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23-01-2010, 01:33 AM
Post: #1
renewable energy resources ppt

.ppt  RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES.ppt (Size: 990.5 KB / Downloads: 1782)
Abstract:
Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, andgeothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). While most renewable energy projects and production is large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to small off-grid applications, sometimes in rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development.

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23-04-2010, 02:35 PM
Post: #2
RE: renewable energy resources ppt

.ppt  RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES.ppt (Size: 989.5 KB / Downloads: 989)

RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES


Presented by
SARNYA M
LATHA S





contents

Types of sources
Solar power
Hydro power
Wind power
Biomass
Solar-hydrogen
Geothermal
sustainable energy
conclusion




Renewable Energy Resources!

Biomass
Hydroelectric power
Geothermal
Solar”passive and active
Wind generation
Hydrogen power




Using Solar Energy to Provide Heat and Electricity

Passive solar heating
Active solar heating




Using Solar Energy to Provide High-Temperature Heat and Electricity

Solar thermal systems
Photovoltaic (PV) cells




Producing Electricity from Moving Water

Large-scale hydropower
Small-scale hydropower
50% of West Coast electricity
7% of US electricity
20% of Worldâ„¢s electricity
Major environmental impacts
High construction costs




Impacts of hydropower on salmon and other riverine spp.

Pollution
Disruption of water flow
Loss of biodiversity
Invasive species




Impacts of hydropower on Species and People
_______________
Dams can provide many human benefits but:
Disrupts ecological services rivers provide; e.g. 119 dams on Columbia River have caused a 94% drop in wild salmon; removing hydroelectric dams will restore native spawning grounds
Displaces millions of people worldwide as reservoirs flood traditional homelands
No room for expansion in the US






Producing Energy from Biomass

Biofuels
Biomass plantations
Crop residues
Animal manure
Biogas
Ethanol
Methanol




The Solar-Hydrogen RevolutionExtracting hydrogen efficiently

Storing hydrogen
Fuel cells




Geothermal Energy

Geothermal reservoirs
Dry steam
Wet steam
Hot water
Molten rock
Hot dry-rock zones




Creating a Sustainable Energy FutureIncrease fuel efficiency standards for vehicle, appliances, buildings

Tax and other financial incentives for energy efficiency
Subsidize renewable energy use, research and development
Internalize externalities for fossil fuels
By 2050:
Increase renewable energy to 50%
cut coal use by 50%
phase out nuclear altogether




conclusion

Thus we see about the renewable energy sources , itâ„¢s types , applications , merits and demerits

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29-10-2010, 11:36 AM
Post: #3
RE: renewable energy resources ppt

.ppt  Energy.ppt (Size: 314 KB / Downloads: 345)
Energy Resources: Production and Consumption


Environmental Sustainability Educational Resources
prepared by
Gregory A. Keoleian
Associate Research Scientist,
School of Natural Resources and Environment
Co-Director, Center for Sustainable Systems
University of Michigan


Non-Renewable Energy Sources

Conventional
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclear
Unconventional (examples)
Oil Shale
Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment
03-01-2011, 02:47 PM
Post: #4
RE: renewable energy resources ppt



.ppt  RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES.ppt (Size: 990.5 KB / Downloads: 296)

BY
KANNAN.P


contents
Types of sources
Solar power
Hydro power
Wind power
Biomass
Solar-hydrogen
Geothermal
sustainable energy
conclusion


Renewable Energy Resources!
Biomass
Hydroelectric power
Geothermal
Solar—passive and active
Wind generation
Hydrogen power


Producing Electricity from Moving Water

Large-scale hydropower
Small-scale hydropower
50% of West Coast electricity
7% of US electricity
20% of World’s electricity
Major environmental impacts
High construction costs

Impacts of hydropower on salmon and other riverine spp.

Pollution
Disruption of water flow
Loss of biodiversity
Invasive species

Impacts of hydropower on Species and People
Dams can provide many human benefits but:
Disrupts ecological services rivers provide; e.g. 119 dams on Columbia River have caused a 94% drop in wild salmon; removing hydroelectric dams will restore native spawning grounds
Displaces millions of people worldwide as reservoirs flood traditional homelands
No room for expansion in the US


conclusion
Thus we see about the renewable energy sources , it’s types , applications , merits and demerits



19-04-2011, 09:38 AM
Post: #5
RE: renewable energy resources ppt

.docx  CHAPTER_2.docx (Size: 88.17 KB / Downloads: 163)
RENEWABLE RNERGY
2.1 RENEWABLE ENERGY

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from Solar, Wind, Ocean, Hydropower, Biomass, Geothermal Resources, and Bio-fuels and Hydrogen derived from renewable resources.Each of these sources has unique characteristics which influence how and where they are used.
2.1.1 Wind power energy.
2.1.2 Hydro power energy.
2.1.4 Solar power energy.
2.1.4 Bio-fuel energy.
2.1.5 Geothermal power energy.
2.1.6 Nuclear power energy.
2.1.7 Tidal power energy.
2.1.1 WIND POWER
Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites are preferred locations for wind farms. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favorable sites.
Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand.
This could require large amounts of land to be used for wind turbines, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of 90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy. This number could also increase with higher altitude ground-based or airborne wind turbines.
Wind power is renewable and produces no greenhouse gases during operation, such as carbon dioxide and methane. Wind power is one of the most environmentally friendly sources of renewable energy
A wind farm, when installed on agricultural land, has one of the lowest environmental impacts of all energy sources:
• Wind power occupies less land area per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity generated than any other energy conversion system, apart from rooftop solar energy, and is compatible with grazing and crops.
• It generates the energy used in its construction in just 3 months of operation, yet its operational lifetime is 20–25 years.
• Greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution produced by its construction are low and declining. There are no emissions or pollution produced by its operation.
• In substituting for base-load coal power, wind power produces a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, and a net increase in biodiversity.
• Modern wind turbines are almost silent and rotate so slowly (in terms of revolutions per minute) that they are rarely a hazard to birds.
2.1.2 HYDROELECTRICITY
The major advantage of hydroelectric systems is the elimination of the cost of fuel. Other advantages include longer life than fuel-fired generation, low operating costs, and the provision of facilities for water sports. Operation of pumped-storage plants improves the daily load factor of the generation system. Overall, hydroelectric power can be far less expensive than electricity generated from fossil fuels or nuclear energy, and areas with abundant hydroelectric power attract industry.
However, there are several disadvantages of hydroelectricity systems. These include: dislocation of people living where the reservoirs are planned, release of significant amounts of carbon dioxide at construction and flooding of the reservoir, disruption of aquatic ecosystems and birdlife, adverse impacts on the river environment, potential risks of sabotage and terrorism, and in rare cases catastrophic failure of the dam wall.
Large hydroelectric power is considered to be a renewable energy by a large number of sources, however, many groups have lobbied for it to be excluded from renewable electricity standards, any initiative to promote the use of renewable energies, and sometimes the definition of renewable itself. Some organizations, including US federal agencies, will specifically refer to "non-hydro renewable energy". Many laws exist that specifically label "small hydro" as renewable or sustainable and large hydro as not. Furthermore, the line between what is small or large also differs by governing body.
Hydroelectric power is now more difficult to site in developed nations because most major sites within these nations are either already being exploited or may be unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations.
2.1.3 SOLAR ENERGY
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaic’s and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available renewable energy on earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used.
Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaic. Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
2.1.4 BIO-FUEL
All biomass needs to go through some of these steps: it needs to be grown, collected, dried, fermented and burned. All of these steps require resources and an infrastructure.
Some studies contend that ethanol is "energy negative", meaning that it takes more energy to produce than is contained in the final product. Furthermore, fossil fuels also require significant energy inputs which have seldom been accounted for in the past.
Additionally, ethanol is not the only product created during production, and the energy content of the by-products must also be considered. Corn is typically 66% starch and the remaining 33% is not fermented. This unfermented component is called distillers grain, which is high in fats and proteins, and makes good animal feed. In Brazil, where sugar cane is used, the yield is higher, and conversion to ethanol is somewhat more energy efficient than corn. Recent developments with cellulosic ethanol production may improve yields even further.
According to the International Energy Agency, new bio-fuels technologies being developed today, notably cellulosic ethanol, could allow bio-fuels to play a much bigger role in the future than previously thought. Cellulosic ethanol can be made from plant matter composed primarily of inedible cellulose fibers that form the stems and branches of most plants. Crop residues (such as corn stalks, wheat straw and rice straw), wood waste, and municipal solid waste are potential sources of cellulosic biomass.Liquid bio-fuel is usually either bio-alcohol such as bio-ethanol or oil such as biodiesel.
Bio-ethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bio-ethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil.
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transeterification.
2.1.5 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in some places of the globe or from some meters in geothermal heat pump in all the places of the planet. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.
Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator. Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over 200 °C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine. In binary plants, the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat.
The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may be used to generate electricity. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone basin and in northern California. Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal powers and heated 86% of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8000 MW of capacity is operational in total.
There is also the potential to generate geothermal energy from hot dry rocks. Holes at least 3 km deep are drilled into the earth. Some of these holes pump water into the earth, while other holes pump hot water out. The heat resource consists of hot underground radiogenic granite rocks, which heat up when there is enough sediment between the rock and the earth’s surface. Several companies in Australia are exploring this technology.
2.1.6 NUCLEAR POWER
Nuclear power continues to be considered as an alternative to fossil-fuel power sources and in 1956, when the first peak oil paper was presented, nuclear energy was presented as the replacement for fossil fuels. However, the prospect of increased nuclear power deployment was seriously undermined in the United States as a result of the Three MileIsland, and in the rest of the world after the Chernobyl disaster. This trend is slowly reversing, and several new nuclear reactors are scheduled for construction. Physicist Bernard Cohen proposed in 1983 that uranium dissolved in seawater, when used in fast neutron reactors, is effectively inexhaustible and constantly replenished by rivers, and could therefore be considered a renewable source of energy. However, this idea is not universally accepted, and issues such as peak uranium and uranium depletion are ongoing
Debates.
Legislative definitions of renewable energy, used when determining energy projects eligible for subsidies or tax breaks, usually exclude nuclear power.
2.1.7 TIDAL POWER
Tidal power traditionally involves erecting a dam across the opening to a tidal basin. The dam includes a sluice that is opened to allow the tide to flow into the basin; the sluice is then closed, and as the sea level drops, traditional hydropower technologies can be used to generate electricity from the elevated water in the basin. Some researchers are also trying to extract energy directly from tidal flow streams.
The energy potential of tidal basins is large — the largest facility, the La Rance station in France, generates 240 megawatts of power. Currently, France is the only country that successfully uses this power source. French engineers have noted that if the use of tidal power on a global level was brought to high enough levels, the Earth would slow its rotation by 24 hours every 2,000 years.
Tidal energy systems can have environmental impacts on tidal basins because of reduced tidal flow and silt buildup.
Three Ways of Using the Tidal Power of the Ocean
There are three basic ways to tap the ocean for its energy. We can use the ocean's waves, we can use the ocean's high and low tides, or we can use temperature differences in the water.
2.1.7.1. WAVE ENERGY
Kinetic energy (movement) exists in the moving waves of the ocean. That energy can be used to power a turbine. In this simple example, (illustrated to the right) the wave rises into a chamber. The rising water forces the air out of the chamber. The moving air spins a turbine which can turn a generator.
When the wave goes down, air flows through the turbine and back into the chamber through doors that are normally closed.
This is only one type of wave-energy system. Others actually use the up and down motion of the wave to power a piston that moves up and down inside a cylinder. That piston can also turn a generator.
Most wave-energy systems are very small. But, they can be used to power a warning buoy or a small light house.
2.1.7.2. TIDAL ENERGY
Another form of ocean energy is called tidal energy. When tides come into the shore, they can be trapped in reservoirs behind dams. Then when the tide drops, the water behind the dam can be let out just like in a regular hydroelectric power plant.
In order for this to work well, you need large increases in tides. An increase of at least 16 feet between low tide and high tide is needed. There are only a few places where this tide change occurs around the earth. Some power plants are already operating using this idea. One plant in France makes enough energy from tides to power 240,000 homes.
2.1.7.3. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY
The final ocean energy idea uses temperature differences in the ocean. If you ever went swimming in the ocean and dove deep below the surface, you would have noticed that the water gets colder the deeper you go. It's warmer on the surface because sunlight warms the water. But below the surface, the ocean gets very cold. That's why scuba divers wear wet suits when they dive down deep. Their wet suits trapped their body heat to keep them warm.
Power plants can be built that use this difference in temperature to make energy. A difference of at least 38 degrees Fahrenheit is needed between the warmer surface water and the colder deep ocean water.
Using this type of energy source is called Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion or OTEC. It is being used in both Japan and in Hawaii in some demonstration projects
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