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02-04-2010, 10:35 PM
Post: #1
wireless charger full report
Wireless Charging

Submitted By
Mr.Deshmukh Sachin Bharat
Er. Rathi P.K. Er. Borkar B.S.
Seminar Guide Seminar Co-Ordinator
Department of Information Technology,

Amrutvahini College of Engineering,
Sangamner “ 422608

ABSTRACT
It seems these days that everyone has a cellular phone. Whether yours is for business purposes or personal use, you need an efficient way of charging the battery in the phone. But, like most people, you probably donâ„¢t like being tethered to the wall. Imagine a system where your cellular phone battery is always charged. No more worrying about forgetting to charge the battery. Sound Impossible?
A system will be presented using existing antenna and charge pump technology to charge a cellular phone battery without wires.
This report covers the basis and design of the wireless battery charger. The wireless charger will convert the RF/ microwave signal at 915 MHz frequency into a DC signal, and then store the power into a battery.
In this first step, we will use a standard phone, and incorporate the charging technology into a commercially available base station. The base station will contain an antenna tuned to 915MHz and a charge pump. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such a system, and hopefully pave the way for a system incorporated into the phone for charging without the use of a base station.
KEYWORDS
Cellular phone,Phone battery,RF microwave signal, 915 MHz ,charge pump,antenna.
Energy harvesting -:Energy harvesting is the idea of gathering transmitted energy and either using it to power a circuit or storing it for later use.
RF Source :-The RF source is a circuit that outputs a signal at a user-specified frequency and voltage.
915 MHz:-The frequency of 915MHz was chosen for wireless charging because it is one at which our team has experience, and it falls in one of the Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) RF bands made available by the Federal Communications Commission for low power, short distance experimentation. This frequency was chosen mostly for simplicity in using the available equipment. In fact, 915MHz is a very common frequency used in RF research. This makes a transmitter system easy to construct and manage.
Charge pump :-A charge pump is a circuit that when given an input in AC is able to output a DC voltage typically larger than a simple rectifier would generate. It can be thought of as a AC to DC converter that both rectifies the AC signal and elevates the DC level.
Table of Contents
1.Introduction
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION
2.Components .
3.Methods Of Wireless Charging ..
4.Problem Statement

5.0Block Diagram
6.0 Back Ground
6.1 The Charge Pump
6.2 Antenna
6.0 SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
7.0 PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION
7.1 THE NOKIA DESKTOP STAND
7.2 PROTOTYPE TESTING
8.Advantages ..
9.0.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ..
9.1 AREAS OF CONSIDERATION
9.2 CONTRIBUTIONS
10.0 Bibliography .
8.References
Introduction And Motivation
Cellular telephone technology became commercially available in the 1980â„¢s. Since then, it has been like a snowball rolling downhill, ever increasing in the number of users and the speed at which the technology advances. When the cellular phone was first implemented, it was enormous in size by todayâ„¢s standards. This reason is two-fold; the battery had to be large, and the circuits themselves were large. The circuits of that time used in electronic devices were made from off the shelf integrated circuits (IC), meaning that usually every part of the circuit had its own package. These packages were also very large. These large circuit boards required large amounts of power, which meant bigger batteries. This reliance on power was a major contributor to the reason these phones were so big.
Through the years, technology has allowed the cellular phone to shrink not only the size of the ICs, but also the batteries. New combinations of materials have made possible the ability to produce batteries that not only are smaller and last longer, but also can be recharged easily. However, as technology has advanced and made our phones smaller and easier to use, we still have one of the original problems: we must plug the phone into the wall in order to recharge the battery. Most people accept this as something that will never change, so they might as well accept it and carry around either extra batteries with them or a charger. Either way, itâ„¢s just something extra to weigh a person down. There has been research done in the area of shrinking the charger in order to make it easier to carry with the phone. One study in particular went on to find the lower limit of charger size [1]. But as small as the charger becomes, it still needs to be plugged in to a wall outlet. How can something be called wireless when the object in question is required to be plugged in, even though periodically?
Now, think about this; what if it didnâ„¢t have to be that way? Most people donâ„¢t realize that there is an abundance of energy all around us at all times. We are being bombarded with energy waves every second of the day. Radio and television towers, satellites orbiting earth, and even the cellular phone antennas are constantly transmitting energy. What if there was a way we could harvest the energy that is being transmitted and use it as a source of power? If it could be possible to gather the energy and store it, we could potentially use it to power other circuits. In the case of the cellular phone, this power could be used to recharge a battery that is constantly being depleted. The potential exists for cellular phones, and even more complicated devices - i.e. pocket organizers, person digital assistants (PDAs), and even notebook computers - to become completely wireless.
Of course, right now this is all theoretical. There are many complications to be dealt with. The first major obstacle is that it is not a trivial problem to capture energy from the air. We will use a concept called energy harvesting. Energy harvesting is the idea of gathering transmitted energy and either using it to power a circuit or storing it for later use. The concept needs an efficient antenna along with a circuit capable of converting alternating-current (AC) voltage to direct-current (DC) voltage. The efficiency of an antenna, as being discussed here, is related to the shape and impedance of the antenna and the impedance of the circuit. If the two impedances arenâ„¢t matched then there is reflection of the power back into the antenna meaning that the circuit was unable to receive all the available power. Matching of the impedances means that the impedance of the antenna is the complex conjugate of the impedance of the circuit. The energy harvesting circuit will be discussed in Chapter 3.
Another thing to think about is what would happen when you get away from major metropolitan areas. Since the energy we are trying to harness is being added to the atmosphere from devices that are present mostly in cities and are not as abundant in rural areas, there might not be enough energy for this technology to work. However, for the time being, we will focus on the problem of actually getting a circuit to work.
This thesis is considered to be one of the first steps towards what could become a standard circuit included in every cellular phone, and quite possibly every electronic device made. A way to charge the battery of an electric circuit without plugging it into the wall would change the way people use wireless systems. However, this technology needs to be proven first. It was decided to begin the project with a cellular phone because of the relative simplicity of the battery system. Also, after we prove that the technology will work in the manner suggested, cellular phones would most likely be the first devices to have such circuitry implemented on a wide scale. This advancement coupled with a better overall wireless service can be expected to lead to the mainstream use of cell phones as peopleâ„¢s only phones. This thesis is an empirical study of whether or not this idea is feasible. This first step is to get an external wireless circuit to work with an existing phone by transmitting energy to the phone (battery) through the air.
2.Components
THE NOKIA DESKTOP STAND

Nokia DCV-15 Desktop Stand
In order to get the charging board to fit the stand, some slight modification to the Nokia stand was necessary. There is a solid piece of metal, probably copper, about one quarter of and inch thick that is attached to the inside of the stand with screws in the area where the charging board was to be added. This metal is most likely a counter-weight for the stand to make it heavier and more resistant to capsizing when the phone is in the cradle. Without this metal, the stand functions normally. The stand weighs less without it, but this is of no concern in this phase of testing. Once this weight was removed, there was sufficient room in the upper area of the stand for a PCB. The dimensions of this area were obtained using calipers. The last modification to
Phone

The design aspect of this project is focused on the receiving side. For this stage of research, of which the goal is to prove that the wireless battery charger idea is feasible, it was decided to incorporate the energy harvesting circuitry and antenna in some sort of base station or charging stand. The Nokia 3570 was the first phone that was received for the research. This phone comes standard with a battery and an AC/DC travel charger. The battery included with the phone has a voltage range from 3.2V - when the phone shuts off - to 3.9V when fully charged. This battery only takes about 2 hours to charge when plugged into the wall through the travel charger supplied with the phone. This charger has an unloaded, unregulated direct current (DC) output voltage of 9.2V. When connected to the phone, the charging voltage goes to the battery voltage, approximately 3.6V, and then slowly increases until it saturates at 3.9V. This charger regulates the current to around 350mA.
Antenna
The antenna plays a very important role. To charge a battery, a high DC power signal is needed. The wireless battery charger circuit must keep the power loss to the minimal. Therefore, there are many considerations to choose the correct parts for the design. The considerations of choosing the appropriate antenna are: 1. Impedance of the antenna 2. Gain of the antenna

Quarter-wave Whip Antenna
Charge pump
At this point, it is necessary to explain what exactly a charge pump is, and how it works. A charge pump is a circuit that when given an input in AC is able to output a DC voltage typically larger than a simple rectifier would generate. It can be thought of as a AC to DC converter that both rectifies the AC signal and elevates the DC level. It is the foundation of power converters such as the ones that are used for many electronic devices today. These circuits typically are much more complex than the charge pumps used in this thesis. Power converter circuits have a lot of protective circuitry along with circuitry to reduce noise. In fact, it is a safety regulation that any power-conversion circuits use a transformer to isolate the input from the output. This prevents overload of the circuit and user injury by isolating the components from any spikes on the input line. For this thesis, however, such a low power level is being used that a circuit this complex would require more power than is available, and it would therefore be very inefficient and possibly not function. In that case, it is necessary to use a simple design. The simplest design that can be used is a peak detector or half wave peak rectifier. This circuit requires only a capacitor and a diode to function. The schematic is shown in Figure. The explanation of how this circuit works is quite simple. The AC wave has two halves, one positive and one negative. On the positive half, the diode turns on and current flows, charging the capacitor. On the negative half of the wave, the diode is off such that no current is flowing in either direction. Now, the capacitor has voltage built up which is equal to the peak of the AC signal, hence the name. Without the load on the circuit, the voltage would hold indefinitely on the capacitor and look like a DC signal, assuming ideal components. With the load, however, the output voltage decreases during the negative cycle of the AC input, shown in figure


3.0. Different Methods of Charging
1. Inductive charging
2. Radio charging
3. Resonance charging
1. Inductive charging
Inductive charging is used for charging mid-sized items such as cell phones, MP3 players and PDAs.
Inductive charging uses the electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects. A charging station sends energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device, which stores the energy in the batteries. Because there is a small gap between the two coils, inductive charging is one kind of short-distance wireless energy transfer.
In inductive charging, an adapter equipped with contact points is attached to the device's back plate. When the device requires a charge, it is placed on a conductive charging pad, which is plugged into a socket
Advantages
Inductive charging carries a far lower risk of electrical shock, when compared with conductive charging, because there are no exposed conductors. The ability to fully enclose the charging connection also makes the approach attractive where water impermeability is required; for instance, inductive charging is used for implanted medical devices that require periodic or even constant external power, and for electric hygiene devices, such as toothbrushes and shavers, that are frequently used near or even in water. Inductive charging makes charging mobile devices more convenient; rather than having to connect a power cable, the device can be placed on a charge plate.
Disadvantages
One disadvantage of inductive charging is its lower efficiency and increased ohmic (resistive) heating in comparison to direct contact. Implementations using lower frequencies or older drive technologies charge more slowly and generate heat for most portable electronics,[citation needed]; the technology is nonetheless commonly used in some electric toothbrushes and wet/dry electric shavers, partly for the advantage that the battery contacts can be completely sealed to prevent exposure to water. Inductive charging also requires drive electronics and coils that increase manufacturing complexity and cost
2. Resonance charging
Resonance charging is used for items that require large amounts of power, such as an electric car, robot, vacuum cleaner or laptop computer. In resonance charging, a copper coil attached to a power source is the sending unit. Another coil, attached to the device to be charged, is the receiver. Both coils are tuned to the same electromagnetic frequency, which makes it possible for energy to be transferred from one to the other.The method works over short distances (3-5 meters).
3. Radio charging
Radio charging is used for charging items with small batteries and low power requirements, such as watches, hearing aids, medical implants, cell phones, MP3 players and wireless keyboard and mice. Radio waves are already in use to transmit and receive cellular telephone, television, radio and Wi-Fi signals. Wireless radio charging works similarly. A transmitter, plugged into a socket, generates radio waves. When the receiver attached to the device is set to the same frequency as the transmitter, it will charge the device's battery.
.
4.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The goal of this thesis is to determine if is possible to capture enough power in a cellular phone in order to charge the battery. The requirements for the system to be presented are that it be incorporated into a base station and the operating frequency is set. The design of the board and choice of antenna for the stand are the focal point of the experiments that are to be performed. In order to prove the concept, power needs to be supplied to the energy harvesting circuit by an external transmitter. This transmitter will send a signal at the set frequency. Our test system will then receive this signal through the energy havesting circuit. This circuit is the fundamental design problem of this thesis. This circuit will convert the received signal into DC voltage to charge the battery. The RF transmitter, the analysis of the cellular phones to be used, and the modification of cellular phone stands to accommodate the circuitry to be designed are elements of the research covered in this section. A set of experiments will be conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of wirelessly charging a cellular phone battery.
4.1 THE TRANSMITTER
The most basic transmitter setup consists of a piece of equipment that generates a signal whose output is then fed into an amplifier that is finally output through a radiating antenna “ the air interface. A condition must be met where the antenna operates optimally at the desired frequency output from the signal generator. In the current case, an antenna was connected through an amplifier to a radio-frequency (RF) source. The RF source is a circuit that outputs a signal at a user-specified frequency and voltage. The range of frequencies of the signal generator resides in the radio frequency band, 3 mega-hertz (MHz) to 3 giga-hertz (GHz). The output power of this device is limited. For this reason, an amplifier is required on the output. The transmitting antenna is called a patch antenna and is fabricated from copper plating that is soldered to a feed wire and has a ground plane. The frequency of 915MHz was chosen for this project because it is one at which our team has experience, and it falls in one of the Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) RF bands made available by the Federal Communications Commission for low power, short distance experimentation. This frequency was chosen mostly for simplicity in using the available equipment. It is not used for mass communication or anything else on a major scale, and therefore is not going to be interfered with, or interfere with other devices at low power levels. This also means that transmitters for short distances are readily available. In fact, 915MHz is a very common frequency used in RF research. This makes a transmitter system easy to construct and manage. The source is nothing more than a signal generator, capable of outputting a low-noise AC signal at 915MHz. This setup results in the antenna beaming approximately 6mW of power per square meter. This was the limit of the gain of the amplifier.
4.2 THE PHONES
The design aspect of this project is focused on the receiving side. For this stage of research, of which the goal is to prove that the wireless battery charger idea is feasible, it was decided to incorporate the energy harvesting circuitry and antenna in some sort of base station or charging stand. It is necessary to hide the components for demonstration purposes. This being the case, two phones were chosen that have accessories currently available to use as our charging stands. The Nokia 3570 was the first phone that was received for the research. This phone comes standard with a battery and an AC/DC travel charger. The battery included with the phone has a voltage range from 3.2V - when the phone shuts off - to 3.9V when fully charged. This battery only takes about 2 hours to charge when plugged into the wall through the travel charger supplied with the phone. This charger has an unloaded, unregulated direct current (DC) output voltage of 9.2V. When connected to the phone, the charging voltage goes to the battery voltage, approximately 3.6V, and then slowly increases until it saturates at 3.9V. This charger regulates the current to around 350mA.
The other phone that was chosen is the Motorola V60i. This phone has many of the same features as the Nokia above, and it also comes standard with its own battery and travel charger. The battery for this phone is a 3.6V battery like the Nokia battery. The travel charger shown is quite different from its Nokia counterpart. First of all, there are 3 pins going to the phone, not just the 2 needed for power and ground. Two of these pins are at a ground potential, and the other one is 6.09V higher than the other two. This is very close to the regulated voltage of 5.9V seen by the phone during charging. It runs at 400mA, a little higher than the Nokia charger.
4.3 THE STANDS
Before starting the design of the circuitry for charging the phones, it is beneficial to know the space available for the board. The Nokia DCV-15 desktop stand and Motorola SYN8610 hands free speakerphone have commercially available accessories for holding the phones. The Nokia stand, Figure 2.1, is used additionally for synchronization purposes between the phone and a personal computer. It does incorporate a circuit board that connects to the phone for charging. This board is simply a bridge from the phone to the PC, using a switch. The power supply plugs into the back of the stand underneath, and its jack is also located on the printed circuit board. Since there is a lot of wasted space inside that can be used for the energy harvesting board and

antenna, all that is needed to do is to tap into this existing board to supply the power for the phone. This facilitates replacing the existing board with a newly designed printed circuit board. This would be difficult because the jack the phone plugs into, on the existing board, is difficult to replace. It appears to be a proprietary device available only from Nokia. Thankfully, there is enough room in the stand for both boards to exist, along with the antenna.
For the Motorola phone, there is a similar product available, but it is not really a stand. The Motorola SYN8610, Figure 2.8, is a hands-free speakerphone that accommodates the phone. This device also allows the user to charge the phone while the phone is in the stand. It is similar to the Nokia stand in that there is a printed circuit board that connects the power from the wall to the phone through the stand itself. This allows for the same option as the Nokia stand to just tap into the existing board to power the phone from our printed circuit board. However, because there is not as much space in this stand as in the Nokia stand, to use this accessory, it was necessary to hollow out the inside to make room for the energy harvesting circuitry. This meant removing the speakerphone functionality. Whereas the Nokia phoneâ„¢s desktop stand could still be used to connect to the PC, this item will no longer perform its original function.

Transmitter
The most basic transmitter setup consists of a piece of equipment that generates a signal whose output is then fed into an amplifier that is finally output through a radiating antenna “ the air interface. A condition must be met where the antenna operates optimally at the desired frequency output from the signal generator. In the current case, an antenna was connected through an amplifier to a radio-frequency (RF) source. The RF source is a circuit that outputs a signal at a user- specified frequency and voltage. The range of frequencies of the signal generator resides in the radio frequency band, 3 mega-hertz (MHz) to 3 giga-hertz (GHz). The output power of this device is limited. For this reason, an amplifier is required on the output. The transmitting antenna is called a patch antenna and is fabricated from copper plating that is soldered to a feed wire and has a ground plane. The frequency of 915MHz was chosen for this project because it is one at which our team has experience, and it falls in one of the Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) RF bands made available by the Federal Communications Commission for low power, short distance experimentation. This frequency was chosen mostly for simplicity in using the available equipment. It is not used for mass communication or anything else on a major scale, and therefore is not going to be interfered with, or interfere with other devices at low power levels. This also means that transmitters for short distances are readily available. In fact, 915MHz is a very common frequency used in RF research. This makes a transmitter system easy to construct and manage. The source is nothing more than a signal generator, capable of outputting a low-noise AC signal at 915MHz. This setup results in the antenna beaming approximately 6mW of power per square meter. This was the limit of the gain of the amplifier.
Receiver
The receiverâ„¢s main purpose is to charge a battery. A simple battery charging theory is to run current through the battery, and apply a voltage difference between the terminals of the battery to reverse the chemical process. By doing so, it recharges the battery. There are other efficient and faster ways to charge the battery, but it requires a large amount of energy which the wireless battery charger can not obtain, yet. Therefore, in our design, we use a straight forward method to charge the battery.
Microwave signal is an AC signal with a frequency range of 1 GHz “ 1000 GHz. 915 MHz is in between the RF/ Microwave range. No matter how high the frequency is, AC signal is still AC signal. Therefore, the signal can also be treated as a low frequency AC signal. In order to get a DC signal out of the AC signal, a rectifier circuit is needed. At the output of the rectifier, the signal is not a fully DC signal yet. Thus, by adding a capacitor and a resistor can smooth out the output to become DC signal.
6.0BACKGROUND
This project is based on a very simple concept, capture RF energy using an antenna, input it into a charge-pump and use this energy to power some other circuit. As a precursor to this thesis, there have been many projects involving charge pumps. These projects range from tuning the charge pump to using results from existing charge pumps to drive other circuits. For the tuning projects, usually the testing is done using a light emitting diode (LED). RF energy is transmitted to the circuit and the charge pump stores the energy in a large capacitor. When the amount of charge is large enough, the LED uses the stored energy to light for a moment. This is called a charge-and-fire system. In other research, charge pumps were tested from earlier projects that were used to power other circuits. This type of technology is very useful in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications. The way RFID systems work is that when a chip passes through a scanner device, power is sent to the chip from the scanner. In older systems, the frequency or amplitude of this signal was modulated by the chip and sent back. This technique is called backscatter. But, in more recent systems, the chips are getting more complicated and require much more power to run. The RFID system is unsuitable for batteries mostly because they have to be small, but also because the batteries will eventually die and require changing. But, with a good antenna, a charge pump should be able to handle the powering of these circuits and never will need to be serviced. Because the circuits are small, the power required is minimal.
6.1 THE CHARGE PUMP
At this point, it is necessary to explain what exactly a charge pump is, and how it works. A charge pump is a circuit that when given an input in AC is able to output a DC voltage typically larger than a simple rectifier would generate. It can be thought of as a AC to DC converter that both rectifies the AC signal and elevates the DC level. It is the foundation of power converters such as the ones that are used for many electronic devices today. These circuits typically are much more complex than the charge pumps used in this thesis. Power converter circuits have a lot of protective circuitry along with circuitry to reduce noise. In fact, it is a safety regulation that any power-conversion circuits use a transformer to isolate the input from the output. This prevents overload of the circuit and user injury by isolating the components from any spikes on the input line. For this thesis, however, such a low power level is being used that a circuit this complex would require more power than is available, and it would therefore be very inefficient and possibly not function. In that case, it is necessary to use a simple design.
The simplest design that can be used is a peak detector or half wave peak rectifier. This circuit requires only a capacitor and a diode to function. The schematic is shown in Figure 3.1. The explanation of how this circuit works is quite simple. The AC wave has two halves, one positive and one negative. On the positive half, the diode turns on and current flows, charging the capacitor. On the negative half of the wave, the diode is off such that no current is flowing in either direction. Now, the capacitor has voltage built up which is equal to the peak of the AC signal, hence the name. Without the load on the circuit, the voltage would hold indefinitely on the capacitor and look like a DC signal, assuming ideal components. With the load, however, the output voltage decreases during the negative cycle of the AC input, shown in Figure 3.2. This
figure shows the voltage decreases exponentially. This is due to the RC time constant. The voltage decreases in relation to the inverse of the resistance of the load, R, multiplied by the capacitance C. This circuit produces a lot of ripple, or noise, on the output DC of the signal. With more circuitry, that ripple can be reduced.
The next topology presented in Figure 3.3 is a full-wave rectifier. Whereas the previous circuit only captures the positive cycle of the signal, here both halves of the input are captured in the capacitor. From this figure, we see that in the positive half of the cycle, D1 is on, D2 is off and charge is stored on the capacitor. But, during the negative half, the diodes are reversed, D2 is on and D1 is off. The capacitor doesnâ„¢t discharge nearly as much as in the previous circuit, so the output has much less noise, as shown in Figure 3.4. It produces a cleaner DC signal than the half-wave rectifier, but the circuit itself is much more complicated with the introduction of a transformer. This essentially rules this topology out for this research because of the space needed to implement it.
There are other topologies for charge pumps but they will not be covered here. The others are more complex and all involve transformers, like the full-wave rectifier, and therefore take up more room than there is real estate for in this project. Instead, the circuit that was chosen to be used will now be presented. The charge pump circuit is made of stages of voltage doublers. This circuit is called a voltage doubler because in theory, the voltage that is received on the output is twice that at the input. The schematic in Figure 3.5 represents one stage of the circuit. The RF wave is rectified by D2 and C2 in the positive half of the cycle, and then by D1 and C1 in the negative cycle. But, during the positive half-cycle, the voltage stored on C1 from the negative half-cycle is transferred to C2. Thus, the voltage on C2 is roughly two times the peak voltage of the RF source minus the turn-on voltage of the diode, hence the name voltage doubler.
The most interesting feature of this circuit is that by connecting these stages in series, we can essentially stack them, like stacking batteries to get more voltage at the output. One might ask, after the first stage, how can this circuit get more voltage with more stages because the output of the stage is DC? Well, the answer is that the output is not exactly DC. It is essentially

6.2 THE ANTENNA
The most straightforward option for the receiving antenna is to use an existing antenna that can be obtained commercially. This idea was explored along with fabricating a new antenna. As can be seen from Figures 3.1 and 3.2, there is a coaxial connector to connect to the antenna. For the initial research, a quarter-wave whip antenna was used for all the testing purposes. This antenna is similar to that used on car radios. It is called a quarter-wave antenna because it is designed so that its length is approximately one quarter of the wavelength of the signal. This means that for a 915MHz signal, with a wavelength equal 32cm, a quarter-wave antenna would have an 8cm length. The main dilemma in using this type of an antenna is that it requires a rather large ground plane in order to work properly. This is fine for car radios that can be grounded to the frame of the car. But, for this project, the ground plane needed to receive enough of a signal to power the charging circuit is larger than the form factors of the charging stands chosen to house the circuits. A picture of the quarter-wave whip antenna The largecopper plate is the ground plane. The antenna is attached to the copper, with an SMA connector on the under side of the ground plane. This type of connector uses a simple screw mechanism allowing for easy connectivity with other circuits and test equipment. The cord is connected on the other side to the BNC connector of the board. As you can see, this ground plane is rather large, too large to be used inside the stand for a cellular phone. It covers almost 50% more area than the stands that were selected for this research. With this in mind, a different type of antenna needs to be researched and tested. Other types of antennas to consider are patches, microstrips, dipoles, and monopoles. The patch antenna has two major problems when being used with a research project like this. The first is that it also needs to be relatively large, on the order of the ground plane for the quarter-wave whip antenna. The second reason is that it is highly directional, meaning that it only radiates, and accepts radiation, in one direction, i.e., it does not have a good coverage area. These reasons rule out this option. A microstrip antenna can be any type of antenna discussed previously, but what makes it unique is that it is painted on to a surface so that it is in the same plane as the printed circuit board. This type of antenna is used mostly on small surfaces such as silicon die to be used by the circuit on the same die. By painted on, what is meant is that on a silicon die it is etched onto the surface, or on a printed circuit board, it is part of a conductive layer. This means that it can be patch, a dipole, or a quarter-wave whip, as long as all the metal is in the same plane. The main problems with this antenna are its gain and its directionality. These types of antennas are appropriate to be used in RFID, but for this project they would be a hindrance. It is possibly an option to explore in future research.
The last two types of antennas, dipole and monopole, are similar in characteristics and structure. The difference is that a monopole has one connection point to the circuit, while a
SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
This research project is primarily empirical. There are many variables in the system that can change the voltage that is developed. The stage capacitors need to be optimized. The number of stages needs to be determined that, combined with the capacitor values for each stage, will result in a sufficiently high voltage level to turn on the phone and charge the phoneâ„¢s battery. Also, a capacitor can be used across the output as a filter to provide a flat DC signal and store charge. The value of that capacitance also needs to be determined. There really are no fixed parameters for any of these values. The only specified value for any element in this research is the frequency that is being transmitted to the station. This frequency is to be 915MHz.
As discussed in the previous chapter, there have been projects completed to lay the foundation for this research. One of these projects involved the charging of a cellular phone battery directly from a charge pump. The results of this experiment were sufficient to provide a starting point. The previous project used the same charge pump we have chosen, i.e., stages of voltage doublers
7.0 PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION
In the previous chapter, it was shown that while an energy harvesting board could not give sufficient power to charge the battery while it was in the phone, it did a good job of charging just the battery. With that in mind, it was decided to go forward with the fabrication of a second board that would fit in the charging stands. This board would be used in both stands, thus it had to be small enough to fit the smaller of the two stands. Width wise, the Nokia stand is smaller than the Motorola stand. This being the case, the board was designed mainly for the Nokia stand but was also easily fit into the Motorola stand.
7.1THE NOKIA DESKTOP STAND
In order to get the charging board to fit the stand, some slight modification to the Nokia stand was necessary. There is a solid piece of metal, probably copper, about one quarter of and inch thick that is attached to the inside of the stand with screws in the area where the charging board was to be added. This metal is most likely a counter-weight for the stand to make it heavier and more resistant to capsizing when the phone is in the cradle. Without this metal, the stand functions normally. The stand weighs less without it, but this is of no concern in this phase of testing. Once this weight was removed, there was sufficient room in the upper area of the stand for a PCB. The dimensions of this area were obtained using calipers. The last modification to this stand came in the form of a screw hole. The screw hole was placed in the upper section of the stand in between two holes already there for holding the top piece onto the bottom. This hole is to be used to attach the charging board to the stand using a nut and bolt. With the dimensions and the placement of attachment hole known, a second testing board was fabricated to fit within this stand. Board 2, Figure 7.1, was designed specifically for this stand. This board, however, only has 5 stages. This is not a problem though. Going back to Table 3 from Chapter 6, it was shown that 5 stages outputs almost as much voltage as the board with 6 stages. Just to be on the safe side, the same tests that were performed in Chapter 6 with the 6-stage charge pump. These were also done with the 5-stage charge pump.The tests performed equally well, with a negligible drop in charging rate.
Now that the board was completed, an antenna can be fabricated. The difference between the antenna and the board design is that one antenna cannot be designed to fit in both stands. Therefore, two separate antennas need to be molded. Looking back at the previous chapter reminds us that while the board was being tested with an off-the-shelf antenna designed specifically for 915MHz, the phone would not charge the battery. Knowing this, it was somewhat doubtful that a crudely shaped antenna can be made that will outperform the quarter-wave whip. But, it can be assumed that if a wire is wrapped around the inside of the stand, and connected to the input of the circuit, it will act as an antenna. Combined with the energy harvesting board, the combination should be sufficient to supply voltage to demonstrate that the power is being applied to the phone. With this assumption, a copper wire about 1/16 of an inch thick was soldered to the input of the testing board number 2 and then wrapped around the inside of the base station so as to allow for resealing, and phone placement. A picture of the board attached to the monopole antenna and placed inside the stand can be seen in Figure 7.2.
7.2 PROTOTYPE TESTING
With a PCB and antenna in each stand, testing was done to show that the phones were able to be turned on by power provided by the energy harvesting circuit. The two phones placed in their stands for testing are shown in Figure 7.5. Tests were also performed to get the unconnected
voltage reading. The previous board, using the quarter-wave whip, was able to produce ~90V DC unloaded, but this board with the monopole antenna can only produce about ~45V DC. This confirms the point brought up in the previous sections about the antenna not being able to perform as well as the off-the-shelf counterpart. However, considering this voltage is about half of the original voltage, the phone is still able to turn itself on to show that the power is being supplied. And in tests that were performed with direct connections to the battery terminals, this board and antenna combo performed almost as well as with the quarter-wave whip antenna. Previously, the board was able to charge at about 5-6 mV per second, resulting in about 2 hour charging time from 3.2 V to 3.9 V. Here it was about 4 mV per second, resulting in about 3 hour charging time. In previous research, the battery charged at about 2 mV per second. That is almost 6 hours charging time, so we have almost cut the charging time in half.
SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
This research project is primarily empirical. There are many variables in the system that can change the voltage that is developed. The stage capacitors need to be optimized. The number of stages needs to be determined that, combined with the capacitor values for each stage, will result in a sufficiently high voltage level to turn on the phone and charge the phoneâ„¢s battery. Also, a capacitor can be used across the output as a filter to provide a flat DC signal and store charge. The value of that capacitance also needs to be determined. There really are no fixed parameters for any of these values. The only specified value for any element in this research is the frequency that is being transmitted to the station. This frequency is to be 915MHz.
As discussed in the previous chapter, there have been projects completed to lay the foundation for this research. One of these projects involved the charging of a cellular phone battery directly from a charge pump. The results of this experiment were sufficient to provide a starting point. The previous project used the same charge pump we have chosen, i.e., stages of voltage doublers
8.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In this thesis, we submit a first step towards a goal that would have profound ramifications on the cellular phone industry and the portable electronic device industry as a whole. Experimental results show that while we were not completely successful at achieving our overall goal of having the charging circuit in a stand be able to charge the battery of a cellular phone while it was within the phone using a wireless RF source, we have completed the goal of being able to charge the battery while the phone is in its stand. Circumventing the proprietary circuitry in the charging path will allow future adaptation of the wireless RF energy harvesting concept produced by this research.
8.1 AREAS OF CONSIDERATION
Some issues remain that need to be studied before work can continue. The first thing to look at is the antenna being used to harvest the RF energy. As was shown in Chapter 7, the antenna used in the stand was about half as efficient, from a voltage standpoint, as the off-the-shelf quarter-wave whip antenna used in earlier tests. There needs to be much more emphasis put on antenna design in order to get the power transfer to a sufficiently high level, i.e., to the level of the quarter wave whip antenna. Right now, the monopole is about 50% of the efficiency of the commercial product. Another thing to consider is the circuit itself. Perhaps there are other ways of laying out the circuit that could be more power-efficient or even other topologies to be tried. The last thing to try would be to be able to involve the cellular phone company directly or at least be willing to divulge the circuitry involved.
8.2 CONTRIBUTIONS
The most important result is that I successfully proved that the concept of charging a cellular phone battery while in a phone using wireless RF energy harvesting is feasible. We were able to get enough power to turn the phone on. This is an important result because it shows that the circuit that was designed, simulated, and tested throughout this research can be used to accomplish our ultimate goal. Because of this result, future work in this area can be expected. It is probable that with more focus placed on the antenna, and, as energy harvesting technology becomes more advanced, this work will be successful at achieving a commercial product. The ultimate goal, of course, is to get everything in the phone and use ambient RF energy to charge the battery. In this thesis, we have laid the foundation for this work to continue by accomplishing the following goals: We were able to charge the battery directly faster than had been done previously; we were able to power the phone using an RF signal transmitted to the phone and stand; we provided simulated and empirical data that can be used as a reference for future work in the area; and we were able to condense the circuitry down to a sufficiently small size to conceal the charging circuitry and antenna within a commercially available stand. Involved in achieving these goals were the modeling of the circuit in a program suitable for simulating high frequency circuits, the design of a testing board and procedure for verifying the simulation results, and finally creation of a board and antenna combination that would be small enough to be contained within a commercially available stand, yet be able to show that indeed we are able to power the phone.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Sabate, J. A., Kustera, D. and Sridhar, S., Cell-Phone Battery Charger Miniaturization. IEEE Journal 2000.
2. Mi, Minhong, Personal Interview. 2003
3. http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~jan/spice/spi...rview.html
4.http://we.home.agilent.com/cgibin/bvpub/agilent/Product/cp_ProductComparison.jsp?NAV_ID=-536893719.0.00&LANGUAGE_CODE=eng&COUNTRY_CODE=US
References
1.http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~jan/spice/spic e.overview.html
2.Wireless battery charging system using radio frequency energy harvesting by Daniel W. Harrist, BS, University of Pittsburgh
3.www.electronicstoday.com
4.www.ecoupled.com
5.www.fultoninnovation.com


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13-07-2010, 03:33 PM
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RE: wireless charger full report
i want this report on my mail plzzzzz

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14-07-2010, 05:04 AM
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RE: wireless charger full report
will you please send the power point presentation file of this topic to me at sreejithcvn[at]gmail.com

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14-07-2010, 07:05 PM
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could you please send me this report to me at vinu.vidhya7[at]gmail.com

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14-07-2010, 09:25 PM
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RE: wireless charger full report
The full report has been posted in this thread. You may copy the material to make your report in word .

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