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16-02-2010, 07:31 AM
Post: #1
robots in radioactive environment full report

.ppt  ROBOTS IN RADIO-ACTIVE ENVTS..ppt (Size: 3.32 MB / Downloads: 1748)

ROBOTS IN RADIOACTIVE ENVIRONMENTS


INTRODUCTION


In a critical place such as a nuclear power plant , where the manual work is quite difficult the application of robots are really worth mentioning.
Robots are used to prevent exposure of humans to radiations in Nuclear Power plants





CONCEPT


Websterâ„¢s dictionary definition
An automatic device that performs functions ordinarily described to human beings
Robotic Institute of America definition
It is a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools etc through variable programmed motion of the performance of a variety of tasks

CONTENTS

Minimize human exposure
Maintenance activities
Steam Generators
Tele-operation platform
End effectors
Remove fallen objects in
primary circuit nozzle
PWR reactor vessel

MINIMIZE HUMAN EXPOSURE

Risk of contamination which is accidental
Irradiation affects operators work areas
Professional workers are few in number and require years of experience
International laws exist which limit the max exposure rate of workers
Reduce working time and increase maintenance cost

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE AND UNFORSEEN INCIDENTS

Periodic maintenance require
Careful preparation
Safety
Well known working environment
Prepared using a full scale mockup
For telerobotics there is
Geometric model of the remote site
Mission is programmed
Operates in supervision mode

WHAT IS THE NEED OF ROBOTS IN STEAM GENERATORS ?

Steam Generators use U bent tubes. U bent tubes in WSG made using inconel alloy
to ensure High thermal efficiency of heat exchanger
Multiple stresses
Mechanical and thermal loading vibrations & corrosion
Maintenance jobs during plant refueling are complex
Water cleaning, nozzle dam insertion etc.


TELEOPERATION PLATFORM

New platform developed using Hewlett Packard UX operating system
Local area network connects with teleoperation platform with robot control unit
Graphic models of arm, loader, tube sheet & channel head was developed using ROBCAD


APPLICATIONS

STEAM GENERATORS:
Primary tube inspection & maintenance.
Channel head cleaning .
Nozzle dam insertion.
REACTOR CAVITY:
Fuel transfer channel cleaning & underwater inspection.
REACTOR VESSEL:
Underwater inspection & repair.
Foreign fallen object removal.


CONCLUSION

With improving technology & growing
perception of the need to keep human
workers away from high radiation areas,
more competitive robotic systems are
increasingly becoming available

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04-03-2010, 11:25 AM
Post: #2
RE: robots in radioactive environment full report
ROBOTS IN RADIOACTIVE ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT
Robots were developed to reduce the human work and increase the precision of work. Now, this can be applied to radioactive environment encountered in nuclear power plants. As human safety is of primary importance, so robots are taking over from human beings in radioactive environment. Now different types of telerobots are used in the nuclear power plants which can access anywhere in the nuclear power plants, thus reducing human exposure. Apart from the high initial cost, it is cheaper than using professional workers in long run. The future of robots used in radioactive environment is expected to reach a phase where the nuclear power plants can be made devoid of human beings. This would be possible only with the arrival of completely automatic fractal robots

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29-05-2010, 04:11 PM
Post: #3
RE: robots in radioactive environment full report
Robots In Radioactive Environments
INTRODUCTION


Robots are developed to be used in areas inaccessible to human beings. Radio active environment is one in which high energy radiations like ?, ? and ? radiations are emitted by radioactive materials. There is a limitation in case of the time and dose for which professional worker can be exposed to nuclear radiations according to international regulations so it very useful to use robots in such an environment.

Robots with properly automated can also be used to control nuclear power plants and hence can be used to avert nuclear power plant disasters like one that occurred at Chernobyl. Robots can also be used for the disposal of radioactive waste.

Future is still bright for robots in radio active environment as they are to be used to isolate nuclear power plants from surroundings in case of a nuclear power plant disaster.

BRIEF HISTORY

The word robot was introduced in 1921 by the Czech play Wright Karel Capek, in his play Rossum's universal robots and is derived from the Czech word "Robota", meaning "forced labour". The story concerns a brilliant scientist named 'ROSSUM' and his son, who developed a chemical substance similar to protoplasm to manufacture robots. Their plan was that the robots would serve the mankind obediently and do all physical labour. Finally, after improvements and eliminating unnecessary parts, they develop a "perfect robot", which eventually goes out of control and attacks humans.

Although Capek introduced the word robot to the world, the term robotics was coined by Isaac Asimov in his science fiction story "run around", where he portrayed robots not in negative manner but built with safety measures in mind to assist human beings. Asimov established in his story three fundamental laws of robots as follows:
1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the first law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first and second laws. .
Robots were introduced into the industry in the early 1960's. Robots originally were in hazardous operations, such as handling toxics and radioactive materials and loading & unloading hot work pieces from furnaces and handling them in foundries.

NEED FOR ROBOTS IN RADIOACTIVE ENVIRONMENT


Radioactive environment is mainly encountered in nuclear power plants. Some regular repair and maintenance activities at nuclear power plants involve risks of contamination and irradiation. While contamination is an accidental and avoidable phenomenon, irradiation is continuous and effects the operators work areas. Various countries have laws establishing annual maximum doses to which professional workers can be exposed and the maximum time that they may stay inside areas subject to radiation.

Most tasks at nuclear facilities are carried out by in house maintenance specialists. They are few in number and in many cases, require several yeas of experience and extensive training programs. The number of hours that they can work continuously is limited by national international regulations regarding the maximum dose that may be received by exposed professional workers. Legal regulations establish that when a worker reaches a specific dose limit, the worker cannot work in areas subject to radiation for a given period of time. This increase the cost of maintenance services because personal only operate for short periods of time. Given the discontinuous use of human resources and discontinuous nature of work, nuclear service companies are obliged to allow for some uncertainties in scheduling of services and in rationalization of their human resources.

For all the above reasons, it is generally advisable and in some cases mandatory, to use telerobotics for the execution of repair and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. This is particularly true of tasks entailing high exposure to radiation

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24-08-2010, 02:30 PM
Post: #4
RE: robots in radioactive environment full report
please, give me a pdf file
25-09-2010, 03:26 PM
Post: #5
RE: robots in radioactive environment full report

.ppt  How Robots Work.ppt (Size: 262 KB / Downloads: 252)

robots works


abstract
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