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21-01-2010, 08:20 PM
Post: #1
smart quill full report

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ABSTRACT
With the introduction of handheld computers, the present trend has started preferring small computers to do computation. This has made computer manufacturers to go for almost gadget like computers. Reducing the size of handheld computers can only be taken so far before they become unusable. Keyboards become so tiny you require needle-like fingers to operate them and screens that need constant cursor controls to read simple text.

The introduction of SmartQuill has solved some of these problems. Lyndsay Williams of Microsoft, UK is the inventor of SmartQuill,a pen that can remember the words that is used to write, and then transform them into computer text. The pen is slightly larger than ordinary fountain pen, with a screen on the barrel. User can enter information into these applications by pushing a button .Information can be entered using his/her own handwriting. User can use any platform for writing like paper, screen, tablet or even air. There is also a small three-line screen to read the information stored in the pen. Users can scroll down the screen by tilting the pen. The pen is then plugged in to an electronic docking station, text data is transmitted to a desktop computer, printer, modem or to a mobile telephones to send files electronically.

INTRODUCTION
Lyndsay Williams of Microsoft Research's Cambridge UK lab is the inventor of the Smartquill, a pen that can remember the words that it is used to write, and then transform them into computer text . The idea that "it would be neat to put all of a handheld-PDA type computer in a pen," came to the inventor in her sleep. Itâ„¢s the pen for the new millennium, she says. Encouraged by Nigel Ballard, a leading consultant to the mobile computer industry, Williams took her prototype to the British Telecommunications Research Lab, where she was promptly hired and given money and institutional support for her project. The prototype, called SmartQuill, has been developed by world-leading research laboratories run by BT (formerly British Telecom) at Martlesham, eastern England. It is claimed to be the biggest revolution in handwriting since the invention of the pen.
The sleek and stylish prototype pen is different from other electronic pens on the market today in that users don't have to write on a special pad in order to record what they write. User could use any surface for writing such as paper, tablet, screen or even air. The SmartQuill isn't all space-age, though -- it contains an ink cartridge so that users can see what they write down on paper. SmartQuill contains sensors that record movement by using the earth's gravity system, irrespective of the platform used. The pen records the information inserted by the user. Your words of wisdom can also be uploaded to your PC through the digital inkwell, while the files that you might want to view on the pen are downloaded to SmartQuill as well.
It is an interesting idea, and it even comes with one attribute that makes entire history of pens pale by comparison”if someone else picks your SmartQuill and tries to write with it- it won™t. Because user can train the pen to recognize a particular handwriting. Hence SmartQuill recognizes only the owner™s handwriting. SmartQuill is a computer housed within a pen which allows you to do what a normal personal organizer does .It™s really mobile because of it™s smaller size and one handed use. People could use the pen in the office to replace a keyboard, but the main attraction will be for users who usually take notes by hand on the road and type them up when returning to the office. SmartQuill will let them skip the step of typing up their notes.


WORKING OF SMARTQUILL
SmartQuill is slightly larger than an ordinary fountain pen. Users can enter information into these applications by pushing a button on the pen and writing down what they would like to enter .The SmartQuill does not need a screen to work. The really clever bit of the technology is its ability to read handwriting not only on paper but on any flat surface “ horizontal or vertical. There is also a small three-line screen to read the information stored in the pen; users can scroll down the screen by tilting the pen slightly. The user trains the pen to recognize a particular handwriting style - no matter how messy it is, as long as it is consistent, the pen can recognize it. The handwritten notes are stored on hard disk of the pen. The pen is then plugged into an electronic "inkwell", text data is transmitted to a desktop computer, printer, or modem or to a mobile telephone to send files electronically. Up to 10 pages of notes can be stored locally on the pen. A tiny light at the tip allows writing in the dark. When the pen is kept idle for some time, power gets automatically off.
SMARTQUILL




TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FEATURES
Display technology used in SmartQuill
Handwriting recognition and signature verification
Display scrolls using tilt sensors
Communication with other devices
Memory and power

DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY
Technology used in SmartQuill for display is Kopin Corp™s Cyber Display technology. Cyber Display is a ¼ inch diagonal LCD that uses circuitry built on a silicon wafer, then removed and mounted to glass. The displays are integrated to miniature monitors using its own backlighting,
optics, ICS and packaging.
HANDWRITING RECOGNITION AND SIGNATURE VERIFICATION


¢ Accelerometers measure hand movement in 2 or 3 planes
¢ On board DSP converts to ASCII characters for pen applications
¢ Write on paper, flat surface, vertical wall or in air
¢ Single character recognition on pen
¢ Record cursive letters and download to PC for decoding
¢ Password by signature recognition

SmartQuill works by measuring the pen's movements and matching them to the movements that produce letters and words programmed into its memory. It's similar to the way a microphone detects sound. Consistency of handwriting, rather than neatness, is the only condition for accuracy.
There are 2 techniques used for this purpose :-
1. Accelerometer technology
2. Handwriting recognition software
ACCELEROMETER TECHNOLOGY
This technology uses a device called Accelerometer which is used for measuring motion. A tiny accelerometer in a pen could be used to detect the stops and starts, arcs and loops of handwriting, and transmit this information to a small microprocessor that would make sense of it as text. There's also the possibility of viewing a full page of text through a special monocular magnified "virtual" screen that could be built into the end of the pen. Invisible writing in air is achieved through this unique technology called accelerometer that monitors hand movements and can also be used as a Ëœvirtual hingeâ„¢ to scroll around the small screen on the pen and detect left or right-handed use. It records movement by using the earth's gravity system, whether you write on paper or in the air. Hence it is independent of surface used. Movements are stored within the SmartQuill. This information is transmitted on to a small microprocessor that would make sense of it as a text displayed on the sleek built in screen.
There are 2 types of accelerometer :-
1. Two Axes Accelerometer :- This accelerometer measures acceleration in two axes. An example for Two Axes Accelerometer is ADXL202 Accelerometer.
2. Three Axes Accelerator :- This accelerometer measures acceleration in three axes. An example for Three Axes Accelerometer is Tronics +/- 2g accelerometer.
Prototype of SmartQuill



This SmartQuill prototype records writing on paper for radio transmission to a pocket pc, desktop, cell phone or tablet computer. The accelerometer tracks the angular movement of the top of the pen at an angle in the air and these angles plotted as x/y position on pc screen.
An early hardware prototype picture shows, left to right, tilt sensor , PIC 8 bit microcontroller, batteries, and 433Mhz 1200 Baud radio transmitter. Currently a radio receiver on the RS232 port of a pc records the pen movement for analysis via pc. The pen will power down after a period of no movement so doesn't need an on/off switch. The battery life is approximately 22 hours.
HANDWRITING RECOGNITION SOFTWARE
This software embedded in the microprocessor of the pen is used to recognize handwriting of the user. Pen works in conjunction with a regular PC on to which users install special handwriting recognition software. The handwriting recognition software translates movements in to text on screen.
Handwriting recognition software constitutes two major phases:

1. Handwriting transcription
2. Handwriting recognition
Handwriting transcription
In this phase, the recorded acceleration signals are then transcripted to itâ„¢s original form. Here this aspect is solved using Ëœsimpleâ„¢ double integration method in order to retrace the pen tip movement on paper.
Method
In order for this principle to work properly, we have to solve two main problems:

Firstly, we have to know penâ„¢s spatial orientation in order to withdraw the earth gravity component to the measured accelerations.
Secondly, we have to succeed in the double integration, which is to solve all the derivation problems due to this method.
The algorithm used for handwriting transcription is the following:


We can see two pictures:
Fig (1) represents the acceleration signals recorded while one is writing a small capital B.
Fig (2) is the transcription result obtained with algorithm presented.

FIG (1)

FIG (2)
Handwriting recognition
The second huge aspect is the characters and signatures recognition. The hardware (accelerometers plus contact detector) embedded in the pen has proved a really efficient combination for this application.
Method
The same method is used to recognize the characters written by a single user and to find whose signature is the one that has just been done.
We use a simple Euclidian distance as the comparison process, and of course the decision process is the smaller distance found.
The first step -1- consists in creating the reference database for the characters as for the signatures. For this a mean signal is computed for each recorded symbol.
The second step is the recognition process
1. For the creation of database, each symbol was reproduced several times and a mean normalized symbol was computed.
2. For recognition process, the unknown symbol is first normalized, the distance between this symbol and the entire database symbol is computed. Then the unknown symbol is recognized as the one with the lowest distance.

Protocol
The results shown in this part are for signature recognition but they are similar as the one obtained for character recognition .

The corpus used for signatures was made by 10 different signatures from 10 different people. They made 10 attempts for the database, and 5 others for the test base.
In Fig 1, we can see the accelerometers signals recorded during Yaniâ„¢s signing process. Fig 2 shows the distances computed between the unknown signature and the oneâ„¢s in the database. Yaniâ„¢s signature was the last one learnt(number 10)and we clearly see in Fig 9 that his signature was well recognized.


FIG (1)

FIG (2)
In Fig 2, the X-axis represents the different symbols of the database, and the Y-axis is the distance from the unknown new symbol to the oneâ„¢s from the database.

DISPLAY SCROLLS BY TILTING SCREEN
By tilting the pen, user can choose applications and scroll through with out using scroll buttons. Below is an image of SmartQuill tilting Screen designed by Lyndsay Williams for BT Labs in 1997. The pen would align text if it was held in left or right hand so the text was the correct way up for left or right handed people. This was done by using Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) tilt sensors to measure tilt angle to earth. The SmartQuill microcontroller read the angle and then mapped the large screen display onto the small 4 line display. SmartQuill could also scroll through pages of display by tilting it in the hand and power off if no hand movement was detected or pen was flat on a desk. The demonstration unit below shows display inverting as SmartQuill was inverted in the hand. The choice of words was limited to what characters the LCD display driver could show while upside down (left hand picture) “ only 14 of the 26 letters of the alphabet were usable. These 14 characters were then processed by anagram software to produce 900 words that used these characters. The shopping list below was produced from this limited dictionary to demonstrate the text inversion .

COMMUNICATION WITH OTHER DEVICES
Earlier SmartQuill models developed by BT laboratories communicated with the PC via a radio transmitter, but the current prototype hooks up to a PC via a cable and electronic docking station called an "inkwell." .The data stored in the memory is uploaded to the personal computer when it is placed in to a docking station. An electronic docking station is a small cabinet to which a laptop or notebook computer can be attached for use as a desktop computer, usually have a connector for externally connected devices, such as hard drives or scanners and ports that can be linked to components such as keyboard, monitor and printer. It can also be connected to printer, modem or mobile phones to send data electronically.
The output accelerometer signals from the pen are digitized with a National Instrument capture card with a frequency Fe of 1000Hz and a low pass filter at Fc=1/3*Fe .
Future models could receive e-mails and pager messages via a wireless messaging system .This enables two-way wireless communication with other computing devices .
MEMORY
SmartQuill has 4MB EEPROM memory. At a time, up to 10 pages of notes can be stored locally on the pen. The data is stored in the memory on the pen until it is uploaded to the personal computer. SmartQuill works by measuring the pen's movements and matching them to the movements that produce letters and words programmed into its memory. It's similar to the way a microphone detects sound.
POWER
SmartQuill is powered by AAA battery. It will run for about 25hrs on a single AAA battery. The pen exhibits automatic power on/off system. The pen will power down after a period of no movement. So it supports automatic on/off system.
APPLICATIONS

1. SmartQuill isnâ„¢t all space-age. It contains an ink cartridge so that users can see what they write on paper .Hence a simple application of SmartQuill is that it write notes on paper. This information recorded in the pen is then downloaded to PC.
2. The information stored in the pen can be input to other devices such as mobile phones, printers, modems, desktop computers etc for different applications.
3. It also provides handheld computer applications such as digital diary, contacts, calculators etc.
4. It is used for receiving pager and e-mail messages. This is possible through recent technology involved in SmartQuill, the wireless messaging system which allows two way communication between devices .
5. SmartQuill synchronizes files, e-mails and messages to PC.
6. SmartQuill can be used for voice record and supports speech recognition. Voice record is made possible through ADPCM speech compression .
7. SmartQuill also allows third party to add on applications.
ASSETS
1. One of the major asset is that SmartQuill does not need a screen to work. This is possible through revolutionary "Spatial Sensing" system which uses semiconductor accelerometers. Accelerometers senses pen/hand movement instead of shapes.
2. SmartQuill provides intuitive user interface.
3. Security “ Security is another important feature. It is made possible through two facilities:
a. It enables handwriting recognition .User can train the pen to recognize a particular handwriting style. The symbols regularly used by user gets stored in the memory, by frequent use of the pen. Hence the pen accepts only the ownerâ„¢s handwriting and rejects intruders handwriting.
b. It enables signature verification. Hence Passwords could be entered in the form of signatures .
4. The SmartQuill is also a 3D-mouse, when twisted in air in a certain way it enables scrolling of the screen. It also automatically detects left or right handed use.
5. Power saving
a. Small screen size requires less battery power .
b. No movement of the pen causes auto power down
6. SmartQuill is all mobile, smaller in size and enables one-handed use.
CONCLUSION
SmartQuill will be brought to the market by the end of 2004.The estimated cost of this futuristic pen is around $200.SmartQuill supports two factors : small size and convenient use. The future of SmartQuill ensures all computation power the user needs right inside the pen. Reducing the size of handheld computers can only be taken so far before they become unusable. Keyboards become so tiny you require needle-like fingers to operate them and screens that need constant cursor controls to read simple text. The introduction of SmartQuill is the best solution for this problem.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
¢ RNRT Stylocom project, notification n 0250016
¢ E.Millien, C.Roux, Users input to design of a communicating pen,Smart Objects Conference,2003
¢ R.Baron, R. Plamondon, Acceleration measurement with an instrumented for sign verification and analysis,IEEE Trans.Vol IM-38
¢ Anoto Website: http://www.anoto.com
¢ BT Website :www.smartquill.com
¢ B.Milner, Handwriting Recognition using acceleration based motion detection,IEE ref.1999/041,1999

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Agnisarman Namboodiri, Head of Department of Information Technology and Computer Science , for his guidance and support to shape this paper in a systematic way.
I am also greatly indebted to Mr. Saheer H. and
Ms. S.S. Deepa, Department of IT for their valuable suggestions in the preparation of the paper.
In addition I would like to thank all staff members of IT department and all my friends of S7 IT for their suggestions and constrictive criticism.


CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. WORKING OF SMARTQUILL
3. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
a. DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY
b. HANDWRITING RECOGNITION AND SIGNATURE VERIFICATION
c. DISPLAY SCROLLS BY TILTING SCREEN
d. COMMUNICATION WITH OTHER DEVICES
e. MEMORY
f. POWER
4. APPLICATIONS
5. ASSETS
6. CONCLUSION
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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21-02-2010, 11:45 AM
Post: #2
RE: smart quill full report

.ppt  SMARTQUILL.ppt (Size: 822.5 KB / Downloads: 1076)
INTRODUCTION

Lyndsay Williams of Microsoft Research's Cambridge UK lab is the inventor of Smart quill.
It can remember the words that it is used to write, and then
SmartQuill, has been developed by research laboratories run by British Telecom at Martlesham,England.
users don't have to write on a special pad in order to record what they write.
SmartQuill contains sensors that record movement by using the earth's gravity system, irrespective of the platform used.
user can train the pen to recognize a particular handwriting.
Itâ„¢s really mobile , smaller size and skip the step of typing up their notes.

WORKING OF SMARTQUILL

Users can enter information into these applications by pushing a button on the pen and writing down
It does not need a screen to work.
It is able to read hand writing.
There is also a small three-line screen to read the information stored in the pen;
The user can trains the pen to recognize a particular handwriting style.
Up to 10 pages of notes can be stored locally on the pen.
When the pen is kept idle for some time, power gets automatically off.

DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY

Technology used for display is Kopin Corpâ„¢s Cyber Display technology.
Cyber Display is a ¼ inch diagonal LCD .

HANDWRITING RECOGNITION AND SIGNATURE VERIFICATION

Accelerometers measure hand movement in 2 or 3 planes
On board DSP converts to ASCII characters for pen applications
Write on paper, flat surface, vertical wall or in air
Single character recognition on pen
Record cursive letters and download to PC for decoding
Password by signature recognition
SmartQuill works by measuring the pen's

HANDWRITING RECOGNITION

There are 2 techniques used for this purpose :-
1) Accelerometer technology.
2) Handwriting recognition software.

ACCELEROMETER TECHNOLOGY

It is used for measuring motion.
A tiny accelerometer in a pen could be used to detect the stops and starts, arcs and loops of Handwriting., and transmit this information to a small microprocessor that would make sense of it.
Invisible writing in air is achieved through this unique technology
It records movement by using the earth's gravity system.
There are 2 types of accelerometer :-
1. Two Axes Accelerometer :- This accelerometer measures acceleration in two axes.
eg: ADXL202 Accelerometer.
2. Three Axes Accelerator :- This accelerometer measures acceleration in three axes.
eg: Tronics +/- 2g accelerometer.

PROTOTYPE OF SMARTQUILL

This SmartQuill prototype records writing on paper for radio transmission to a pocket pc, desktop, cell phone or tablet computer.
The accelerometer tracks the angular movement of the top of the pen at an angle in the air and these angles plotted as x/y position on pc screen.
The pen will power down after a period of no movement so doesn't need an on/off switch.
The battery life is approximately 22 hours.

HANDWRITING RECOGNITION SOFTWARE

Handwriting recognition software constitutes two major phases:
1. Handwriting transcription
2. Handwriting recognition

Handwriting transcription

In this phase, the recorded acceleration signals are then transcripted to itâ„¢s original form.
Method:-
In order for this principle to work properly, we have to solve two main problems:
Firstly, we have to know penâ„¢s spatial orientation in order to withdraw the earth gravity component to the measured accelerations.
Secondly, we have to succeed in the double integration, which is to solve all the derivation problems due to this method.

Handwriting recognition
Method

The first step -1- consists in creating the reference database for the characters as for the signature.
The second step is the recognition process
1. For the creation of database, each symbol was reproduced several times and a mean normalized symbol was computed.
2. For recognition process, the unknown symbol is first normalized, the distance between this symbol and the entire database symbol is computed. Then the unknown symbol is recognized as the one with the lowest distance.

DISPLAY SCROLLS BY TILTING SCREEN

The pen would align text if it was held in left or right hand so the text
was the correct way up for left or right handed people.
This was done by using Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) tilt sensors to measure tilt angle to earth. The
SmartQuill microcontroller read the angle and then mapped the large screen display onto the small 4 line display.
SmartQuill could also scroll through pages of display by tilting it in the hand and power off if no hand movement was detected or pen was flat on a desk.

COMMUNICATION WITH OTHER DEVICES

The data stored in the memory is uploaded to the personal computer when it is placed in to a docking station.
The output accelerometer signals from the pen are digitized with a National Instrument capture card with a frequency Fe of 1000Hz and a low pass filter at Fc=1/3*Fe.
Future models could receive e-mails and pager messages via a wireless messaging system .This enables two-way wireless communication with other computing devices .

MEMORY

SmartQuill has 4MB EEPROM memory.
At a time, up to 10 pages of notes can be stored locally on the pen.
SmartQuill works by measuring the pen's movements and matching them to the movements that produce letters and words programmed into its memory.

APPLICATIONS

1. SmartQuill isnâ„¢t all space-age. It contains an ink cartridge so that users can see what they write on paper .Hence a simple application of SmartQuill is that it write notes on paper. This information recorded in the pen is then downloaded to PC.
2. The information stored in the pen can be input to other devices such as mobilephones, printers, modems, desktop computers etc for different applications.
3. It also provides handheld computer applications such as digital diary, contacts, calculators etc.
4. It is used for receiving pager and e-mail messages.
5. Smart Quill synchronizes files, e-mails and messages to PC.
6. Smart Quill can be used for voice record and supports speech recognition.
7. Smart Quill also allows third party to add on applications.

ADVANTAGES

1. One of the major asset is that SmartQuill does not need a screen to work. This is
possible through revolutionary "Spatial Sensing" system which uses semiconductor
accelerometers. Accelerometers senses pen/hand movement instead of shapes.
2. SmartQuill provides intuitive user interface.
3. Security “ Security is another important feature. It is made possible through two facilities:
a. It enables handwriting recognition .User can train the pen to recognize particular handwriting style. The symbols regularly used by user gets stored in the memory, by frequent use of the pen. Hence the pen accepts only the ownerâ„¢s handwriting and rejects intruders handwriting.It enables signature verification. Hence Passwords could be entered in the form of signatures .
4. The SmartQuill is also a 3D-mouse, when twisted in air in a certain way it enables scrolling of the screen. It also automatically detects left or right handed use.
5. Power saving
a. Small screen size requires less battery power .
b. No movement of the pen causes auto power down
6. SmartQuill is all mobile, smaller in size and enables one-handed use.

CONCLUSION

Smart Quill will be brought to the market by the end of 2006.The estimated cost of this futuristic pen is around $600.SmartQuill supports two factors : small size and convenient use. The future of Smart Quill ensures all computation power the user needs right inside the pen. Reducing the size of handheld computers can only be taken so far before they become unusable. Keyboards become so tiny you require needle-like fingers to operate them and screens that need constant cursor controls to read simple text. The introduction of Smart Quill is the best solution for this problem.

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21-02-2010, 10:42 PM
Post: #3
RE: smart quill full report

.doc  SMART QUILL.doc (Size: 194.5 KB / Downloads: 475)

ABSTRACT
Developed by British Telecom,Smart Quill is claimed to be biggest revolution in handwriting after the invention of pen.
Smart Quill refers to a futuristic computer pen which has a number of features like:
¦ it has its own memory
¦ it can be used to write on any flat surface(not only on paper)
¦ options are provided for editing and sending the text via e-mail and so on.
¦ it is password protected.
Smart Quill uses accelerometer sensors which measure the acceleration experienced by the sensor and anything to which the sensor is attached. The acceleration experienced by a test mass (proof mass) is converted into electrical signals which are reprocessed to retrieve the orginal text or picture.This pen finds many applications in video conferencing , as a note taker or as a contact data base and in various other fields.The earlier prototype of the pen has been developed and a number future works are going on in this direction .Surely Smart Quill is the technology of the future.
INTRODUCTION
Sensors allow detection,analysis and recording of physical phenomenon that are difficult otherwise to measure by converting the phenomenon into a more convenient signal.Sensors convert physical measurements like displacement,velocity acceleration ,force, pressure etc into electrical signals.The value of the original physical parameter can be back calculated from the appropriate characteristics of the electrical signal.Electrical outputs are very convenient because there are well known methods for filtering and acquiring electrical signals for real time or subsequent analysis.
Sensor size is often important and small sensors are desirable for many reasons including easier use ,a higher sensor density and lower material cost.A revolution in microfabricated sensors occurred with the application of semiconductor fabrication technology to sensor construction .By etching and depositing electrically conductive and non conductive layers on silicon wafers ,the sensor is created with the electrical sensing elements already built into the sensor.The product created using these techniques is called Micro Electro Mechanical Systems or MEMS.
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ACCELEROMETER SENSORS
Accelerometer sensors measure the acceleration experienced by the sensor and anything to which the sensor is directly attached. Accelerometer sensors have many applications.
When working with accelerometers in the earths gravitational field there is always acceleration due to gravity .Thus the signal from an accelerometer sensor can be separate into two signals : acceleration from gravity and external acceleration . Acceleration from gravity allows measurement of the tilt of the sensor by identifying which direction is down.By filtering out the external acceleration the orientation of a 3-axis sensor can be calculated from the accelerations on the 3 accelerometer axis Orientation sensing can be vary useful in navigation .
The goal of the sensor is to measure the 3-d acceleration of human hand motion with adequate accuracy and precision,necessary band width for normal human motion and the amplitude range for the highest normal acceleration.
At the same time the physical presence of the sensor should not alter the hand motion The application of measuring something sensitive to external mass like the human hand requires the accelerometer sensor to be extremely small and light weight.
By measuring the acceleration of the pen as the user writes the text ,the pen decodes the acceleration into words and sends the signal into the computer.Such a computerized pen is more convenient and portable than a digitized tablet , which measures the location of the tip of a pen on a pad.
BASIC THEORY OF OPERATION
Accelerometer sensors convert either linear or angular acceleration to an output
signal.
Accelerometer sensors use Newton's second law of motion F = m.a
by measuring the force from acceleration on an object whose mass is known .There are many ways to measure the force exerted on the mass,called a proof mass but the most common method used in accelerometer sensors is measuring the displacement of the mass when it is suspended by springs.
Proof Mass
Fixed Reference Diagram of differential capacitive layout
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Forces acting on the proof mass include force from external acceleration,the force from damping (propotional to velocity)and the restorative force of the spring (propotional to position).
In Accelerometer sensors operating far from the resonant frequency of the mass-spring system, the effect of damping can be largely ignored.Some high precision accelerometer sensors operate near the resonant frequency to mechanically amplify the displacement from acceleration.
For sufficiently small displacements ,the spring constant K(x) can be assumed to be a constant.In equilibrium when the mass is not moving , the restorative force exerted by the spring is equal to the force from acceleration on the proof mass.The displacement of the spring,x,can be converted into an electrical signal by a variety of methods.
ARCHITECTURE AND WORKING
Electronics Overview
The MTL accelerometer sensors converts acceleration into changing capacitors. An electrical circuit is used to convert the differential signal into an electrical signal for computer acquisition.
Fingertip PCI
Arm PCB (Analog Board)
Accelerometer sensor
LVDT Signal Conditioners
ADC
Buffers
Anti aliasing Filters
Line Driver
/
FIFO Buffer
Line Driver
Clock
Counter
LapTop
Base PCB ( Digital Board)
Block diagram of sensor electric circuit.
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There are three accelerometers in the fingertip sensor to sense three dimensional motion. Each accelerometer is connected to a linear variable differential transformer signal conditioner IC,which converts the differential capacitance into an analog voltage-proportional to the proof mass position in the die. Proof mass position is proportional to external acceleration by the springs attached to the proof mass.
The LVDT signal conditioner has a sinusoidal voltage output connected to the proof mass. The corresponding voltages on the dual capacitor electrodes will also be sinusoidal, but the amplitudes will vary depending on the spacing between the proof mass and the capacitor electrodes. Voltage followers used on the fingertip sensor buffer the capacitive signals immediately out of the accelerometers to prevent the excessive noise in the wires between the fingertip and the LVDT signal conditioners on the nearby analog signal processing board.
The analog outputs of LVDT signal conditioners from each acceleration axis are passed through anti-aliasing filters and then to separate channels of a 4-channel 16-bit Analog to Digital converter (ADC) .The serial digital output from the ADC is passed to a first-in-first-out (FIFO) buffer on the digital board, which both buffers the data and converts the serial signal into a parallel signal. The parallel data from the FIFO is sent into the parallel port of a laptop computer and a program displays and stores the data on the laptop.
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LVDT SIGNAL CONDITIONER IC
An LVDT signal conditioner IC is used to convert the accelerometer differential capacitance signal into an analog voltage proportional to the acceleration. LVDTs are used in manufacturing and robotics as precise linear position sensors. An LVDT is a set of three wire-coils collinear with each other. One central coil is the primary of the transformer, and the other two are secondary coils. A paramagnetic metal rod is placed partially in the core of the coils and allowed to slide freely in out of the cores. As the position of the metal slug moves , the relative transformer ratios between the primary and secondary coils will change. The LVDT signal conditioner provides the AC excitation voltage to the LVDTs primary and outputs n analog signal proportional to the position of the metal slug by measuring the relative secondary voltages.
Paramagnetic Sulg
Primary Coil
+
V Primary
+
V secondary 1
+
V secondary 2
Secondary Coil 1
Secondary
Coil 2
Dei t. of Electrical & Electronics
10
The equation for voltage across a transformer coil is that the ratio of voltages is equal to the ratio of coil turns. The presence of a paramagnetic element in the core of the secondary coils increases the magnetic flux density and thus increases the effective turns ratio, increasing the coil voltage.
The LVDT signal conditioner IC produces an AC voltage of constant amplitude connected to the LVDT primary coil. The amplitude of two secondary coil output voltages vary depending on the metal slug position. The signal conditioner takes the voltages vary depending on the metal slug position. The signal conditioner takes the voltages from the secondary coils and calculates the voltage magnitudes. The output of the signal conditioner is an analog voltage linearly proportional to the position of the slug in the core of the LVDT.
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ANTI ALIASING FILTER
Frequency (Hz)
The anti-aliasing filters are four pole butterworth filters with a cutoff frequency of 45Hz, allowing frequencies upto 25Hz to be measured without distortion while still removing some 60H z noice from the environment. The butterworth topology was selected because it works well to solve the opposing goals of preserving the signal upto 25Hz and removing as much noise as possible at 60Hz and above. Preserving the signal below cutoff frequency is best done using a Bessel filter,and removing noice above the cutoff frequency is best done with an elliptical filter, but the butterworth filter is a good compromise between the two.
ADC
The filtered analog signal leaves the Butterworth filter and enters the ADC ,a 16 bit successive-approximation switched capacitor ADC.The ADC operates at DC ,meeting the minimum measurable frequency specification of 0.1 Hz. Just prior to entering the ADC the signal passes through a final RC low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of about 32 KHz to remove any noise in the signal either injected from the active anti-aliasing filter or added in the final trace between the filter and the ADC.
ADC
« f AD 974
1 ....... .
Equivalent ADC input electrical circuit
The resistance in the RC filter was chosen to be 50 ohm. A low series resistance is important because the ADC uses a switched capacitor method of sampling the signal. When the capacitor inside the ADC is switched to sample the signal, if the series input resistance is high then the voltage on the capacitor will drop as the capacitor charges and when the capacitor voltage is converted the voltage will be lower than the correct voltage.
Data, DataClk
Address Bit 1
Address Bit 0
Read ./Convert
t t t t t t
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Read Ch 0 Read ch 1 Read Ch 2
Ch 0 Ch 1 Ch 2
Read Ch3
Time
Timing Diagram of ADC Functions
The ADC has four channels - three are used for each of the three-accelerometer channels and the fourth is used as the parsing channel. The fourth is railed to above the valid input range so the ADC output for that channel will always be maximum. As the four channels are sampled in a sequence in an endless loop each time a channel is the maximum value the data acquisition program can recognize that channel as the parsing channel and correctly process the following three data channels correctly.
The ADC makes its channel selection by two channels from the digital board The two signals are created by a two-bit counter which steps through the four channels one at a time. There is also a read/convert signal sent to the board which alternatively triggers the ADC to acquire an analog voltage from the appropriate channel and then convert the signal and output the serial digital result.
A 4.5 MHz clock internal to the ADC clocks out the ADC digital output. The ADC output is two brief signals after conversation is complete: the data signal and the clock signal. The clock signal is sixteen consecutive clock signals for the sixteen bits of data. The data, least significant bit first, has each bit valid on the falling edge of each clock pulse.
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The two ADC digital output signals are passed into a buffering line-driver/line-receiver, the 74LS244 (Fairchild semiconductor). The ADC digital outputs are buffered to provide the necessary power to drive the cable between the analog and digital boards. The buffer also receives the read/convert and channel-select signals from the digital board and sends them to the ADC. The line-driver has a maximum frequency of 80MHz, which is more than fast enough for the 4.5 MHz signal from the ADC. The cable connecting the analog and digital boards is a standard 9-conductor serial cable with DB9 connectors at each end.
THE DIGITAL BOARD
The primary function of the digital PCB is converting the serial digital data from the ADC to a parallel signal suitable for passing into a computer through the parallel port. The-other important functions of the digital board are creating the clock and channel signals for the analog board, and connecting to the power source and delivering the power to the analog board.
The lower copper layer has a very large ground plane to minimize noise. A 9-pin connector receives the cable from the analog board, and a Centro nix 36- pin connector connects to a standard printer cable running into the parallel port of the laptop computer. A small section of header is used to connect to the power supply, delivering +5 V, -15V and ground
The key element on the digital board is a first-in-first-out (FIFO) buffer the IDT72132L50P (Integrated Device Technology) The FIFO buffer has an externally clocked serial input and an 8-bit parallel output, with 2, 048 bytes of memory. Another 74LS244 line-driver/line-receiver on the digital board receives the ADC data and locks signals from the analog board and sends them directly to the FIFO input. The sixteen bits of serial data fill up two successive bytes in the FIFO memory. The maximum serial input rate is 40 MHz, which is more than adequate for the 4.5 MHz signal from the analog board.
The FIFO has four output pins that are flags to show the available FIFO memory. The computer software monitors these flag signals and when the FIFO has data in its memory the data is recovered. The laptop sends a read signal on a control line of the parallel port to the digital board. The signal is buffered through the 74LS244 to avoid spurious read requests, and then sent to the read line of the FIFO. When the read line goes low the first byte of data is displayed at the eight output registers of the FIFO. When the read line goes high and then low again, the next byte of data is displayed. To access all sixteen bits of the ADC data, two successive reads are required. The output registers are connected through the printer cable to the parallel port of the computer.
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A clock on the digital board is the source for the channel counter and the read/convert signal for the ADC. The clock is a simple 555 timer 83 national Semiconductor). As mentioned above, the frequency of the clock is variable, but it has a range of 1 to 3.2 kHz and has a duty cycle of 70%. The clock frequency is divided by the number of channels (four) for the sampling rate per channel, and when optimizing the clock frequency the limiting factor is the software's acquisition speed. The FIFO receives 2000 to 6400 bytes per second, which allows the computer software to delay acquiring the data 1 to 0.31 seconds before the buffer overflows and data is lost.
The clock, counter, and inverter are located on the digital board to reduce the required area and weight of the analog board, which is potentially located on the arm. The digital board is located next to the laptop computer, which already fairly large and bulky so the digital PCB is not a significant addition.
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PROGRAM OVERVIEW
A computer program was written in Visual Basic 86 (from Microsoft, Inc) to download, process and display the accelerometer data collected in the first-in-first-out (FIFO) buffer on the digital board. The program was implemented on a laptop computer connected through the parallel port to the digital board of the sensor.
The software is the final component of the complete accelerometer sensor. The program stores and displays the acceleration data from the accelerometer sensor when the sensor is tested or used in a more practical setting
There are three sections to the program. First the data is collected through the parallel port of the laptop computer, which accesses the data in sequential bytes from the FIFO. The data is then processed, which includes diving the data into separate channels for each of the three axes of the sensor and also digitally filtering the data. Finally the data is displayed on the computer screen and optionally stored to disk. The computer program runs sequentially in an endless loop through these steps.
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DATA ACQUISITION
The connection between the laptop computer and the digital board is made with a standard 25-wire printer cable, which has a 36-contact Centro nix connector on the side of the digital board and a 25-contace connection at the computer's parallel port. The connections in the parallel port of a computer are divided into several different groups: eight data lines, four control lines , four status lines, and the remainder are grounds.
The control lines are transmit only: the computer sends out signals on these lines. The status lines are receive only: on these lines the computer receives information from the peripheral (typically a printer). The data lines can be used for transmitting or receiving, and the method of selecting between the two directions depends on the computer hardware-system. The laptop used in this project has a bit in a register inside the computer that can be¬set high or low to respectively receive or transmit data over the data lines.
Defer
Other Defer Functions
Defer
Show FIFO Status
No
Process Data Display & Save data
Flow chart of Acquisition algorithm
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The FIFO buffer on the digital board has eight parallel output registers connected to the eight data lines in the parallel port. There are four FIFO status pins that are memory capacity flags connected to the four parallel port status line, and together indicate if the FIFO is empty, almost empty, less than half full, more than half full, almost full, or full.
The first step to data acquisition is checking the FIFO status lines. If the memory capacity flags indicate the FIFO has data available, a parallel port control line connected to the read pin on the FIFO is switched, loading the next byte of data through the data lines of the parallel port and proceeds on to the next section of the program: processing the data.
Visual Basic programs need to periodically defer use of the computer's CPU to allow low-level processes to run, such as responding to keyboard data entry or mouse clicks. In this program, deferral occurs once each second. Just before the program defers, the computer screen displays the FIFO memory status indicated by the status lines. The program also has other functions it does just before deferring, such as calculating and displaying the rate of data acquisition, which is done by counting the number of bytes downloaded in that second. In addition, if there is no data in the FIFO, the program defers to kill time.
DATA DISPLAY AND STORAGE
This section displays the data, and if the user desires, the raw or filtered data can also be saved. Due to the constraints of the two-dimensional computer screen, the user can select only two accelerometer channels to display at any one time: one on the horizontal axis and
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The user has the option of saving the acquired data two different ways: either the unfiltered raw data after being sorted into the three different channels, or the filtered output data: the same points displayed on the screen. When the user indicates they want to save data, they first create the file to save the data into. After preparing the data file, the user can start acquisition at any time. By keeping a delay between creating the file and staring acquisition, the data that filled the FIFO to overflowing while the dialog box was presented can be processed, and data acquisition can start with the FIFO almost empty.
The display and saving section proceeds if the fitter output is ready to be displayed. If the user has selected saving filtered data, then the filtered data output is scaled and saved as the next line in the data file at this time.
Then the data display is updated. The user selects which of the data channels (A,B or C) to be displayed on the horizontal and vertical axes. In addition, the data on either axis can be negated to flip the data displayed. The user can also select if the data plotted is just the most recent point, or a fading persistence using the last 20 points from the filter. The newest data point is displayed as a line from the center of the display to the point, and the older data can either be displayed as lines from the center or just points.
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Acquire Data Process Data
Defer
Defer Function
Save raw Data
Select Horizontal Vertical Channels
Negate Data if Selected
No
Display Data with persistance if selected
Flow chart Data display and Storage Algorithm.
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ADVANTAGES
1. Smart quill can read on any flat surface (not only on paper)
2. It is password protected.
3. Highly convenient and portable.
4. It can link to modems, printer etc
DISADVANTAGES
1. It has accelerometer errors.
2. It is inconvenient for persons with hand tremours.
3. Bigger size than a normal pen.
4. Errors are introduced in the system due to thermal variations in the spring.
APPLICATIONS
1. Diary
2. Calculator
3. Alarm
4. Contact database
5. Note taker
6. Calender
7. Receive mobile and pager messages.
8. Video conferencing
9. Classroom lectures
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FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
That is further developments are doing on re fabrication and reducing the size of the pen. Three dimensional sensors are developing and with the implementation free writing in air can be achieved . Development of light at the tip of the pen helps in easy writing in the dark. Special heat sensors can be implemented which can detect the temperature variations and can act as a heat doctor of the body.
CONCLUSION
Smart quill will be a boon to the users writing in traditional languages. It gives an option for typing and for variety of applications. The day may come when we lose our
I
stinctions between the devices we use to interact with our computers and the computer emselves.
REFERENCES
1. Accelerometer Sensor to measure human hand motion - Brian Barkley Graham
2. http://www.innovate.bt.com
3. photonics(aUaurin.com
4. http://www.howstuffworks.com
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 06
2. ACCELEROMETER SENSOR 07
3. BASIC THEORY OF OPERATION 08
4. ARCHITECTURE AND WORKING 09
5. LVDT SIGNAL CONDITIONER IC 12
6. ANTI ALIASING FILTER 14
7. ADC 15
8. DIGITAL BOARD 18
9. PROGRAM OVERVIEW 20
10. ADVANTAGES 25
11. DISADVANTAGES 25
12. APPLICATIONS 26
13. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 27
14. CONCLUSION 27
15. REFERENCES 28

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16-03-2010, 09:17 PM
Post: #4
RE: smart quill full report
hi can i plz have the algorithm on smart quill

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29-05-2010, 11:37 PM
Post: #5
RE: smart quill full report
please read http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-smart-quill--674 and http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-sm...ull-report for getting more information of the topic smart quill

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