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22-03-2010, 11:24 PM
Post: #1
TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM

.doc  TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM.doc (Size: 33 KB / Downloads: 669)

TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
Abstract
On December 26, 2004, a massive underwater earthquake off the coast of Indonesia's Sumatra Island rattled the Earth in its orbit. The quake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale is the largest one since 1964. Dozens of aftershocks with magnitudes of 5.0 or higher occurred in the following days. But the most powerful and destructive aftermath of this devastating earthquake is the tsunami that it caused. The death toll reached higher than 225,000, and many communities suffered devastating property damage
The devastation of this tsunami overshadowed the devastation of any other tsunami we've seen in recent history, but scientifically, the course of events followed the same basic sequence of a typical tsunami. In this paper, we'll look at what causes tsunamis, the physics that drives them and the effects of a tsunami strike. We will also examine scientists' worldwide efforts to monitor and predict tsunamis with the help of a TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM in order to avoid disasters like the one that occurred in the final days of 2004. This paper also focuses on an improved version of the TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM called the DART (DEEP OCEAN ASSESMENT AND REPORTING OF TSUNAMIS).

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13-10-2010, 11:09 AM
Post: #2
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
On December 26, 2004, a massive underwater earthquake off the coast of Indonesia's Sumatra Island rattled the Earth in its orbit. The quake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale is the largest one since 1964. Dozens of aftershocks with magnitudes of 5.0 or higher occurred in the following days. But the most powerful and destructive aftermath of this devastating earthquake is the tsunami that it caused. The death toll reached higher than 225,000, and many communities suffered devastating property damage
The devastation of this tsunami overshadowed the devastation of any other tsunami we've seen in recent history, but scientifically, the course of events followed the same basic sequence of a typical tsunami. In this paper, we'll look at what causes tsunamis, the physics that drives them and the effects of a tsunami strike. We will also examine scientists' worldwide efforts to monitor and predict tsunamis with the help of a TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM in order to avoid disasters like the one that occurred in the final days of 2004. This paper also focuses on an improved version of the TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM called the DART (DEEP OCEAN ASSESMENT AND REPORTING OF TSUNAMIS).

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16-04-2011, 12:12 PM
Post: #3
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
i need a ppt of ds seminar cn u pls snd
24-08-2011, 09:51 AM
Post: #4
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM

.docx  TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM..docx (Size: 510.4 KB / Downloads: 218)
ABSTRACT
Tsunami strike without warning. The resulting damage can be minimized and lives can be saved if the people living near the coastal areas are already prepared survive the strike .This requires a warning system. The warning signal can be transmitted to different places using satellite communication network, fiber -optics network, cell phone service or a combination of these. For sea side areas, an alert system using Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) network is proposed. This system does not try to find the origin of tsunami waves but it simply generates an alert signal when the pressure level of sea water crosses a threshold.
INTRODUCTION
Tsunami is a natural disaster. It cannot be avoided.But we can reduce the damages caused by it. For that we are in need of tsunami warning system. The system used here is Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami(DART).We are also going to see how the global system for mobile communications(GSM)network reduces the time taken to warn people.
TSUNAMI FEATURES
In the open ocean, tsunamis may have wavelengths up to several hundred miles and travel at speeds up to 950 kilometers per hour-as fast as a passenger jet. The speed of tsunami is controlled by water depth-as the wave approaches land it reaches shallow water and slows down .Compared to the front of the wave, the rear moves slightly faster and catches up. The result is that the wave quickly ‘bunches up’ and becomes much higher. the highest tsunami occur if they encounter a long and gradual swallowing of the water, because this allows enough time for the wave to interact with its surroundings and cause extensive damage to low lying areas.
TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
Tsunamis strike without warning .The resulting damage can be maintained and lives can saved if the people living near the coastal areas are already prepared to survive the strike. This requires a warning system .The type discussed here is Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis {DART}.Each DART station consists of a seafloor Bottom Pressure Recording {BPR} package that detects pressure changes caused by tsunamis and a surface Buoy which receives transmitted information from BPR via an acoustic link. The Buoy and BPR together are called a “TSUNAMETER” and each one costs about USD 250,000.
The BPR monitors water pressure with a resolution of approximately 1mm of sea water with 15-second averaged samples. Data are transmitted from the BPR via an acoustic modem and data are transmitted from the buoy via the GOES data collection system. Under normal conditions the BPR sends data hourly that is comprised of four 15-minute values which are single 15-second averages. The BPR can make up to 3 tries to get acknowledgement from the surface buoy that the data were received. The data are reformatted and send via the GOES self-timed channel and displayed at the NDBCDART page to show open tides. The hourly observation indicates the health and condition of the entire system. If data are not received from the BPR, the surface buoy uses the GPS derived buoy position for self timed message. An algorithm residing in the BPR generates predicted water height values and compares all new samples with predicted values.
TSUNAMI DETECTION ALGORITHM
Each Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) gauge is designed to detect and report tsunamis on its own, without instruction from land. The tsunami detection algorithm in the gauge’s software works by first estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations within the tsunami frequency band and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. The amplitudes are computed by subtracting predicted pressures from the observations, in which the predictions closely match the tides and lower frequency fluctuations. The predictions are updated every 15 seconds, which is the sampling interval of the DART gauges.
Background oceanic noise determines the minimum detection threshold. Based on passed observations, a reasonable threshold for the north pacific is 3cm. if the amplitudes exceed the threshold; the gauge goes into a rapid reporting mode to provide detailed information about the tsunami. It remains in this mode for at least 4 hours.
FORM OF THE TSUNAMI DETECTION ALGORITHM
The tides and lower frequency signals are predicted within a few millimeters using a cubic polynomial that is fit to Bottom Pressure Observations over the past3 hours.
Hp (t’) =w (i)H*(t-idt)
Where the asterisk denotes 10-minute averages and dt =1hour. The prediction time t’ is said to 5.25 minutes, which is half the 10 minute averaging interval plus the 15 seconds sampling interval for the gauges. The coefficients w (i) come from Newton formula.(II) for forward extrapolation. Using these temporal parameters the w-coefficients are
W (0) =1.16818457031250
W (1) =-0.28197558593750
W (2) =0.14689746093750
W (3) =-0.03310644531250
A tsunami is detected if the difference between the observed pressure and the prediction Hp exceeds the prescribed threshold in magnitude (30mm in north pacific). The gauges could use the most recent pressure observation to test against prediction. However, the next earlier is used so that the gauges can screen the pressure values for instrumental spikes that might falsely trip the algorithm. The threshold for these spikes is set at 100mm.
THEROTICAL PRESSURE SERIES
The graph shows the application of the algorithm to a theoretical pressure series. The series consist of an M2 tide with amplitude of 1mm and a short pulse that has amplitude of 5cm and duration of 15 minutes. The pulse affects the difference both directly and through its indirect effect on the prediction. Following the first and largest differences, pulses continue to occur each hour with diminishing amplitude until the pulse no longer influences the predictions.
The difference exceeds the threshold at the beginning of the theoretical series. This is due to the mismatch between the time series and the constant values placed initially in the H*array. This phenomenon will also occur during field deployments of DART gauges as they fall through the water column towards the bottom.
However, the difference will stabilize at sub-threshold values 4-5 hours after the gauges reach the bottom. Then, the H* array contains only on-bottom pressure values, and the gauges are in thermal equilibrium with the bottom waters. As shown in fig 1, a software flag is set to -1 each time the difference exceeds the threshold. In turn, this exceedance flag controls a reporting flag that puts the DART gauge into its rapid reporting mode. The reporting flag is set to -1 as soon as the threshold is exceeded and remains equal to -1 until 4 hours has passed since the last time the threshold was exceeded. The gauge then returns to its monitoring mode.
15-12-2011, 01:15 PM
Post: #5
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
I need some more explanation about this because i want to make this in my final year project.
16-12-2011, 09:40 AM
Post: #6
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
to get information about the topic"TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM" refer the link bellow

http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread-ts...1#pid59931
17-09-2012, 03:37 PM
Post: #7
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
Tsunami Warning System



Definition of Tsunami

Tsunamis consist of a series of very long waves generated by any rapid, large-scale disturbance of the sea. Most are generated by sea floor displacements from large undersea earthquakes. Tsunamis can cause great destruction and loss of lives within minutes on shores near the source, and some tsunamis can cause destruction within hours across an entire ocean basin.
Most tsunamis occur in the Pacific region but they are known to happen in every ocean and sea. Although infrequent, tsunamis are a significant natural hazard with great destructive potential. They can only be dealt with effectively through programs of warning, mitigation, and education

Introduction of Tsunami Warning System

Development of an operational tsunameter was an extraordinary engineering accomplishment. The task was to design, develop, test, and deploy real-time reporting, deep ocean instrumentation capable of surviving a hostile ocean environment while performing with the quality and reliability demanded of an operational tsunami warning system. To measure tsunamis many technologies has been tested. At present the best way known to detect a tsunami is to measure very accurately water pressure on the sea bottom. The tsunami detection algorithm works by first estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations within the tsunami frequency band and test these amplitudes against a threshold value.
The pressure acquisition station is a critical component of the tsunameter system and includes an ultra stable, high precision, high accuracy, pressure depth sensor, a computer, a data logger and an acoustic modem to communicate with surface buoy. The remarkable performance of depth sensor is achieved through the use of a precision quartz crystal resonator whose frequency of oscillation varies with pressure-induced stress. A quartz crystal temperature signal is provided to thermally compensate the calculated pressure and achieve high accuracy over a broad range of temperatures. The depth sensors include waterproof housings with integral shock protection buoy.
11-01-2013, 07:35 PM
Post: #8
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
please i need the complete report or the seminar details for the topic tsunami warning system
11-01-2013, 08:05 PM
Post: #9
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
i want the download link for tsunami warning system
11-01-2013, 10:02 PM
Post: #10
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
thanks for the topic about tsunami for the perfection

we are the thanks for the topic on tsunami warinig system
11-01-2013, 10:37 PM
Post: #11
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
thanks but yet i haven't got the overall info in a single page ..its actually confusing ..am not knowing where to download the attachment .i want clear details that include functionalities architecture and all..please help me.
12-01-2013, 09:59 AM
Post: #12
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
to get information about the topic "TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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05-03-2013, 03:56 PM
Post: #13
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
Tsunami Warning System


.doc  Tsunami Warning.doc (Size: 1.08 MB / Downloads: 74)

ABSTRACT:-

IN the early hours of 26th December 2004 the world witnessed one of the most devastating natural disasters in the recent times causing the death of nearly 80,000people.Tsunami-a powerful fast moving wave by an under sea disturbance.If we had sufficient warning system to give indications ,then we certainly could avoid this much of destruction. With the present technology, even a slight undersea disturbance can be detected by special detectors placed on the sea floor.These signals are picked by the surface buoy, which sends data to satellite for further distribution to ground stations.

Introduction:-.

What is Tsunami?


Tsunami is a Japanese word represented by two words, Tsu-harbor, Nami-wave means a destructive, Ocean riding, gigantic wave created by an under sea disturbance.
More than a quarter of all reliably reported Pacific tsunamis since 1895 originated near Japan. This is not surprising, because Japan is precariously situated near the colliding margins of four tectonic plates. Recognizing the recurring threat, the Japanese have invested heavily over the years in tsunami hazard mitigation, including comprehensive educational and public outreach programs, an effective warning system, shoreline barrier forests, seawalls and other coastal fortifications.
Propagation of the tsunami transports seismic energy away from the earthquake site through undulations of the water, just as shaking moves the energy through the earth. At this point, the wave height is so small compared with both the wavelength and the water depth that researchers apply linear wave theory, which assumes that the height itself does not affect the wave's behavior. The theory predicts that the deeper the water and the longer the wave, the faster the tsunami. This dependence of wave speed on water depth means that refraction by bumps and grooves on the seafloor can shift the wave's direction, especially as it travels into shallow water. In particular, wave fronts tend to align parallel to the shoreline so that they wrap around a protruding headland before smashing into it with greatly focused incident energy. At the same time, each individual wave must also slow down because of the decreasing water depth, so they begin to overtake one another, decreasing the distance between them in a process called shoaling. Refraction and shoaling squeeze the same amount of energy into a smaller volume of water, creating higher waves and faster currents.

Volcanic eruption:

The tsunami can be actually generated by any disturbance that displaces a large mass of sea water from its equilibrium position. Violent volcanic eruptions, which causes sudden
displacement of a large volume of sea water, can also give Rise to destructive tsunami waves. One of the largest and most destructive tsunamis ever recorded was generated
on august 26, 1983 after the explosion of the volcano of krakatoa in Indonesia.

Landslides:-

Tsunami waves are also generated due to displacement of sea water resulting from rock falls, icefalls and sudden land slides. For example in 1980’s construction work of
an air port runs way along the cost of Southern France,triggered an under water land slide, which generated destructive tsunami waves in the harbor of Thebes.
Similarly, when massive earth quakes occur, there are high chances of the occurrence of under water landslides that may contribute to tsunami generation. These waves
rapidly travel away from the source due to dissipation of energy, and create havoc in the near by coast lines.

How we can predict it?

For people living near the coast, the shaking of the ground is sufficient
warning for an impending tsunami. A noticeable rapid raise or fall in coastal waters is also a sign that a tsunami is approaching. Some tribals in Andaman like Centenaries, Shanghais, Ongeys, Jaravas can predict these tsunamis by hearing different sounds made by the birds.
With advances in technology, it is possible to predict the occurrence of tsunamis. With computer technology it can be known in advance how high tsunami waves will be along the coast for different kinds of earth quakes. When put on maps, these predictions can guide people to evacuate the areas to be hit by tsunamis.

What is the warning system?

The key element to tsunami hazard mitigation is a tsunami warning system. But regardless of how sophisticated a warning system may be all it can do is issue a warning. The effectiveness of the system is judged by what Civil Defense Agencies do with a warning. These agencies must have an effective Operational and Emergency Preparedness Plan to act on the warning and disseminate it rapidly and effectively to the public. This can be done only if there is an established operating plan designating infrastructural communications and responsibilities. This system monitors sea movements and can e used to map the path of Tsunamis and estimates the rate of approach.

How a warning system works?

A Tsunami warning system comprises a network of seismometers tide gauges with proper communication systems. The seismographs will estimate the strength and location of an earthquake whereas tide gauges near the epicenter of an earth quake.
This system comprises of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system capable of detecting Tsunamis as small as 1cm, which sends signals to a surface buoy anchored to it. This device basically senses pressure differences caused due to the movement of Tsunami waves. Normal wind waves which have much shorter period than Tsunamis are filtered out. If a tsunami is detected data is uploaded from an onboard computer chip, via sound signals to a hydrophone that is attached to the surface buoy. The buoy further sends the data to the geo stationary operational environmental satellite, orbiting our planet. The information is then down loaded to ground based computers, which demodulate the signals for immediate dissemination to NAOAA’s Tsunami warning centers. India is al set to install a similar Tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean called the “Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting system (DOASRS).

Conclusion: -

If India already implanted the warning center –Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System(DOASRS) for the pathetic disaters especially like this “Tsunami”,we can avoid the distruction befor hand.
07-03-2013, 04:29 PM
Post: #14
RE: TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
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