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20-10-2010, 02:44 PM
Post: #1
THERMAL POWER PLANT

Presented by:
Sunil Kumar




Introduction:
In India 65% of total power is generated by the Thermal Power Stations.
Yamunanagar Thermal Power Project i.e D.C.R.T..P.P(Deen Bandhu ChotuRam Thermal Power Plant) is a project of Haryana Power Generation Corporation limited (HPGCL). It is situated at village Kalanor In Yamunanagar. Its total capacity is 600 MW as at present with two units working with capacity.
Having two unit of 2 x 300 MW = 600 MW


Attached File(s)
.ppt  TPS YOGEN.ppt (Size: 1.46 MB / Downloads: 964)
02-03-2011, 09:35 AM
Post: #2
RE: THERMAL POWER PLANT

.doc  3.doc (Size: 893 KB / Downloads: 490)
THERMAL POWER PLANT
1.1 INTRODUCTION:-

Now a day’s the electricity has become an essential commodity rather than luxury. In a state or region thermal power stations will become important, as hydro resources are inadequate. The concept of modern thermal power stations is that it should be situated at such a place that the basic requirements of fuel, water & land should be satisfied. Basically thermal stations are of two types,
1. Pit Head Stations.
2. Load Demand Stations.

Pit head stations are those which are near to the source of fuel and load demand stations are those which are near to the load centers.
The thermal power station is just like any other industry.
The basic requirements are:
a. Supply of raw materials at competitive costs. Coal and oil are the raw materials required for thermal plants.
b. Access to the markets for its products.
c. Labour force of the size and quantity required.
d. Means of disposal for any trade effluents that is by-products.
The other factors to be considered for selecting the site are:
1. Load Demand
2. Land
3. Site Requirements
4. Access for Construction
5. Transmission Lines
6. Clearances
7. Environmental Factors
Generally 1000 MW plant requires 90-200 acre land. The water requirements for thermal stations come under two main groups. The first requirement is for steam generation and the second requirement is for cooling purpose. Water for steam generation is low of the order of 3-4 tones per hour per megawatt, and make up quantity is 2-3% of the same. Whereas amount of water required for condensation is quite high. Coal for power stations in India, the principal source of commercial energy is amounting to 95% of the total primary energy resources of the country. The coal resources existing in the country are of the order of 1,30,000 million tones.
The main areas where the coal mines are located are the eastern region i.e. Bihar, Bengal central region, Singareni coal fields, Tamilnadu, Naively and small resources located in the rest of the country as well.
Other factors like transport, disposal of effluents, transmission, climatic conditions, proximity of air fields, fisheries and marine life, personnel required and amenities are also taken for considerations.
1.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:-
The fundamental forms of energy with which thermal stations are principally concerned are heat and work. Heat produces work and this work is further converts into electrical energy through a medium i.e. electrical generator. For the purpose of understanding of thermal plants, the phenomenon of thermodynamic vapour power cycles explained here under.
a. Rankine cycle
b. Reheat cycle
c. Regenerative cycle
a. RANKINE CYCLE:-
This is the simplest theoretical vapour cycle which is the basis for operation of a steam plant. Superheated steam from the boiler is fed into the prime mover and is expanded there. After which it enters the condenser emerging as the condensate. With the help of a pump this condensate is again fed into the boiler.
The main purpose of superheating steam and supplying it to the prime mover is to avoid too much wetness at the end of expansion. Moisture content of steam would result in undue blade erosion. The maximum wetness in the final stage of the steam that may be tolerated without any appreciable harm to the turbine blades is about 12%. Also the use of super heater in the boiler helps in reducing the stack temperature by extracting the heat from the flue gases before these are passed out of the chimney.
b. REHEAT CYCLE:-
In its simplest form the cycle involves with drawing the steam from the turbine at some intermediate stage, returning it to the steam generator where a separate super heater is provided in the gas path re-superheating the steam after which it is re introduced into the turbine at the following stage. It reduces the wetness of the steam at final stage and improves the efficiency of the cycle.
c. REGENERATIVE CYCLE:-
This cycle is an attempt to induce reversibility in the ordinary rankine cycle and thus to increase its efficiency. The mixing of coal condensate with the saturated steam and water mixture in the boiler constitute the principal irreversible process of the cycle and generation aims at reducing this irreversibility by heating the feed water near to the saturation temperature through the utilization of heat of the steam which is partially expanded in the prime mover. Since the purpose is the thermal regeneration of the condensate the cycle is known as regenerative cycle.
1.3 COAL TO STEAM PROCESS:-
Coal from mines is brought to plant through wagons and these wagons are unloaded in coal handling plant. The coal is transported to raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. Coal is then transported to mills through feeders where the coal is pulverized to powder form. This coal powder is lifted to the boiler with the help of primary air fans (PA fan). PA fan takes the air from the atmosphere, a part of which is sent to air pre heater for heating while a part goes directly to the mills for temperature control. Atmospheric air from FD fan heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air.
Water from the boiler feed pumps passes through the economizer and reaches the boiler drum. Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to bottom ring header. Water from the ring header is divided to all four sides of the furnace. Due to the heat and density difference the water raises up in the water wall tubes. Water is partially converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. This steam and water mixture is taken to the boiler drum where the steam is separated from the water with the help of turbo separators. Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for superheating. The superheaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540o C) and finally it goes to turbine.
Flue gases from the furnace is extracted by the induced draft fans (ID fans), which maintains balance draft in the furnace with forced draft fan. This flue gases emit their heat energy to various superheaters in the pent house and finally passes through air preheaters and goes to electrostatic precipitator, where the ash particles are extracted. Electro static precipitators consist of metal plates, which are electrically charged. Ash particles are attracted on to these plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. Regular mechanical hammers blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator, where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. This ash is mixed with water to form slurry and is pumped to ash pond.
1.4 STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER:-
A steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through stop valve and control valves that automatically regulate the supply of the steam to the turbine. Steam from the control valves enters the high-pressure cylinder of the turbine, where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. This second ring turns the shaft as a result of the force of the steam. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a stage of the turbine and in practice many stages are necessary so that cylinder contain a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed in to mechanical energy.
The steam leaving high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and enters into intermediate pressure cylinder through HRH lines. Hence it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades.
Finally steam is taken to the low pressure cylinders, each of which it enters at the center for following outwards in the opposite direction through the rows of turbine blades- an arrangement is known as double flow to the extremities of the cylinder. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine, its temperature and pressure fall and it expands. Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure end of the turbine.
23-02-2012, 05:08 PM
Post: #3
RE: THERMAL POWER PLANT
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13-03-2012, 04:38 PM
Post: #4
RE: THERMAL POWER PLANT
THERMAL POWER PLANT


.doc  54427928-Ind-Training-Report-NTPC-DADRI.doc (Size: 1.66 MB / Downloads: 151)
Overview of NTPC

NTPC was set up in the central sector in the 1975 in response to widening demand & supply gap with the main objective of planning, promoting & organizing an integrated development to thermal power in India. Ever since its inception, NTPC has never looked back and the corporation is treading steps of success one after the other. The only PSU to have achieved excellent rating in respect of MOU targets signed with Govt. of India each year. NTPC is poised to become a 40,000 MW gint corporation by the end of XI plan i.e. 2012 AD. Lighting up one fourth of the nation, NTPC has an installed capacity of 19,291 MW from its commitment to provide quality power; all the operating stations of NTPC located in the National Capital Region & western have acquired ISO 9002 certification. The service groups like Engineering, Contracts, materials and operation Services have also bagged the ISO 9001 certification. NTPC Dadri, Ramagundam, Vindhyachal and Korba station have also bagged ISO 14001 certification.Today NTPC contributes more than 3 / 5th of the total power generation in India.



Station At Glance
NTPC dadri is model project of NTPC . also it tit the best project of NTPC also known as NCPS ( National capital power station ). Situated 60 kms away from Delhi in the District of gautam budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh. The station has an installed capacity of 1669 MW of power – 840 MW from Coal based units and 829 MW Gas Based Station . the station is excelling in performance ever since it’s commercial operation . consistently in receipts of meritorious projectivity awards, the coal based units of the station stood first in the country in terms of PLF for the financial year 1999 – 2000 by generating an all time national high PLF of 96.12 % with the most modern O & M Practices. NTPC – Dadri is committed to generated clean and green Power. The Station also houses the first HVDC station of the country (GEP project) in association with centre for power efficiency and Environment protection (CENEEP) – NTPC & USAUID. The station has bagged ISO 14001 & ISO 9002 certification during the financial year 1999 – 2000, certified by Agency of International repute M/s DNV Netherlands M/s DNV Germany respectively
12-04-2012, 03:51 PM
Post: #5
RE: THERMAL POWER PLANT
THERMAL POWER PLANT



.ppt  thermal pwr plant.ppt (Size: 1.89 MB / Downloads: 204)

INTRODUCTION



A Thermal Power Plant converts the heat energy of coal into electrical energy. Coal is burnt in a boiler which converts water into steam. The expansion of steam in turbine produces mechanical power which drives the alternator coupled to the turbine.Thermal Power Plants contribute maximum to the generation of Power for any country . Thermal Power Plants constitute 75.43% of the total installed captive and non-captive power generation in India . In thermal generating stations coal, oil, natural gas etc. are employed as primary sources of energy.


Coal handling plant


The function of coal handling plant is automatic feeding of coal to the boiler furnace.
A thermal power plant burns enormous amounts of coal.
A 200MW plant may require around 2000 tons of coal daily


Draft system


The circulation of air is caused by a difference in pressure, known as Draft.
Draft is a differential pressure b/w atmosphere and inside the boiler.
It is necessary to cause the flow of gases through boiler setting


Superheater and reheater


Superheater :
Superheater is a component of a steam-generating unit in which steam, after it has left the boiler drum, is heated above its saturation temperature. The amount of superheat added to the steam is influenced by the location, arrangement, and amount of super heater surface installed, as well as the rating of the boiler. The super heater may consist of one or more stages of tube banks arranged to effectively transfer heat from the products of combustion. Super heaters are classified as convection , radiant or combination of these.


Steam turbine

A steam turbine converts heat energy of steam into mechanical energy and drives the generator. It uses the principle that steam when issuing from a small opening attains a high velocity. This velocity attained during expansion depends on the initial and final heat content of the steam. This difference b/w initial and final heat content repesents the heat energy converted into kinetic energy.
These are of two types :-


Economiser

Flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat. An economiser extracts a part of this heat from flue gases and uses it for heating feed water. This use of economiser results in saving coal consumption and higher boiler efficiency
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