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18-03-2011, 11:40 AM
Post: #11
RE: witricity full report
Presented by:
RAVI KUMAR. A & RAMA CHANDRA. M


.ppt  WITRICITY.ppt (Size: 1.72 MB / Downloads: 389)
History of Wireless Power:
 In 1899, Sir Nikola Tesla Proposed a method of Wireless Power Transmission.
 As it is in Radiative mode, most of the Power was wasted and has less efficiency.
 The efficient midrange power transfer concept is Witricity. In this model source and load are in Magnetic resonance so there is no power loss.
Need of Witricity:
Now a days there is a Rapid development of autonomous electronics like Laptops, Cell-phones, House-hold robots and all those devices typically rely on chemical energy storage(Battery) As they are becoming daily needs to present generation, Wire less energy transfer would be useful for many applications as above and they need midrange energy.
Basic Principle:
The basic principle involved in Witricity concept is, Two objects having same resonating frequency and in Magnetic resonance at Strongly coupled regime tend to exchange energy , while dissipating relatively little energy to the extraneous off-resonant objects.
Experimental Design:
Our experimental scheme consists of two Self-resonant coils. One coil (source coil) is coupled inductively to an oscillating circuit; the other (device coil) is coupled inductively to a resistive load. Self-resonant coils rely on the interplay between distributed inductance and distributed capacitance to achieve resonance.
Range & Rate of Coupling:
Using Coupled Mode Theory (CMT), we can give some frame work to the system. The field system of the two resonant objects 1, 2 is
F(r,t)=a1(t)F1®+a2(t)F2®
Where F1,2® are the resonating modes of 1 and 2 alone, and then the field amplitudes a1(t) and a2(t).The lower order representation of the system is given by :
Where ω1, 2 are the individual frequencies, Γ1, 2 are the Resonance widths (Decay rates) due to the objects’ intrinsic (absorption, radiation etc.) losses, and ‘κ’ is the coupling coefficient .
 The solution of the equation show that at exact resonance at
ω1=ω2 and Γ1=Γ2
the normal modes of the combined system are split by 2κ.
 The energy exchange between the two objects takes place in time Pi/κ and is nearly perfect, apart for losses, which are minimal when the coupling rate is much faster than all loss rates (κ>> Γ1, 2).
 It is exactly this ratio {κ /sqrt (Γ1, 2)} shows that, it will set as figure-of-merit for any system under consideration for wireless energy-transfer, along with the distance over which this ratio can be achieved.
 The desired optimal regime {κ/sqrt (Γ1,2)>>1} is called “Strong-Coupling” regime. There is No change in Energy, unless κ/Γ>>1 is true.
Design of parameters:
The coupled mode theory plays a vital role in solving the lower order equations of the system. Using perturbation technique of
x(t)=A cos(ω 0t)+ B sin(ω 0t)
The solution of this equation is by including decay rate due to loss Γ0
X(t)=C exp(-i ω 0t)exp(-t/ Γ0)
Why the Perturbation technique??
All these fields are by Damped oscillator. The details of the damping mechanism is unknown to us, but the rate of energy loss due to damping known and it is small. So perturbation technique is the approach to solve these equations when the details is unknown to us. To solve the above equation considered a laser cavity and loss rates due to absorption and radiation is taken into account and finally found that κ/Γ ratio is proportional to the quality factor.
Formulation for Simulation:
Consider two loops at distance D between their centers, radius r1 and r2 of conducting wire with circular cross-section of radius ‘a’ and diameter ‘d’.via a dielectric of relative permittivity ε and everything surrounded by air.
To calculate the RLC parameters used the method called Finite-Element Frequency-Domain (FEFD) simulations (for Maxwell’s equations solving purpose) and Perturbation methods, we get the following formulae.
Simulation model Using COMSOL:
Simulation Performance:
à By the basic parameters, calculated results and performance given with and Without the External object in between the coils
Advantages:
☼ Unaffected by the day night cycle, weather or seasons.
☼ This is an eco friendly system..
☼ It is boon for the devices which uses midrange power
Limitations:
☼ The resonance condition should be satisfied and if any error exists, there is no possibility of power transfer.
☼ If there is any possibility of very strong ferromagnetic material presence causes low power transfer due to radiation.
29-03-2011, 10:59 AM
Post: #12
RE: witricity full report
Submiited By
A.Murali Krishna


.ppt  WiTricity.ppt (Size: 1.03 MB / Downloads: 209)
Introduction
Wireless+Electricity=WiTricity.

 Transmission of Electrical energy from one object to another object without use of wires is called WiTricity.
 Witricity is based on strong coupling between electromagnetic resonant objects to transfer energy wirelessly between them.
Past &Present
 Nikola Tesla(1856-1943) has done the Wireless power transmission experiments at Wardenclyffe
 In 18 99 he transmitted power wirelessly.
 High frequency current, of a Tesla coil, could light lamps filled with gas (like neon)
 The MIT researchers successfully demonstrated the ability to power a 60 watt light bulb wirelessly,
(Distance of 7 feet) under the guidance of Marin Soljacic.
 Working of Electric Tooth Brush
 Electric tooth brush contains 1 coil and a battery.
 One coil is in the charger .
Splashpower Recharging Mat
 Example For Resonance
 Copper coil
 Wireless power transfer
MIT EXPERIMENT
 two 5-turn copper coils of 60 cm (24 in) diameter,
 Distance Between The Coils :7 Feet(2 M)
 Load :60watt Bulb.
 Efficiancy:45%
 Resonant frequency : 9.9 MHz
 Transfer of energy from Moon to Earth
 Solar power from the satellite is sent to Earth using a microwave transmitter
 Received at a “rectenna” located on Earth
01-04-2011, 11:43 AM
Post: #13
RE: witricity full report
Presented by:
Shilpa gupta


.pptx  shilpa ppt.pptx (Size: 3.78 MB / Downloads: 225)
WITRICITY “The power without wires”
What is wpt?

Conventional energy transfer is done by using wires
The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires.
Wireless power transfer is made possible by using various techniques
Why not wires?
Electrical energy transfer is through wires.
Most of energy loss is during transmission.
On an average, more than 30%.
In India it exceeds 40%.
Insulator cost is very high in wired transmission.
System becomes highly complex
Problem of power theft.
Why wpt?
Reliable
Efficient
Low maintenance cost
Fast
Can be used for short-range or long-range
TYPES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF W.P.T.
Microwave power transfer
Transfers high power from one place to another. Two places being in line of sight usually
Steps
Electrical energy to microwave energy
Capturing microwaves using rectenna
Microwave energy to electrical energy
5,000 MW Receiving Station (Rectenna), Snohomish, Washington. This station is about a mile and a half long
LASER transmission
LASER is highly directional, coherent
Not dispersed for very long
But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere
Simple receiver
Photovoltaic cell
Cost-efficient
Advantages of far- field energy transfer
Efficient
Easy
Need for grid, substations etc are reduced
Low maintenance
More effective when transmitting and receiving points are along a line of sight
Can reach the places which are remote
Disadvantages of far–field energy transfer
Radiative
Needs line of sight
Initial cost is high
When LASERs are used,
Conversion is inefficient
Absorption loss is high
When MICROWAVES are used,
Interference may arise
Fried bird effect
How safe is wpt?
Human beings or other objects placed between the transmitter and receiver do not hinder the power transmission
Magnetic fields tend to interact very weakly with the biological tissues of body, and so are not prone to cause any damage to any living beings
13-05-2011, 09:15 AM
Post: #14
RE: witricity full report

.docx  repot jyoti.docx (Size: 1,017.51 KB / Downloads: 185)

.pptx  jyoti.pptx (Size: 1.39 MB / Downloads: 128)

.docx  final ABSTRACT.docx (Size: 81.03 KB / Downloads: 123)
1. INTRODUCTION
Can we imagine the life without electrical wires? From now answer to this question is Yes. The method proposed in the present paper called “WiTricity “will facilitate to Transfer power without using wires. (WiTricity is nothing but wireless electricity. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WiTricity. WiTricity will ensure that the cell phones, laptops, iPods and other power hungry devices get charged on their own, eliminating the need of plugging them in. Even better, because of WiTricity some of the devices won't require batteries to operate.)
The efficient midrange power can be transmitted to any device which uses that range of power by the technique used in this WiTricity concept. Now a days there is a Rapid development of autonomous electronics like Laptops, Cell-phones, House-hold robots and all the above devices typically rely on chemical energy storage(Battery) .As they are becoming daily needs to present generation, Wireless energy transfer would be useful for many applications as above and they need midrange energy. This is the main reason to prepare this paper. When two Magnetically Resonating objects at “Strongly coupled” regime tend to exchange energy efficiently by transfer of power in the non-radiating fields. This is the basic principle involved in it. By taking two coils having same magnetic resonance and one is coupled to source and other is coupled to Device. So that the energy transfer is efficient even the air gap between them is high.
This paper describes the basic history of wireless power transmission, what are Magnetic resonance and strongly coupled regime, Experimental design, Range and rate of coupling (coupling calculations) and Design of parameters and Simulation for variation of power with and without the external object between source and load.
The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as WiTricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea; Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Tesla's work was impressive, but it did not immediately lead to wide spread practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as WiTricity.
WiTricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrate the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts. As WiTricity is in the development stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency. This chapter provides a literature review of the history of wireless power transfer throughout the last century. All of the methods that have been used to achieve wireless power transfer will be reviewed along with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The chapter will conclude with a small discussion on issues with wireless power transfer.
2. What’s Happening Today!!!!!
Currently, wired electricity powers nearly everything. It travels through wires in the form of Alternating Current, and powers most of our devices in the form of Direct Current.
In our present electricity generation system we waste more than half of its resources. Especially the transmission and distribution losses are the main concern of the present power technology.
The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient. We have to think of alternate technology to transmit and distribute the electricity. The transmission of power without wires may be one noble alternative for electricity transmission.
What do you mean by WiTricity!!!
The Transfer of Electricity from one place to another without wires is known as “WiTricity”.
On June 7 ’07, a team of researchers at MIT announced the successful operation of WiTricity concept.
They had lit up a 60W bulb with a power source at a distance of 7 feet(over 2m) with no wires.
Wireless transmission is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed, without connecting wires.
Most common form of wireless power is carried out, using electrodynamic induction, microwaves or lasers
3. The Brain behind WiTricity
Prof. Marin Soljacic from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), is the one who has proved that magnetic coupled resonance can be utilized in order to transfer energy without wires. What's even more interesting is how he came about this idea. Soljacic, just like any of us was fed up of his 'low battery' beeping cell phone and wondered just like any of us if there was a way to get rid of this 'charging problem'.
However, here is where the difference between Soljacic and any of us comes in. He didn't just stand there wondering, instead he tried to figure out if there existed any physical phenomenon which could be of some help. He remembered Michael Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction (1831) and used it to come up with WiTricity
4. WiTricity Basics
There are 3 major types of wireless energy transfer:
Short range; Inductive Coupling
Medium range; Resonant Induction
Long range; Electromagnetic Wave Power Transfer
 Short Range Wireless Energy Transmission: Inductive Coupling
What Is Inductive Coupling?
Inductive Coupling is a method for short range wireless energy transfer.
Its range can vary, but it’s often very short.
Because of its short range it usually is used when the device containing the receiver and the device containing the transmitter are touching.
How does Inductive Coupling Work?
Inductive coupling works on the principles of electromagnetism:
When a current (electricity) passes through a wire, it generates a magnetic field perpendicular to the wire.
This effect can be magnified through coiling the wire.
When a wire is in proximity to a magnetic field, it generates a current in that wire.
Transferring energy between wires through magnetic fields is inductive coupling.
Magnetic fields decay quickly , making inductive coupling effective only at very short range
22-06-2011, 10:18 AM
Post: #15
RE: witricity full report

Presented by:
C.PAVANI


.doc  48257849-05091A0460-witricity.doc (Size: 360 KB / Downloads: 131)
ABSTRACT
The objective of this technical report is to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires. Wireless energy transfer also known as wireless energy transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electromagnetic energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires. Wireless transmission is employed in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible.
The principle of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transfer of electricity to objects without the use of any wires. A witricity system consists of a witricity transmitter and another device called the receiver.
The receiver works on the same principle as radio receivers where the device has to be in the range of the transmitter. It is with the help of resonant magnetic fields that witricity produces electricity, while reducing the wastage of power. The present report on witricity aims at power transmissions in the range of 100 watts. May be the products using WiTricity in future might be called Witric or Witric's.
CHAPTER 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO WITRICITY:

WITRICITY is a term which describes wireless energy transfer, the ability to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires. Wireless energy transfer also known as wireless energy transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electromagnetic energy is transmitted from a power source (such as a Tesla coil) to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires. Wireless transmission is employed in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. Though the physics can be similar (pending on the type of wave used), there is a distinction from electromagnetic transmission for the purpose of transferring information (radio), where the amount of power transmitted is only important when it affects the integrity of the signal.
Electricity is today a necessity of modern life. It is difficult to imagine passing a day without electricity. The conventional use of electricity is made possible through the use of wires.
The principle of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transfer of electricity to objects without the use of any wires. A witricity system consists of a witricity transmitter and another device called the receiver.
The receiver works on the same principle as radio receivers where the device has to be in the range of the transmitter. It is with the help of resonant magnetic fields that witricity produces electricity, while reducing the wastage of power. The present project on witricity aims at power transmissions in the range of 100 watts. May be the products using WiTricity in future might be called Witric or Witric's.
CHAPTER 2
2.1 WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY:

WiTricity power sources and capture devices are specially designed magnetic resonators that efficiently transfer power over large distances via the magnetic near-field. These proprietary source and device designs and the electronic systems that control them support efficient energy transfer over distances that are many times the size of the sources/devices themselves.
The WiTricity power source, left, is connected to AC power. The blue lines represent the magnetic near field induced by the power source. The yellow lines represent the flow of energy from the source to the WiTicity capture coil, which is shown powering a light bulb. Note that this diagram also shows how the magnetic field (blue lines) can wrap around a conductive obstacle between the power source and the capture device.
2.2 COUPLED RESONATORS:
To achieve wireless power transfer in a way that is practical and safe, one needs to use a physical phenomenon that enables the power source and the device (in this case, the mobile phone) to exchange energy strongly, while interacting only weakly with living beings and other environmental objects, like furniture and walls. The phenomenon of coupled resonators precisely fits this description. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while interacting weakly with extraneous off-resonant objects. A child on a swing is a good example of a resonant system. A swing exhibits a type of mechanical resonance, so only when the child pumps
her leg at the natural frequency of the swing is she able to impart substantial energy into the motion of the swing.
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