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18-05-2012, 10:23 AM
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PAPER PRESENTATION ON TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION LOSSES AND IT’S REDUCTION TECHNIQUE
PAPER PRESENTATION ON TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION LOSSES AND IT’S REDUCTION TECHNIQUE

.pptx  PAPER PRESENTATION ON TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION LOSSES AND IT’S REDUCTION TECHNIQUE.pptx (Size: 469.55 KB / Downloads: 114)
What is T & D losses?
Transmission & Distribution losses defined as the difference between the energy generated/purchased and the ultimately sold to the consumer or in common manner of speaking “Transmission & Distribution Losses” means loss of electrical energy during its Transmission and Distribution.
Classification of T & D Losses
T & D losses can be classified in to two broad categories
A. Technical losses
B. Commercial losses
A.Technical losses
Technical losses are the losses that occur into the system due to inherent characteristic of equipment conductor and allied apparatus used for transmission and distribution of power.
Technical losses can further be classified into following three categories. A1. Transmission Line Losses
A2. Transformation Losses
A3. Distribution Losses
A1. Transmission Line Losses
They are the losses occurring into the system due to transmission lines while transmission of power from one substation to another substation or from a generating station to a substation.
A2.Transformation Losses
The transformation losses are due to the transformers used in the system for or stepping down the voltage level in the substation transformation losses consists of two parts viz. copper losses, iron losses and leakage losses.
A3. Distribution Losses
A technical loss in distributing network account for 80% of technical losses exists in the power system. There are the losses due to inherent characteristics of conductors used in the distributing network and distribution transformer.
B. Commercial Losses
Commercial losses are losses due to defective metering installation and theft of electrical energy by registered consumer and unregistered consumer.
Commercial losses can further be classified into following 6 categories.
Metering error of energy meter due to normal wear or due to wrong calibration.
Damaged meter or defective meters.
Errors in billing the consumer who are temporarily or permanently billed without energy meter.
Illegal declaration performed by user or consumer.
By pass of energy meter.
Theft of energy by persons not registered as a consumer.
It is very much difficult to ascertain the reason for high commercial losses contributed from above six categories and thus it put limitation on the agency, which deal with the reduction of commercial losses.
Others factor contributing high technical losses.
Inadequate reactive compensation and poor voltage regulation.
Corona losses, over loading of transmission line
Improper location of power and distribution transformer.
Inappropriate rating of distribution transformer.
Improper choice of voltage
Disproportionate load growth in low and medium sectors, low power factor.
Poor or inadequate ratio of HT to LT lines.
Unbalance loading of transformers and transmission line
Extensive use of loosy and cheap material in transmission and distribution
Lack of energy audit of transmission and distribution feeder.
All above three categories are a separate subject for a study, we shall confirm our study to the distribution losses, which contribute major portion of technical losses.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Improvement of power factor loading to a reduction in losses can be achieved through reactive power control in the power system by installing on shunt capacitor.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Series compensation in EHV & HV transmission for that use of static VAR compensation in power system.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Reduction of losses can be done by conducting energy audit.
The aim of energy audit is to
Assess the overall energy loss in a specified area.
Identify system elements (causing excessive losses)
Establish causes of excessive losses whether due to technical or non technical factors.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Identification of hot spots by thermo vision scanning and improvement in joints.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Reduction the length of Low tension lines by relocation of additional distribution substation and also conversion of LT lines to 11KV lines.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Strengthening of weakest area in the distribution system so as to derive maximum benefits within limited resources.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Jointing of Low tension lines is another area where lot of energy saving can be effected if perfect joints are made with crimping tools having less contact resistance.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Use All aluminum alloy conductor (AAAC) in place of conventional Aluminum core steel reinforced (ACSR) conductor. There is a possibility of loss reduction to the extent of 15 to 20 %.
DIFFERENT LOSS REDUCTION METHOD OR TECHNIQUES
Up gradation of transmission voltage by converting 11KV to 33KV laying of 33KV Express feeder for high density urban loads.
EFFECT OF COMPUTERIZATION ON T & D LOSSES
Computerization helps in better monitoring of the following important parameters at consumer’s
Some of the consumers allow a meter to run few days before and after meter reading program of their area for remaining period meter is stopped either b inserting foreign particle in the meter or by passing meter by means of loop increased frequency of visit of consumer premises will eliminate stoppage period or at least reduce it and their by reduce the T & D losses.
Meter reader’s manipulation in preparing bill as per his sweet well can be eliminated.
The posh area consumers consumption can be monitored easily and deviation be followed.
Important consumers like factory, Cinema, Hotels, Big showrooms etc. which are power intensive can be monitored for his consumption.
IMPORVED METERING SYSTEM
Some of in latest trends are
Electronic energy meter
Prepaid energy meter
Remote energy meter
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