RE: student management system full report
PHANUEL OTIENO ILLAH
SOWK DATABASE.doc (Size: 719 KB / Downloads: 325)
Department of swasa department has been experiencing a lot of problem especially data track and error in retrieved information there fore it is of great importance to them to take advantage over the this system with the ability to store , process and gives out information with a lot of accuracy.
The student management system is an improved Student Management System. It can handle all details about a student. The details include lecture, subject details, student personal details e.t.c.
In case of current system they need a lot of time, manpower e.t.c here almost all work is computerized. So the accuracy is maintained. Student management system is managed by an administrator. It is the job of the administrator to insert update and monitor the whole process .The system has four modules. They are
1.2 BACKGROUND OF CURENT SYSTEM.
The school of social sciences is a school which track the personal data of student registered in the department each and every year and keeps the record.
Currently they use Microsoft exel to track their data but due to increasing population the excel has become slow in data retrievement and therefore after preliminary investigation I realize that there is a need for a better system.
The current system is a semi computerized system where the data are printed out at the end of every semester to allow new entry of data. The current system they are using Is Microsoft exell which still can not compute complex questions which can be handled by Microsoft access.
1.3 Problem statement
The data in this system are kept manually especially after the end of every semester which makes it difficult to search data after a good number of years when a student need to know some of his details. It takes time to search on the pile of files. Also there are some questions which the system can not answer which has to be done manually like if asked to find subjects which were done by phanuel in 2006. You will have to search manually and write down which actually takes a lot of time.
1.3 .1 General objective.
To develop a database system which can easily store, retrieve and update data.
1.3.2 Specific objectives
• The system is to eliminate their manual counting of student taking a particular subject to a computerized system which can query.
• The system is to shorten the time of retrieving data when required.
The current system is unreliable it is likely to deteriorate when the number of students increase in the department. After proposed system every tasks will take short time and no more wastage of files to keep some data which can stay within the system for over years.
The system will capture information about student’s personal details lectures and the courses. Storing updating and retrieving in a fast and accurate way.
2. O literature review
2.1 Justification for the use of Access Database
Access database comes over the rest of the databases due to a number of reasons. Being one of the database pioneers, Access has became more easy to use as well as learning because of this it make developing a new database system much quicker compared to others such as Oracle, My sql etc. Microsoft access has been considered because of its ability to support and enhance the appearance and navigation of html generated. (Carry N Prague,micheal R. Irwin,and jennifer Reardon access 2003 bible pg952) The fact that access is always upgraded makes it easier and compatible with new systems. For example Access 2003 uses ASP technology which also complies with new technologies such as XML. (Cary N Prague, Micheal R. Irwin, and Jennifer Reardon access 2003 bible)
Access was most preferred because of its ability to create dynamic data and html pages and they can be displayed in Microsoft Explorer 5.0. Cary N Prague, Micheal R. Irwin, and Jennifer Reardon access 2003 bible Access has the ability to export and import data through ADODB which is a common connector among most web application. MySql Though MySql is well known for being capable of handling very powerful and large data bases it also has a couple of setbacks that the developer could not take chances with it. MySql does not support transactions or concurrent update of complex table which if used would have become a huge hindrance to the development of the system in the making. Oracle Oracle is very well known for the use of SQL statements. It is one of the most expensive databases on the market. There is no graphical interface for creation or modification of tables. This implies that the use of this database is very time consuming.
2.2 Justification for the use of SQL
This is also another data retrieving language that is used by most databases i.e. Microsoft Access, Oracle and MySql. There are quite a number of reasons for the use of SQL. One of the most common reasons why most web developers’ use this language is because it is easy to use and a standard query language that can be used for both database and web pages. Because of the fact that SQL is can be used to manipulate data in all ways, it can be used to retrieve, create, store or even update records.
2.3 Feedback- for every action on a system:
A feedback is necessary in order to confirm that the action been executed or accomplished for without feedback it becomes difficult to continue or to move to the next level. On designing the interaction design the designer require design principle guiding tool. Feedback is one of the guiding principles, this is very essential for both the user and the designer because it is an aspect that can lead them to the next step of their task. These principle are based on common sense, experience as well as theory based knowledge. In order to have a well designed interface the most common principles one ought to observe are consistency that is the ability to observe uniformity, visibility, affordance and constraint. In the simplest terms these principles could be defined as:
Consistency is very vital and this refers to the ability to maintain uniformity in the system interaction design. This implies the system follows a certain criteria for example: The use of certain operations to log on to a system. All in all, consistence makes learning very easy and quick for the new users as well as the existing ones. April 13, 2009 BSC(HONS) BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEM 21
The visibility of functions enable the user to know how to manipulate or use the system, for that matter it’s very important to mind where and how functions are placed, as for the case of the system, the making of links and icons are very important because they have to be visible enough.
Affordance is another principle that could refer to clues that enable the user to know how to use the system it is also defined as “an attribute of an object that allows the people to know how to use it” (interaction design beyond human-computer interaction 2nd edition by John Wiley & sons, ltd page 33) though affordance is categorised into two and that is real and perceived affordance.
Constraint can be referred to as controls or limitations that are within a system allowing what actions to be done during the interaction the common constraint use is the deactivation of some menus while another action still executes. This is very important because if graphical representations that are used to constraint the users’ interpretation of a problem or information. (Interaction design beyond human-computer interaction 2nd edition by John Wiley &sons,ltd page 31) As for the case of the patients’ online booking system, it could be referred to as perceived affordance because it is web base which means it is virtual. Therefore all the mentioned principle should be present in a well designed system and all these can be witnessed in the finished product of the patients booking system. There are quite a number of problems that might a result from the need to apply all design principles. The attempt to recreate physical objects into a virtual form in order to achieve affordance may result into absolute difficulty to be used. In that case such a principle could be ignored. Visibility of information may be compromised if constraint is over emphasised within an interface. All in all these design interaction principles are all applies trade-offs may occur. (Interaction design beyond human-computer interaction 2nd edition by John Wiley&Sons Ltd page34)
After the feasibility studies it was decision time to decide what methodology will suit the development of the required system. The system to be developed for the project will be done by applying software engineering tools and techniques. The analysis and design is concerned with understanding the current and the proposed system requirements. In other to do this systematically, a methodology will be applied so as to go through the systems development life cycle.
The life cycle is the process of development which is to be followed in stages in order to develop a computerized information system. These stages are to be developed in sequence and one stage has to be completed before going on to the next stage.
It is a bit difficult to define the term methodology but still there are many definitions from different authors. Here are some few of them
[Check land, 1981]: “a methodology is a set of principles which in any particular situation have to be reduced to a method uniquely suitable to that particular situation.”
[Avision & Wood-Harper, 1995 Pg. 20]: “a coherent collection of concepts, beliefs, values and principles supported by resources to help a problem-solving group to perceive, generate assess and carry out in a non-random way changes to the Information situation.”
[Vision & Fitzgerald, 1988]: “a methodology is a collection of procedures, Techniques, tools and documentation aid which consists of phases...but a Methodology is more than merely a collection of these things. It is usually based on some philosophical view, otherwise it is merely a method, like a recipe.”
After analysis and design here are some of the methodologies which I considered before coming up with the final methodologies I used in order to achieve the development of a system which will meet the specification of the users with bounds specified by the business. be working and reliable meet the requirements of the users, i.e. meet the business objectives of the users.
This is Yourdon Structured Method (YSM) and Soft Systems
Yourdon Structured Method (YSM) was derived from the works of Edward Yourdon, Tom DeMarco and Larry Constantine. This methodology was considered for the project development. Reasons for considering the methodology are:
It has been updated on a regular basis since its appearance on the system development scene so it is hoped it will meet a modern day system development demands.
It also have a good modeling tool which is expected will suit the system developed.
Though the methodology was considered I found it will not be suitable for the
Development of the proposed system. The reasons for its rejection are:
It stages are not precisely defined and it is not well documented
It does not lay much emphasis on modeling current system. It advocates going straight to the modeling of the required logical system. This is not advisable for the current project as the current system needs to be understood to be able to propose a required system.
Soft Systems Method which was derived from the work of Check land (1981, 1990) was also considered for the project. The reasons behind the consideration were:
The methodology approach concentrates on the human aspects of a problem area it finds way of improving human activities mainly business objectives which may or may not be associated with automation i.e. computerization.
Despite these attributes the methodology was not deemed right for the development of this system.
The reasons being: the methodology does not believe in breaking down complex problems into smaller fragments.
Breaking down of the problem is needed for this project as this will help in understanding of the problem domain very well.
It does not operate in a tightly defined and more prescriptive manner, i.e. it is not well structured. It is flexible, which can lead to confusion in system development to a junior analyst like me.
It identifies a problem but does not really suggest ways of solving the problem, leaving the analyst to provide options for solving the problems themselves. One of the main reasons for using a methodology is to tackle the problems associated with lack of control and non-standard of methods in system development which is compromised by Soft Systems Methodology.
After consideration of several methodologies there are two methodologies are used for the development of the system. They are Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM4) Version 4
Prototyping For the design, Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) will be used while Prototyping will be used for the implemented process. The type of prototyping to be used will be incremental prototyping.
Structured System Analysis and Design Methods, SSADM is a systematic approach to the analysis and design of Information Technology, IT applications designed by Central Computer and Telecommunication Agency, CCTA. It is a collection of activities which exploit a collection of techniques. These techniques include Data Flow Modeling, Logical Data Modeling, Relational Data Analysis and many more.