. Although there were varied and complex reasons for the emerging importance of behavioral approach to management, it is generally recognized that the Hawthorne studies mark the historical roots for the field of organizational behaviour.


Hawthorne Studies

Even, as Taylor and Weber brought attention with their rational, logical approaches to more efficient productivity, their views were criticized on the ground that both approaches ignored worker's humanity.
The real beginning of applied research in the area of organizational behaviour started with Hawthorne Experiments. In 1924, a group of professors began an enquiry into the human aspects of work and working conditions at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago. The findings of these studies were given a new name 'human relations' the studies brought out a number of findings relevant to understanding human behaviour at work. The Human element in the workplace was considerably more important. The workers are influenced by social factors and the behaviour of the individual worker is determined by the group.
Hawthorne studies have been criticized for their research methods and conclusions drawn. But their impact on the emerging field of organizational behaviour was dramatic. They helped usher in a more humanity centered approach to work.
21-04-2012, 03:26 PM
Post: #4
RE: Organizational Behaviour
Organizational Behaviour



.ppt  organisation behaviour.ppt (Size: 627.5 KB / Downloads: 28)


Organizational Behaviour


a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.


Why Do We Study OB

To learn about yourself and how to deal with others
You are part of an organization now, and will continue to be a part of various organizations
Organizations are increasingly expecting individuals to be able to work in teams, at least some of the time
Some of you may want to be managers or entrepreneurs


Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace


Challenges at the Organizational Level
Productivity
Developing Effective Employees
Absenteeism
Turnover
Organizational Citizenship
Competition From the Global Environment
Managing and Working in a Global Village



Summary and Implications


OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization.
OB focuses on improving productivity, reducing absenteeism and turnover, and increasing employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behaviour.
01-06-2012, 02:51 PM
Post: #5
RE: Organizational Behaviour
Organizational Behaviour


.ppt  Organizational Behaviour.ppt (Size: 324 KB / Downloads: 17)

Organizational Behaviour

. . a field of study that investigates how individuals, groups and structure affect and are affected by behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.

Why Do We Study OB?

To learn about yourself and how to deal with others
You are part of an organization now, and will continue to be a part of various organizations
Organizations are increasingly expecting individuals to be able to work in teams
Some of you may want to be managers or entrepreneurs

What is an Organization?

A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
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