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12-04-2010, 09:09 PM
Post: #1
VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
Abstract

Visual cryptography is a popular solution for image encryption. Using secret sharing concepts, the encryption procedure encrypts a secret image into the so-called shares which are noise-like secure images which can be transmitted or distributed over an untrusted communication channel. Using the properties of the human visual system to force the recognition of a secret message from overlapping shares, the secret image is decrypted without additional computations and any knowledge of cryptography.

Visual cryptographic solutions operate on binary or binarized inputs. Therefore, natural (continuous-tone) images must be first converted into halftone images by using the density of the net dots to simulate the original gray or color levels in the target binary representation. Then, the halftone version of the input image is used instead of the original secret image to produce the shares. The decrypted image is obtained by stacking the shares together. Because binary data can be displayed either as frosted or transparent when printed on transparencies or viewed on the screen, overlapping shares that contain seemingly random information can reveal the secret image without additional computations or any knowledge of cryptographic keys. However, due to the nature of the algorithm, the decrypted image is darker, contains a number of visual impairments, and most of visual cryptography solutions increase the spatial resolution of the secret image. In addition, the requirement for inputs of the binary or dithered nature only limits the applicability of visual cryptography.

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24-04-2010, 12:30 AM
Post: #2
RE: VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
Visual Cryptography

1. Introduction
Visual cryptography (VC) is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image. Shares are usually presented in transparencies. Each participant holds a transparency. Most of the previous research work on VC focuses on improving two parameters: pixel expansion and contrast. In this paper, we studied the cheating problem in VC and extended VC. We considered the attacks of malicious adversaries who may deviate from the scheme in any way.
EVEN with the remarkable advance of computer technology, using a computer to decrypt secrets is infeasible in some situations. For example, a security guard checks the badge of an employee or a secret agent recovers an urgent secret at some place where no electronic devices are available. In these situations the human visual system is one of the most convenient and reliable tools to do checking and secret recovery. Therefore, Naor and Shamir [19] invented the visual cryptography (VC) in which a secret image (printed text, picture, etc.) is encrypted in a perfectly secure way such that the secret can be decoded directly by the human visual system.
1.1 Project Scope
1.2 This approach is applied for sending of any image secretly to receivers. Participant of out sider inserted fake shares or images are detected and corresponding participant is valid or not is verified.
In visual cryptography we propose three cheating methods and apply them on existent VC or EVC schemes. Although, the revealed secret is an image, our attacks are not like the attacks against watermarks, such as the Stir mark attack, which makes watermarks undetectable. Our attacks are to reveal fake images to cheat honest participants. Our attacks are more like the man-in-the-middle attack in cryptography. In fact, our attacks are very general for all kinds of VCSs without cheating-prevention mechanism. We propose three cheating methods against VC or EVC schemes.
2. Overall description
2.1 Product Perspective
Visual cryptography is a popular solution for image encryption. Using secret sharing concepts, the encryption procedure encrypts a secret image into the so-called shares which are noise-like secure images which can be transmitted or distributed over an untrusted communication channel. Using the properties of the human visual system to force the recognition of a secret message from overlapping shares, the secret image is decrypted without additional computations and any knowledge of cryptography.
2.2 Product Feature developer applications
This application discusses some of the concepts on which these systems are built. The Visual cryptography is modulated in to 5 main parts
¢ There is a login process for every participant to view the secret image.
¢ Encoding the image in to shares and send it to the participant.
¢ Decoding the image by stacking the ˜n™ shares or fewer than n i.e. ˜k™ shares where (k<=n).
¢ Verification is done by verifying the original share of the first participant with the verification share of the second participant.
¢ All GUI components are created using AWT Swings for user friendly.


2.3 User Classes and Characteristics
Using this product user can prevent the cheating in VCS from the intruders in sharing the original image from one participant to another.
The participant will first login to the window; it shows a message open the secret image.
Participant has to select the image and open the file, next it asks for the verification image to open.
We have to decode the process by adding the original image shares and verification image shares.
To verify whether the shares are genuine are not we have to stack the share1 of original image by verify2 of verification image for participant and vice versa for second participant.
if both participants have genuine shares the original image is opened.
2.4 User Documentation
In our user manual we are going to keep the information regarding our product, which can be understandable by a new person who is going to use it. If a new person is using it, online help will be provided in that. We are going to explain each and every step clearly about our product so that any user can easily understand it.
3. System Features
In this mechanism we have 5 modules
¢ Security & Login Module
¢ Encoding the Image
¢ Verification Module
¢ Decoding the Image
¢ User Interface & Manual

Security & Login Module
To provide security for the application we designed a login page so that unauthorized person cannot open the window.

Encoding the image
Here we are encoding by selecting the secret image and dividing the image in to shares i.e 2 shares, share1 & share2 and we are selecting the another verification image and dividing in to 2 shares as verify1 & verify2.


Verification Module
We have to verify the image by stacking the share1 of 1st participant and verify2 of 2nd participant we will get a verification image1 and flag1 is enabled and in the same way share2 of 2nd participant & verify1 of 1st participant is stacked together so that we will get the verification image2 and flag2 is enabled. After the flags are enabled if we click on them they display the messages as participant1 & 2 verifications are successful
Decoding the Image
After verifying the participants we have to stack the share1 & share2 and decode the secret image.
User Interface & Manual
This module is specially designed for the GUI components for the participant to interact with the window efficiently. Itâ„¢s a user friendly module.
4. External Interface Requirements
4.1 User Interfaces
This application include GUI standards or product family style guides that are to be followed, screen layout constraints, standard buttons and functions that will appear on every screen, error message display standards, and so on.

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07-07-2010, 08:01 AM
Post: #3
RE: VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
please send me the full report on visual cryptography

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12-10-2010, 03:21 PM
Post: #4
Thumbs Up RE: VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY

.doc  Visualcryptography.doc (Size: 305 KB / Downloads: 262)
Visual Cryptography


Abstract

Today, the world is on the anvil of being shrunk into a global net. All the systems around the world are to be used in the epoch of a nanosecond even when installed across continents and oceans. This is possible only through networks. It is in this context that networks become crucial to the viability of science and engineering research. The unprecedented growth of networking has helped in breaking all geographic barriers of the world and building the information super highway and global village.

In this direction a new technology has developed in the past few years which makes it possible to interconnect many disparate networks and make them work as a co-coordinated unit. Thus the technology is designed to foster the communication between 2 machines with hardware architectures, to accommodate and use any packet switched network hardware and to accommodate multiple operating systems.

It is in this context that Visual Cryptography has gained importance for communications between disparate networks.
SYSTEM ANALYSIS

System Analysis is first stage according to System Development Life Cycle model. This System Analysis is a process that starts with the analyst.

Analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. One aspect of analysis is defining the boundaries of the system and determining whether or not a candidate should consider other related systems. During analysis, data is collected from the available files, decision points, and transactions handled by the present system.

Logical system models and tools are used in analysis. Training, experience, and common sense are required for collection of the information needed to do the analysis.
Existing System

The present system is having different networks for each department. Where in the files has to be manually transferred. which is not a good way of practice of file transfer, for that we have given this proposed system. Where the file transfer is done through the networks.
Problem Statement

A computer network is a communication system for connecting end system, in order to send messages or files. From one to another. So to achieve proper communication the network should be a dedicated one. the interconnection i.e. physical connections should be proper.
Whenever a new network is added it should not disturb the existing network. Similarly when a network is deleted communication should be carried on properly
The network should be reachable with a high reliability and should provide consistent routing and should be able to provide solution for the routing problem.
Proposed System

Visual cryptography (VC) is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image. Shares are usually presented in transparencies. Each participant holds a transparency. Most of the previous research work on VC focuses on improving two parameters: pixel expansion and contrast. In this paper, we studied the cheating problem in VC and extended VC. We considered the attacks of malicious adversaries who may deviate from the scheme in any way. We presented three cheating methods and applied them on attacking existent VC or extended VC schemes. We improved one cheat-preventing scheme. We proposed a generic method that converts a VCS to another VCS that has the property of cheating prevention. The overhead of the conversion is near optimal in both contrast degression and pixel expansion.
REQURIEMENTS ANALYSIS

The requirement phase basically consists of three activities:
1. Requirement Analysis
2. Requirement Specification
3. Requirement Validation

Requirement Analysis:
Requirement Analysis is a software engineering task that bridges the gap between system level software allocation and software design. It provides the system engineer to specify software function and performance, indicate software’s interface with the other system elements and establish constraints that software must meet.
The basic aim of this stage is to obtain a clear picture of the needs and requirements of the end-user and also the organization. Analysis involves interaction between the clients and the analysis. Usually analysts research a problem from any questions asked and reading existing documents. The analysts have to uncover the real needs of the user even if they don’t know them clearly. During analysis it is essential that a complete and consistent set of specifications emerge for the system. Here it is essential to resolve the contradictions that could emerge from information got from various parties.
This is essential to ensure that the final specifications are consistent.

It may be divided into 5 areas of effort.
1. Problem recognition
2. Evaluation and synthesis
3. Modeling
4. Specification
5. Review

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29-01-2011, 07:55 PM
Post: #5
RE: VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
Visual Cryptographic Schemes
A Seminar Report
by
Jerry Vijayan
M105109
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
College of Engineering Trivandrum
Kerala - 695016
2010-11

Abstract
Visual cryptographic scheme (VCS) is a kind of cryptographic scheme which allows the
encryption of text documents and text images. The secret image is encrypted into n shares and
the decryption of the secret image requires neither the knowledge of cryptography nor complex
computation. Someone with all the n shares could decrypt the message by overlapping each
of the shares over one another. There are mainly two approaches to visual cryptography
as described by Naor and Shamir, namely (k; n) Threshold VCS and (n; n) Threshold VCS.
They also extended their model for continuous toned images and also to Extended Visual
cryptographic schemes where the existence of secret message is hidden by making each share
look as though a meaningful image. Later, Colour visual cryptography became an interesting
research topic after the formal introduction of visual cryptography by Moni Naor and Adi
Shamir in 1994.


.pdf  Visual Cryptographic Schemes.pdf (Size: 300.77 KB / Downloads: 275)

1 Introduction
Visual cryptography deals with the encryption of material, such as, images, documents, etc.
in a manner such that it is easy for a user to decipher the secret message by using the human
visual system, i.e., eyes. The basic model consists of a printed page of the cipher text and a
printed transparency. The original message can be revealed by placing the transparency over
the cipher text page. The simplicity of the system allows anyone without any knowledge of
cryptography or complex decrypting methods to use it very easily. This basic method of visual
cryptography is similar to the use of a One-time Pad, i.e., each cipher page is decrypted with
a di erent transparency. Another advantage of this method is the ability to encrypt several
secret messages into a single cipher text.
Several models can be used to implement visual crytography. A few have been discussed in
this paper. These include :
1. Basic Model
2. Extended Visual Cryptographic Model
3. Half-tone Visual Cryptographic Model
4. Colour Visual Cryptographic Model
5
2 Basic Model
This simple model assumes that the message consists of a collection of black & white pix-
els, each of which are handled separately. Each pixel in the original image appears in n
shares/modi ed versions, called transparencies. Each share or transparency is a collection
of m black & white sub-pixels. The resulting structure is de ned by an n  m Boolean matrix
Si = [sij ];where sij = 1 if the jth subpixel in the ith transparency is black.
The transparencies are stacked together to get the combined share, where the subpixels are
represented as the Boolean OR of the rows. The grey level of the combined shares is directly
proportional to the Hamming weight of the OR-ed vector V . It is interpreted as black if
H(V )  d & as white if H(V )  d
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